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MiRNA obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193283/circulatory-microrna-23a-and-microrna-23b-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-the-effects-of-body-mass-index-and-sex-hormones-in-an-eastern-han-chinese-population
#1
Weixi Xiong, Ying Lin, Lili Xu, Amin Tamadon, Shien Zou, Fubo Tian, Ruijin Shao, Xin Li, Yi Feng
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of genes involved in various cellular functions related to metabolism, inflammation, and reproduction. This study evaluated the effects of sex hormones and obesity on the expression of circulating miR-23a and miR-23b in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women. METHODS: Serum sex hormones concentrations and body mass index (BMI) were measured in 18 women with PCOS and in 30 healthy women from the East China area and these measurements were correlated with serum miR-23a/b levels...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174094/recent-advances-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Rinku Dutta, Ram I Mahato
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called malignant hepatoma, is one of the deadliest cancers due to its complexities, reoccurrence after surgical resection, metastasis and heterogeneity. Incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in Western countries and are expected to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Multiple factors trigger the initiation and progression of HCC including chronic alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis B and C infection, metabolic disorders and age. Although Sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug for the treatment of HCC, numerous treatment modalities such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization/transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiotherapy, locoregional therapy and chemotherapy have been tested in the clinics...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167956/micrornas-dependent-regulation-of-ppars-in-metabolic-diseases-and-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Dorothea Portius, Cyril Sobolewski, Michelangelo Foti
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of ligand-dependent nuclear receptors, which control the transcription of genes involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation and cell proliferation/differentiation. Alterations of PPARs' expression and/or activity are commonly associated with metabolic disorders occurring with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease, as well as with inflammation and cancer. Emerging evidence now indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small noncoding RNAs, which fine-tune gene expression, play a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms regulating the expression and activity of PPARs...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158925/mirnas-in-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-effects-of-weight-loss-induced-by-hypocaloric-diet-and-exercise
#4
Malene M Kristensen, Peter K Davidsen, Andreas Vigelsø, Christina N Hansen, Lars J Jensen, Niels Jessen, Jens M Bruun, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. METHODS: The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis...
February 3, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122254/an-alpha-beta-of-pancreatic-islet-microribonucleotides
#5
REVIEW
Louise Torp Dalgaard, Lena Eliasson
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are cellular, short, non-coding ribonucleotides acting as endogenous posttranscriptional repressors following incorporation in the RNA-induced silencing complex. Despite being chemically and mechanistically very similar, miRNAs exert a multitude of different cellular effects by acting on mRNA species, whose gene-products partake in a wide array of processes. Here, the aim was to review the knowledge of miRNA expression and action in the islet of Langerhans. We have focused on: 1) physiological consequences of islet or beta cell specific inhibition of miRNA processing, 2) mechanisms regulating processing of miRNAs in islet cells, 3) presence and function of miRNAs in alpha versus beta cells - the two main cell types of islets, and 4) miRNA mediators of beta cell decompensation...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119530/decreased-lipid-metabolism-but-increased-fa-biosynthesis-are-coupled-with-changes-in-liver-micrornas-in-obese-subjects-with-nafld
#6
J Latorre, J M Moreno-Navarrete, J M Mercader, M Sabater, Ò Rovira, J Gironès, W Ricart, J M Fernández-Real, F J Ortega
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Many controversies regarding the association of liver miRNAs with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) call for additional validations. This study sought to investigate variations in genes and hepatic miRNAs in a sample of obese patients with or without NAFLD and human hepatocytes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty non-consecutive obese women following bariatric surgery were recruited. Subjects were classified as NAFLD (n=17), borderline (n=24), and controls (n=19) with normal enzymatic profile, liver histology, and ultrasound assessments...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095800/diet-gonadal-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-influence-white-adipose-tissue-mirna-expression
#7
Jenny C Link, Yehudit Hasin-Brumshtein, Rita M Cantor, Xuqi Chen, Arthur P Arnold, Aldons J Lusis, Karen Reue
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNA species for degradation or interfering with translation. Specific miRNAs are key regulators of adipogenesis, and are expressed at different levels in adipose tissue from lean and obese mice. The degree of lipid accumulation and distribution of white adipose tissue differs between males and females, and it is unknown whether sex differences in adipose tissue-specific miRNA expression may contribute to this dimorphism...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-ips-derived-hypothalamic-neurons-provides-developmental-insights-to-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#8
Li Yao, Yuanhang Liu, Zhifang Qiu, Satish Kumar, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Yidong Chen, Donna M Lehman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that common genetic risk for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects through the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures which recapture many features of hypothalamic neurons within the arcuate nucleus. Here we have comprehensively characterized this model across development, benchmarked these neurons to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068868/mir-26a-mediates-adipogenesis-of-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-via-pten-cyclin-e1-and-cdk6
#9
Ourania Trohatou, Dimitra Zagoura, Nikos K Orfanos, Kalliopi I Pappa, Evangelos Marinos, Nicholas P Anagnou, Maria G Roubelakis
Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for the regulatory network of adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Fetal MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) represent a population of multipotent stem cells characterized by a wide range of differentiation properties that can be applied in cell-based therapies. In this study, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to assess miRNA expression in terminal differentiated AF-MSCs into adipocyte-like cells (AL cells). MiR-26a was identified in high expression levels in AL cells indicating a critical role in the process of adipogenesis...
