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Statistical mistake

Natasa M Milic, Srdjan Masic, Jelena Milin-Lazovic, Goran Trajkovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Marko Savic, Nikola V Milic, Andja Cirkovic, Milan Gajic, Mirjana Kostic, Aleksandra Ilic, Dejana Stanisavljevic
BACKGROUND: The scientific community increasingly is recognizing the need to bolster standards of data analysis given the widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. The aim of this study was to investigate students' attitudes towards statistics within a multi-site medical educational context, monitor their changes and impact on student achievement. In addition, we performed a systematic review to better support our future pedagogical decisions in teaching applied statistics to medical students...
2016: PloS One
Hans Lehrach
Every human is unique. We differ in our genomes, environment, behavior, disease history, and past and current medical treatment-a complex catalog of differences that often leads to variations in the way each of us responds to a particular therapy. We argue here that true personalization of drug therapies will rely on "virtual patient" models based on a detailed characterization of the individual patient by molecular, imaging, and sensor techniques. The models will be based, wherever possible, on the molecular mechanisms of disease processes and drug action but can also expand to hybrid models including statistics/machine learning/artificial intelligence-based elements trained on available data to address therapeutic areas or therapies for which insufficient information on mechanisms is available...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Dung-Tsa Chen, Po-Yu Huang, Hui-Yi Lin, Eric B Haura, Scott J Antonia, W Douglas Cress, Jhanelle E Gray
PURPOSE: Biomarkers and genomic signatures represent potentially predictive tools for precision medicine. Validation of predictive biomarkers in prospective or retrospective studies requires statistical justification of power and sample size. However, the design of these studies is complex and the statistical methods and associated software are limited, especially in survival data. Herein, we address common statistical design issues relevant to these two types of studies and provide guidance and a general template for analysis...
September 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Pin Jiang, Yan Lu, Daofeng Chen
Authentication of species is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. The fruits of Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera have been used for the same traditional Chinese drug, Wuweizi, but are found to be quite different according to their constituents, pharmacological effects, and qualities. These two fruits have been recorded as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (Wuweizi) and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (Nan-wuweizi), respectively, by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2000 edition. However, Nan-wuweizi is often found to be taken as Wuweizi in some Chinese patent drugs intentionally or by mistake because of its lower price and similar characteristics to Wuweizi...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alex O Holcombe, Nicholas J L Brown, Patrick T Goodbourn, Alexander Etz, Sebastian Geukes
In their 2015 paper, Thorstenson, Pazda, and Elliot offered evidence from two experiments that perception of colors on the blue-yellow axis was impaired if the participants had watched a sad movie clip, compared to participants who watched clips designed to induce a happy or neutral mood. Subsequently, these authors retracted their article, citing a mistake in their statistical analyses and a problem with the data in one of their experiments. Here, we discuss a number of other methodological problems with Thorstenson et al...
2016: F1000Research
Ewa Stefańska, Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Beata Konarzewska, Lucyna Ostrowska
INTRODUCTION: The research conducted among patients with depression shows that such patients commit a range of nutritional mistakes which may predispose them to the development of many diseases including obesity and its complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a balanced weight loss diet in a group of women with recurrent depressive disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 women suffering from depression, aged 41-64 (mean 52 ±5...
June 2016: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Aleksandar Savkov, John Carroll, Rob Koeling, Jackie Cassell
The free text notes typed by physicians during patient consultations contain valuable information for the study of disease and treatment. These notes are difficult to process by existing natural language analysis tools since they are highly telegraphic (omitting many words), and contain many spelling mistakes, inconsistencies in punctuation, and non-standard word order. To support information extraction and classification tasks over such text, we describe a de-identified corpus of free text notes, a shallow syntactic and named entity annotation scheme for this kind of text, and an approach to training domain specialists with no linguistic background to annotate the text...
2016: Language Resources and Evaluation
Saeeda Baig, Sana Ahmed, Hira Attique
OBJECTIVE: To determine the disparities and the priorities of basic health scientists and clinicians while assessing a manuscript. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The study was conducted at Karachi, from January to April 2014. METHODOLOGY: The study was a proforma-based research, employed convenient sampling for data collection, in which 100 reviewers belonging to clinical and basic health science background were selected...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Kate Tchanturia, Eva Larsson, James Adamson
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the perfectionism group intervention in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) in an inpatient setting. METHOD: Adults with AN (N = 35) received six weekly sessions of the empirically informed intervention with experiential exercises. Participants' self-reported perfectionism and satisfaction were collected pre-group and post-group intervention. RESULTS: Statistically, significant differences were observed for overall perfectionism, concern over mistakes and personal standard dimensions of perfectionism...
