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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900682/treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#1
Michael Z David, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899399/a-comparison-of-blood-stream-infections-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-and-non-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-patients
#2
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Eda Karadag Oncel, Asiye Bıcakcigil, Banu Sancak, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Rapid development and global spread of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumoniae) as a major cause of nosocomial infections is really remarkable. The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for health care associated blood stream infections (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in children and analyze clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years-old with blood stream infection caused by K...
September 12, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894766/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-and-the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections
#3
Andrea L Lorden, Luohua Jiang, Tiffany A Radcliff, Kathleen A Kelly, Robert L Ohsfeldt
BACKGROUND: An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events. AIMS: To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892887/active-surveillance-of-health-care-associated-infections-in-neurosurgical-patients
#4
Reshu Agarwal, Sarita Mohapatra, Girija Prasad Rath, Arti Kapil
INTRODUCTION: Health Care Associated Infections (HCAI) are frequent complications in neurosurgery. There is limited data available on the incidence and burden of HCAI in neurosurgical patients of Southeast Asian region. AIM: To identify various HCAIs, associated aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among the patients admitted in the neurosurgery unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational prospective study was carried out for three months duration on all neurosurgical patients admitted to a tertiary-care center...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892533/association-of-guideline-adherent-antibiotic-treatment-with-readmission-of-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-hospitalized-with-acute-chest-syndrome
#5
David G Bundy, Troy E Richardson, Matthew Hall, Jean L Raphael, David C Brousseau, Staci D Arnold, Ram V Kalpatthi, Angela M Ellison, Suzette O Oyeku, Samir S Shah
Importance: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a common, serious complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) and a leading cause of hospitalization and death in both children and adults with SCD. Little is known about the effectiveness of guideline-recommended antibiotic regimens for the care of children hospitalized with ACS. Objectives: To use a large, national database to describe patterns of antibiotic use for children with SCD hospitalized for ACS and to determine whether receipt of guideline-adherent antibiotics was associated with lower readmission rates...
September 11, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891690/compendium-of-measures-to-control-chlamydia-psittaci-infection-among-humans-psittacosis-and-pet-birds-avian-chlamydiosis-2017
#6
Gary Balsamo, Angela M Maxted, Joanne W Midla, Julia M Murphy, Ron Wohrle, Thomas M Edling, Pilar H Fish, Keven Flammer, Denise Hyde, Preeta K Kutty, Miwako Kobayashi, Bettina Helm, Brit Oiulfstad, Branson W Ritchie, Mary Grace Stobierski, Karen Ehnert, Thomas N Tully
Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems in humans. It is caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Reclassification of the order Chlamydiales in 1999 into 2 genera (Chlamydia and Chlamydophila) was not wholly accepted or adopted. This resulted in a reversion to the single, original genus Chlamydia, which now encompasses all 9 species including Chlamydia psittaci. During 2003-2014, 112 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888319/systems-based-practice-in-burn-care-prevention-management-and-economic-impact-of-health-care-associated-infections
#7
REVIEW
Charles Scott Hultman, David van Duin, Emily Sickbert-Bennett, Lauren M DiBiase, Samuel W Jones, Bruce A Cairns, David J Weber
Health care-associated infections in burn patients, from ventilator-associated pneumonia to skin and soft tissue infections, can substantially compromise outcomes, because these complications are associated with longer lengths of stay, increased morbidity and mortality, and greater direct medical costs. Health care-associated infections are largely preventable, through surveillance, education, appropriate hand hygiene, and culture change, especially for device-related infections. Systems-based practice, which allows individuals and clinical microsystems to navigate and improve the macro health care system, may be one of the most powerful skill sets to effect change, permitting a shift in culture toward patient safety and quality improvement...
October 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885921/acquisition-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-during-travel
#8
Clinton K Murray, Dana M Blyth
The rate of multidrug resistance has continued to increase worldwide, presenting clinicians with further challenges related to patient care. In this article, we review information related to the acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms among travelers, including deployed personnel, as well as the potential impact on wound microbiology and travelers' diarrhea. Travel to Asia, experiencing travelers' diarrhea, and use of antibiotics, whereas abroad have been associated with an increased risk of acquiring MDR Enterobacteriaceae colonization...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880805/a-prospective-one-year-microbiologic-survey-of-combined-pneumonia-and-respiratory-failure
#9
Kristen Fisher, Tracy Trupka, Scott T Micek, Paul Juang, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and respiratory failure are common problems in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, often occurring together. The relative prevalence of pneumonia types (community acquired, hospital acquired, ventilator associated) and causative pathogens is not well described in patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted in the medical ICU (34 beds) of Barnes-Jewish Hospital, an academic referral center of 1,300 beds from January 2016-December 2016...