February 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055298/vitamin-d-limits-inflammation-linked-microrna-expression-in-adipocytes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-a-new-mechanism-for-the-regulation-of-inflammation-by-vitamin-d
#10
Esma Karkeni, Lauriane Bonnet, Julie Marcotorchino, Franck Tourniaire, Julien Astier, Jianping Ye, Jean-François Landrier
Inflammation of adipose tissue is believed to be a contributing factor to many chronic diseases associated with obesity. Vitamin D (VD) is now known to limit this metabolic inflammation by decreasing inflammatory marker expression and leukocyte infiltration in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the impact of VD on microRNA (miR) expression in inflammatory conditions in human and mouse adipocytes, using high-throughput methodology (miRNA PCR arrays). Firstly, we identified three miRs (miR-146a, miR-150, and miR-155) positively regulated by TNFα in human adipocytes...
January 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050331/placental-microrna-expression-is-not-altered-by-maternal-obesity-and-fetal-overgrowth
#11
Neda Ghaffari, Samuel Parry, Michal A Elovitz, Celeste P Durnwald
Objective The epigenetic mechanisms underlying fetal metabolic programming are poorly understood. We studied whether obesity is associated with alterations in placental miRNA expression. Study Design A cross-sectional study was performed, including (1) normal-weight women (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m(2)) and normal-birth-weight (BW) infants (2,700-3,500 g) (n = 20), (2) normal-weight and macrosomic infants (BW ≥ 4,000 g) (n = 10), (3) obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) and normal BW infants (n = 16), and (4) obese and macrosomic infants (n = 10)...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045116/comparative-analysis-of-dna-methylome-and-transcriptome-of-skeletal-muscle-in-lean-obese-and-mini-type-pigs
#12
Yalan Yang, Guoming Liang, Guanglin Niu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Rong Zhou, Yanfang Wang, Yulian Mu, Zhonglin Tang, Kui Li
DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in biological processes by affecting gene expression. However, how DNA methylation mediates phenotype difference of skeletal muscle between lean-, obese-, and mini-type pigs remains unclear. We systematically carried out comparative analysis of skeletal muscle by integrating analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation, mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA profiles in three different pig breeds (obese-type Tongcheng, lean-type Landrace, and mini-type Wuzhishan pigs). We found that the differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were significantly associated with lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and muscle development...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012455/maternal-obesity-alters-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-signaling-in-the-placenta-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-manner
#13
Calais S Prince, Alina Maloyan, Leslie Myatt
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major clinical problem in obstetrics being associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal programming. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a validated miR-210 target, is necessary for placental development, fetal growth, glucose metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Plasma BDNF levels are reduced in obese individuals; however, placental BDNF has yet to be studied in the context of maternal obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal obesity and sexual dimorphism on placental BDNF signaling...
