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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397435/female-and-male-orbit-asymmetry-digital-analysis
#1
Tomasz Lepich, Józefa Dąbek, Małgorzata Witkowska, Edyta Jura-Szołtys, Grzegorz Bajor
BACKGROUND: Standard anthropometric methods applied to measurements of the skull differentials are laden with mistakes stemming from the way the measuring devices are built and from a lack of experience on the part of the researchers. To increase objectivity, digital imaging measurements via computer systems were introduced. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to assess the asymmetry of the male and female orbit with the application of the new graphic methods: raster graphics and vector graphics...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303702/studies-on-the-quality-nutrition-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos
#2
Małgorzata Szczuko, Patrycja Sankowska, Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć, Paweł Wysokiński
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) manifests itself with various symptoms, therefore it interests representatives of many medical specializations: general practitioners, gynecologists, endocrinologists, dermatologists, cardiologists and those who deal with metabolic disorders, such as dieticians. Objective: The aim of this study was perform the qualitative assessment of components of diets of women with PCOS as one of the major factor contributing to the disease...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299410/the-power-law-of-movement-an-example-of-a-behavioral-illusion
#3
Richard S Marken, Dennis M Shaffer
The curved movements produced by living organisms follow a power law where the velocity of movement is a power function of the degree of curvature through which the movement is made. The exponent of the power function is close to either 1/3 or 2/3 depending on how velocity and curvature are measured. This power law is thought to reflect biological and/or kinematic constraints on how organisms produce movements. The present paper shows that the power law is actually a statistical artifact that results from mistaking a correlational for a causal relationship between variables...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257642/meta-evaluation-of-meta-analysis-ten-appraisal-questions-for-biologists
#4
REVIEW
Shinichi Nakagawa, Daniel W A Noble, Alistair M Senior, Malgorzata Lagisz
Meta-analysis is a statistical procedure for analyzing the combined data from different studies, and can be a major source of concise up-to-date information. The overall conclusions of a meta-analysis, however, depend heavily on the quality of the meta-analytic process, and an appropriate evaluation of the quality of meta-analysis (meta-evaluation) can be challenging. We outline ten questions biologists can ask to critically appraise a meta-analysis. These questions could also act as simple and accessible guidelines for the authors of meta-analyses...
March 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244629/misconceptions-amongst-dental-students-how-can-they-be-identified
#5
R Grazziotin-Soares, S L Lind, D M Ardenghi, D A Curtis
AIM: To compare the frequency of misconceptions amongst dental students resulting from assessments in different subject areas using different types of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). We wanted to know whether misconceptions, or strongly held incorrect beliefs, differed by subject area or question type. METHODS: A total of 104 students completed two assessments that included 20 MCQs on endodontics and 20 MCQs on dental implants. On each examination, 10 questions were scenario-type questions requiring interpretation or analysis and 10 questions were factual-based, knowledge questions...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134586/blood-bank-specimen-mislabeling-a-college-of-american-pathologists-q-probes-study-of-41%C3%A2-333-blood-bank-specimens-in-30-institutions
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
David A Novis, Paul F Lindholm, Glenn Ramsey, Kirsten W Alcorn, Rhona J Souers, Barbara Blond
CONTEXT: -Incorrectly labeled patient blood specimens create opportunities for laboratory testing personnel to mistake one patient's specimen for a specimen from a different patient. Transfusion of blood that is typed on specimens that are mislabeled can result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. OBJECTIVE: -To assess the rates of blood bank ABO typing specimens that are mislabeled and/or contain blood belonging to another patient (so-called wrong blood in tube [WBIT]), and to compare these rates with those determined in a similar study performed in 2007...
February 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133718/bilateral-effects-of-hospital-patient-safety-procedures-on-nurses-job-satisfaction
#7
T Inoue, R Karima, K Harada
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine how hospital patient-safety procedures affect the job satisfaction of hospital nurses. Additionally, we investigated the association between perceived autonomy and hospital patient-safety procedures and job satisfaction. BACKGROUND: Recently, measures for patient safety have been recognized as an essential requirement in hospitals. Hospital patient-safety procedures may enhance the job satisfaction of nurses by improving the quality of their work...
January 30, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120085/neuropsychological-assessment-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-an-important-tool-for-the-maintenance-and-restoration-of-neuronal-and-neuropsychological-functions
#8
Carmela Sindorio, Rosaria Viola Abbritti, Giovanni Raffa, Stefano M Priola, Antonino Germanò, Massimiliano Visocchi, Maria C Quattropani
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a progressive clinical syndrome that includes gait disturbances, urinary incontinence, and cognitive impairment. iNPH shows similarities to other neurodegenerative disorders, primarily Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Definition of the neuropsychological profile of iNPH and the qualitative analysis of systematic mistakes made in cognitive tests could represent a valid method for systematizing possible specific markers of iNPH dementia and differentiating it from other dementias...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114911/the-intention-to-disclose-medical-errors-among-doctors-in-a-referral-hospital-in-north-malaysia
#9
Arvinder-Singh Hs, Abdul Rashid
BACKGROUND: In this study, medical errors are defined as unintentional patient harm caused by a doctor's mistake. This topic, due to limited research, is poorly understood in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of doctors intending to disclose medical errors, and their attitudes/perception pertaining to medical errors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary public hospital from July- December 2015 among 276 randomly selected doctors...
