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Arc and retrieval and inhibition

Chrysanthi Fergani, Jean Routly, David Jones, Lucy Pickavance, Robert Frank Smith, Hilary Dobson
In the ewe, steroid hormones act on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to initiate the GnRH/LH surge. Within the ARC, steroid signal transduction may be mediated by dopamine, β-endorphin or neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, as well as those co-localising kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (termed KNDy). We investigated the time during the follicular phase when these cells become activated (i.e., co-localise c-Fos) relative to the timing of the LH surge onset and may, therefore, be involved in the surge generating mechanism...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Dano J Morrison, Asim J Rashid, Adelaide P Yiu, Chen Yan, Paul W Frankland, Sheena A Josselyn
Memories are thought to be represented by discrete physiological changes in the brain, collectively referred to as an engram, that allow patterns of activity present during learning to be reactivated in the future. During the formation of a conditioned fear memory, a subset of principal (excitatory) neurons in the lateral amygdala (LA) are allocated to a neuronal ensemble that encodes an association between an initially neutral stimulus and a threatening aversive stimulus. Previous experimental and computational work suggests that this subset consists of only a small proportion of all LA neurons, and that this proportion remains constant across different memories...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lijie Jia, Wenyuan Wang, Yan Luo, Fujun Zhang, Han Lu, Qingsheng Xue, Buwei Yu
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) has emerged as an important regulator in learning and memory. Propofol leads to amnesia, however, the mechanism remains unclear. The present study was designed to examine whether and how PARP-1 plays a role in propofol-induced amnesia. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with propofol before acquisition training. Cognitive function was evaluated by object recognition test. PARP-1 and PAR expression was determined through Western blot. The protein and mRNA levels of Arc and c-Fos were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR...
April 15, 2016: Brain Research
Daisuke Nakayama, Yoshiko Hashikawa-Yamasaki, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki, Hiroshi Nomura
A feature of fear memory is its persistence, which could be a factor for affective disorders. Memory retrieval destabilizes consolidated memories, and then rapid molecular cascades contribute to early stabilization of reactivated memories. However, persistence of reactivated memories has been poorly understood. Here, we discover that late Arc (also known as Arg3.1) expression in the mouse basolateral amygdala (BLA) is involved in persistence of newly-acquired and reactivated fear memories. After both fear learning and retrieval, Arc levels increased at 2 h, returned to basal levels at 6 h but increased again at 12 h...
February 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshiko Yamasaki, Koichi Hashikawa, Norio Matsuki, Hiroshi Nomura
Neural activity and de novo protein synthesis during a rest period following memory retrieval in the amygdala is necessary for stabilization of reactivated fear memory. Arc/Arg3.1 (Arc) expression is regulated by neural activity and is a critical protein for memory reconsolidation. However, it remains unclear whether memory retrieval alters Arc transcription during subsequent rest. In this study, the populations of mouse lateral amygdala neurons that transcribe Arc during memory retrieval and at rest were detected using Arc cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (Arc catFISH)...
November 2012: European Journal of Neuroscience
R Pepperkok, C Schneider, L Philipson, W Ansorgel
An automated capillary microinjection system with computer controlled positioning of the cells and of the capillary, and its applications and advantages arc described. About 1500 injections are possible in one hour, with high reproducibility. In cytoplasmic and nuclear injections more than 90% and 85% of the cells are successfully injected. Using FITC-Dextran at a concentration of 0.5% as a fluorescently labelled coinjection marker, 99% of the cells can be retrieved in cultrue medium even 48 hours after unjection...
February 1991: Cytotechnology
Xiu-Fang Lv, Ya Xu, Ji-Sheng Han, Cai-Lian Cui
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), also known as activity-regulated gene 3.1 (Arg3.1), is an immediate early gene whose mRNA is selectively targeted to recently activated synaptic sites, where it is translated and enriched. This unique feature suggests a role for Arc/Arg3.1 in coupling synaptic activity to protein synthesis, leading to synaptic plasticity. Although the Arc/Arg3.1 gene has been shown to be induced by a variety of abused drugs and its protein has been implicated in diverse forms of long-term memory, relatively little is known about its role in drug-induced reward memory...
September 30, 2011: Behavioural Brain Research
K Gulati, S B Lall
In the past decade there have been considerable advances in basic knowledge of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The most important new development has been the appreciation of a tissue based RAS that can be independently regulated from the renal and vascular RAS. Greater insight into the mechanism by which angiotension-II (AII) exerts its action has been achieved through the study of molecular biology and pharmacological characterization of multiple receptor subtypes. This review summarises the features and distribution of several binding subtypes that may mediate the diverse functions of AII...
February 1996: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
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