January 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995171/microrna-expression-analysis-in-the-liver-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#14
Won-Mo Yang, Kyung-Ho Min, Wan Lee
A previous study indicated a causal link between certain miRNAs induced by obesity and the development of hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Here we provide accompanying data collected using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNAs microarrays to identify the changes in miRNAs expression in the liver of mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Differentially expressed microRNA analyses in the liver of the HFD-fed mice revealed a range of upregulated (>1.5-fold) or downregulated (<0.5-fold) miRNAs. Among those upregulated miRNAs, in silico target analysis, such as TargetScan, PicTar, and miRWalk, identified miRNAs with the putative binding sites on the 3'UTRs of INSR and/or IRS-1...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987357/micrornas-in-lipoprotein-and-lipid-metabolism-from-biological-function-to-clinical-application
#15
Véronique Desgagné, Luigi Bouchard, Renée Guérin
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (~22 nucleotides), non-coding, single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate the expression of target genes by partial sequence-specific base-pairing to the targeted mRNA 3'UTR, blocking its translation, and promoting its degradation or its sequestration into processing bodies. miRNAs are important regulators of several physiological processes including developmental and metabolic functions, but their concentration in circulation has also been reported to be altered in many pathological conditions such as familial hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancers...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980094/adipose-tissue-development-and-the-molecular-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Arthe Raajendiran, Thomas Tsiloulis, Matthew J Watt
The production of new adipocytes is required to maintain adipose tissue mass and involves the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs). In this review, we outline new developments in understanding the phenotype of APCs and provide evidence suggesting that APCs differ between distinct adipose tissue depots and are affected by obesity. Post-mitotic mature adipocytes regulate systemic lipid homeostasis by storing and releasing free fatty acids, and also modulate energy balance via the secretion of adipokines...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975100/hyperglycemia-suppresses-microrna-expression-in-platelets-to-increase-p2ry12-and-selp-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Zsolt Fejes, Szilárd Póliska, Zsolt Czimmerer, Miklós Káplár, András Penyige, Gabriella Gál Szabó, Ildikó Beke Debreceni, Satya P Kunapuli, János Kappelmayer, Béla Nagy
Megakaryocyte (MK)-derived miRNAs have been detected in platelets. Here, we analysed the expression of platelet and circulating miR-223, miR-26b, miR-126 and miR-140 that might be altered with their target mRNAs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). MiRNAs were isolated from leukocyte-depleted platelets and plasma samples obtained from 28 obese DM2, 19 non-DM obese and 23 healthy individuals. The effect of hyperglycaemia on miRNAs was also evaluated in MKs using MEG-01 and K562 cells under hyperglycaemic conditions after 8 hours up to four weeks...
December 15, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922090/mir-146a-mediated-suppression-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-adipocytes
#18
Julian Roos, Eveliina Enlund, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Daniel Tews, Karlheinz Holzmann, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Martin Wabitsch, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
The obesity-associated inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the factors leading to the development of related diseases such as insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as important regulators of WAT functions. Herein, we cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM) and performed an Affimetrix miRNA array to identify miRNAs differentially expressed under inflammatory conditions. We identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed upon inflammation in human adipocytes and miR-146a was the most up-regulated miRNA species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919232/microrna-27a-rs895819-is-associated-with-obesity-in-hiv-infected-preeclamptic-black-south-african-women-on-haart
#19
Niren Ray Maharaj, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Siddharthiya Pillay, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) and HIV/AIDS present a major health challenge globally. South Africa has the highest disease burden of both HIV/AIDS and PE in the world. Despite extensive research, the pathophysiology of these conditions is not completely understood, however a genetic predisposition in women may affect susceptibility. MiRNA-27a regulates adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miRNA-27a (rs895819T > C) has shown to have disparate effects in various populations...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907930/microrna-profiling-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-tissues-potentially-links-tumorigenesis-and-recurrence-with-obesity
#20
X Shu, M A Hildebrandt, J Gu, N M Tannir, S F Matin, J A Karam, C G Wood, X Wu
BACKGROUND: Twenty to 40% localised RCC patients may experience recurrence after curative surgery. Limited miRNA predictors have been identified for ccRCC recurrence. METHODS: Through a multi-phase study design, we analysed miRNAs in tissues obtained from 203 ccRCC patients. Paired t-test was used for tumour-normal comparisons and Cox regression model was performed to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: A 17-miRNA signature was identified that can concordantly classify >95% of tumour/adjacent normal samples...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
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