August 10, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Ewa J Białek, Wiesław Jakubowski
Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness...
June 2016: Journal of Ultrasonography
Mark S Hochberg, Russell S Berman, Adina L Kalet, Sondra Zabar, Colleen Gillespie, H Leon Pachter
OBJECTIVES: Professionalism education is a vital component of surgical training. This research attempts to determine whether an annual, year-long professionalism curriculum in a large surgical residency can effectively change professionalism attitudes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ACGME mandated 6 competencies in 2003. The competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal/Professional Communication Skills had never been formally addressed in surgical resident education in the past...
September 2016: Annals of Surgery
Marcel Winkelmann, Lars Friedrich, Christian Schröter, Andreas Flemming, Hendrik Eismann, Lion Sieg, Philipp Mommsen, Christian Krettek, Christian Zeckey
OBJECTIVE: Christoph Life is a simulator-based air medical training program and a new and innovative educational concept. Participants pass different scenarios with a fully equipped and movable helicopter simulator. Main focuses of the program are crew resource management (CRM) elements and team training. Information about expectations end effectiveness of the training is sparse. METHODS: During a 2-day training, participants learn CRM basics and complete various emergency medical scenarios...
July 2016: Air Medical Journal
Bindiya Gupta, Kiran Guleria, Renu Arora
BACKGROUND: A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Małgorzata Steczkowska, Urszula Stolarska-Weryńska, Krystyna Fiederer, Marek Kaciński
INTRODUCTION: Psychotherapy is being used as the primary treatment in nonepileptic psychogenic seizures and tension headaches in children. Children's intelectual functioning is related to certain endogenous neurophysiological parameters. AIM: The goal of this study was to establish whether the endogenous potential P300 is different in children with nonepileptic psychogenic events and with tension headaches, and whether it changes under the influence of the cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
T Fischer, K B Brothers, P Erdmann, M Langanke
BACKGROUND: Systems medicine is the name for an assemblage of scientific strategies and practices that include bioinformatics approaches to human biology (especially systems biology); "big data" statistical analysis; and medical informatics tools. Whereas personalized and precision medicine involve similar analytical methods applied to genomic and medical record data, systems medicine draws on these as well as other sources of data. Given this distinction, the clinical translation of systems medicine poses a number of important ethical and epistemological challenges for researchers working to generate systems medicine knowledge and clinicians working to apply it...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Sofia von Schantz, Nina Katajavuori, Osmo Antikainen, Anne Juppo
Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order...
July 25, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
M El Tantawi, A Al-Ansari, S Sadaf, J AlHumaid
Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software...
February 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Greg Finak, Raphael Gottardo
This chapter discusses some of the pitfalls encountered when performing biomedical research involving high-throughput "omics" data and presents some strategies and guidelines that researchers should follow when undertaking such studies. We discuss common errors in experimental design and data analysis that lead to irreproducible and non-replicable research and provide some guidelines to avoid these common mistakes so that researchers may have confidence in study outcomes, even if the results are negative. We discuss the importance of ranking and prespecifying hypotheses, performing power analysis, careful experimental design, and preplanning of statistical analyses in order to avoid the "fishing expedition" data analysis strategy, which is doomed to fail...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
S Allert, C Flechtner, P M Vogt, C Herold
INTRODUCTION: The Arbitration Board for Medical Liability Issues of the Medical Association of North Germany ("Norddeutsche Schlichtungsstelle") is responsible for 10 federal states in Germany (Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony, Saarland, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein and Thuringia) and is the largest arbitration board in Germany. The data available from the Norddeutsche Schlichtungsstelle provides an insight into sources of malpractice during the treatment of reduction mammoplasty...
April 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Ewa Krasuska-Sławińska, Agnieszka Brożyna, Bożenna Dembowska-Bagińska, Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk
AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine reasons for the increase in caries among children/adolescents treated for neoplasms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Health promoting behaviour, oral hygiene (PLI), gingiva (GI), dentition (DMFt/DMFs), number of teeth with white spot lesions (WSL), and enamel defects (ED) were assessed in three groups of 60 patients each. The three groups were as follows: under chemotherapy (CH), after chemotherapy (PCH), and generally healthy (CG). Medical files supplied information on neoplasm type, chemotherapeutic type and dose, age at treatment start, chemotherapy duration, and complications...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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