January 23, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104486/valid-statistical-approaches-for-analyzing-sholl-data-mixed-effects-versus-simple-linear-models
#10
Machelle D Wilson, Sunjay Sethi, Pamela J Lein, Kimberly P Keil
BACKGROUND: The Sholl technique is widely used to quantify dendritic morphology. Data from such studies, which typically sample multiple neurons per animal, are often analyzed using simple linear models. However, simple linear models fail to account for intra-class correlation that occurs with clustered data, which can lead to faulty inferences. NEW METHOD: Mixed effects models account for intra-class correlation that occurs with clustered data; thus, these models more accurately estimate the standard deviation of the parameter estimate, which produces more accurate p-values...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095192/spike-centered-jitter-can-mistake-temporal-structure
#11
Jonathan Platkiewicz, Eran Stark, Asohan Amarasingham
Jitter-type spike resampling methods are routinely applied in neurophysiology for detecting temporal structure in spike trains (point processes). Several variations have been proposed. The concern has been raised, based on numerical experiments involving Poisson spike processes, that such procedures can be conservative. We study the issue and find it can be resolved by reemphasizing the distinction between spike-centered (basic) jitter and interval jitter. Focusing on spiking processes with no temporal structure, interval jitter generates an exact hypothesis test, guaranteeing valid conclusions...
March 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064161/statistical-significance-versus-clinical-relevance
#12
Marieke H C van Rijn, Anneke Bech, Jean Bouyer, Jan A J G van den Brand
In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904419/reporting-statistical-results-in-medical-journals
#13
EDITORIAL
Wan Nor Arifin, Abdullah Sarimah, Bachok Norsa'adah, Yaacob Najib Majdi, Ab Hamid Siti-Azrin, Musa Kamarul Imran, Abd Aziz Aniza, Lin Naing
Statistical editors of the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences (MJMS) must go through many submitted manuscripts, focusing on the statistical aspect of the manuscripts. However, the editors notice myriad styles of reporting the statistical results, which are not standardised among the authors. This could be due to the lack of clear written instructions on reporting statistics in the guidelines for authors. The aim of this editorial is to briefly outline reporting methods for several important and common statistical results...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879038/detecting-and-avoiding-likely-false-positive-findings%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-practical-guide
#14
Wolfgang Forstmeier, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Timothy H Parker
Recently there has been a growing concern that many published research findings do not hold up in attempts to replicate them. We argue that this problem may originate from a culture of 'you can publish if you found a significant effect'. This culture creates a systematic bias against the null hypothesis which renders meta-analyses questionable and may even lead to a situation where hypotheses become difficult to falsify. In order to pinpoint the sources of error and possible solutions, we review current scientific practices with regard to their effect on the probability of drawing a false-positive conclusion...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866835/over-using-chemotherapy-in-the-adjuvant-setting
#15
Giuseppe Curigliano, Carmen Criscitiello, Angela Esposito, Giancarlo Pruneri
Avoidance of unnecessary or ineffective treatment should be one of the main goals in adjuvant breast oncology today. Unfortunately, both patients and doctors hunt for tiny statistical differences in survival curves. This search could not only lead to an oncological approach of unlimited addition that we will not be able to afford, but would also end inevitably in indeterminate overtreatment with substantial risks of unexpected toxic effects eating away whatever progress we might make. "Do not harm" remains the main principle in medicine...
February 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856048/sex-determination-using-the-dsp-probabilistic-sex-diagnosis-method-on-the-coxal-bone-efficiency-of-method-according-to-number-of-available-variables
#16
Gérald Quatrehomme, Irina Radoman, Luísa Nogueira, Philippe du Jardin, Véronique Alunni
The DSP method (probabilistic sex diagnosis) was applied to100 contemporary coxal bones from elderly individuals of the South of France. Ten variables with a posterior probability greater or equal to a 0.95 threshold were used. There was no statistical difference between right side and left side measurements. There was no mistake for sex assignment but the level of indetermination varied a great deal. It was higher in females than in males. The best combinations were obtained when using all 10 variables, some combination of 9 variables (all except SS or SIS or VEAC) or the first 8 variables...
November 1, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847495/associations-between-relational-pronoun-usage-and-the-quality-of-early-family-interactions
#17
Sarah Galdiolo, Isabelle Roskam, Lesley L Verhofstadt, Jan De Mol, Laura Dewinne, Sylvain Vandaudenard
Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child's age, M = 15...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836938/statistics-for-sleep-and-biological-rhythms-research
#18
Matt T Bianchi, Andrew J K Phillips, Wei Wang, Elizabeth B Klerman
The Journal of Biological Rhythms will be publishing articles exploring analysis and statistical topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. By using case examples and highlighting the pearls and pitfalls of statistical inference, the authors will identify and explain ways in which experimental scientists can avoid common analytical and statistical mistakes and use appropriate analytical and statistical methods in their research...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811577/exploring-the-validity-of-developing-an-interdisciplinarity-score-of-a-patient-s-needs-care-coordination-patient-complexity-and-patient-safety-indicators
#19
Ashley Hodgson, Lacey Etzkorn, Alexander Everhart, Nicholas Nooney, Jessica Bestrashniy
Despite the Affordable Care Act's push to improve the coordination of care for patients with multiple chronic conditions, most measures of coordination quality focus on a specific moment in the care process (e.g., medication errors or transfer between facilities), rather than patient outcomes. One possible supplementary way of measuring the care coordination quality of a facility would be to identify the patients needing the most coordination, and to look at outcomes for that group. This paper lays the groundwork for a new measure of care coordination quality by outlining a conceptual framework that considers the interaction between a patient's interdisciplinarity, biological susceptibility, and procedural intensity...
March 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805740/work-related-fear-and-the-threats-of-fear-among-emergency-department-nursing-staff-and-physicians-in-finland
#20
Riitta Mikkola, Heini Huhtala, Eija Paavilainen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe fear, the threats causing fear and the occurrence of fear among emergency department nursing staff and physicians. BACKGROUND: The emergency department is a challenging workplace where the staff is often confronted by factors that cause fear. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 16 hospitals (n = 544). Nurses, practical nurses, orderlies and physicians from those hospitals participated in the survey...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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