September 7, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877761/phenotypic-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-among-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-at-mulago-national-referral-hospital-uganda
#10
Lucas Ampaire, Emmanuel Nduhura, Izale Wewedru
OBJECTIVE: Enterobacteriaceae, common causes of health care associated and community acquired infections are mainly treated with beta-lactam agents. Our study objective was to determine the prevalence and common enterobacteriaceae pathogen producing extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The isolates were recovered from various clinical specimens. This was cross sectional study conducted between July 2016 and September 2016 at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. We used ChromID™ ESBL agar (Biomerieux SA, Lyon, France) and Vitek2 compact system GN83 card (BioMerieux Inc, Hazelwood, Missouri, USA) to detect and confirm presence of phenotypic extended spectrum beta lactamases producing pathogens respectively...
September 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877671/surveillance-of-device-associated-infections-and-mortality-in-a-major-intensive-care-unit-in-the-republic-of-cyprus
#11
Stelios Iordanou, Nicos Middleton, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou, Vasilios Raftopoulos
BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of DA-HAIs, mortality and crude excess mortality at a General Hospital's Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the Republic of Cyprus for 1 year period. METHODS: A prospective cohort, active DA-HAIs surveillance study with the use of Health Acquired Infections (HAIs) ICU Protocol (v1...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866699/a-sudden-paediatric-death-due-to-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-the-importance-of-vigilance
#12
R Rahimi, E Omar, T S Tuan Soh, S F A Mohd Nawi, S Md Noor
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The diagnostic hallmarks are oral ulcers and maculo-papular or vesicular rash on the hands and feet. Severe form of this disease can lead to death due to neurological and cardiopulmonary complications. This case report aims to describe a fatal case of HFMD with minimal oral and skin manifestations. CASE REPORT: A four-year-old girl was brought to a hospital after suddenly becoming unresponsive at home...
August 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865327/increased-diabetes-risk-and-interaction-with-social-and-medical-events-in-patients-upon-stroke-two-nationwide-studies
#13
Lu-Min Chu, Chih-Chung Liu, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Yi-Cheng Chang, Chaur-Jong Hu, Chun-Chuan Shih, Yih-Giun Cherng, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relationship between stroke and diabetes is not completely understood. This study evaluated diabetes risk and post-diabetes adverse events in patients with stroke. METHODS: We identified 10,255 adults, newly diagnosed with stroke from 2000 to 2005, using the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort of 41,020 adults without stroke was randomly selected from the same dataset, frequency matched by age and sex...
August 22, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864030/a-fatal-outbreak-of-st11-carbapenem-resistant-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-chinese-hospital-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#14
Danxia Gu, Ning Dong, Zhiwei Zheng, Di Lin, Man Huang, Lihua Wang, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Lingbin Shu, Jiang Yu, Rong Zhang, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains often cause life-threatening community-acquired infections in young and healthy hosts, but are usually sensitive to antibiotics. In this study, we investigated a fatal outbreak of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by a new emerging hypervirulent K pneumoniae strain. METHODS: The outbreak occurred in the integrated intensive care unit of a new branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China)...
August 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855004/the-function-of-probiotics-on-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-vap-facts-and-gaps
#15
Feride Karacaer, Imen Hamed, Fatih Özogul, Robert H Glew, Dilek Özcengiz
Probiotics have been used for centuries in making fermented dairy products. The health benefits related to probiotics consumption are well recognized and they are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Their therapeutic effects are due to the production of a variety of antimicrobial compounds, such as short-chain fatty acids, organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, formic, propionic and butyric acids), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection associated with high mortality in intensive care units...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855000/vaccines-for-older-adults
#16
Chad Worz, Caren McHenry Martin, Catherine Travis
Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.
September 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854628/genomic-epidemiology-of-ndm-1-encoding-plasmids-in-latin-american-clinical-isolates-reveals-insights-into-the-evolution-of-multidrug-resistance
#17
Ricaurte Alejandro Marquez-Ortiz, Leanne Haggerty, Narda Olarte, Carolina Duarte, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Betsy E Castro, Eby M Sim, Mauricio Beltran, María V Moncada, Alberto Valderrama, Jaime E Castellanos, Ian G Charles, Natasha Vanegas, Javier Escobar-Perez, Nicola K Petty
Bacteria that produce the broad-spectrum Carbapenem antibiotic New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) place a burden on health care systems worldwide, due to the limited treatment options for infections caused by them and the rapid global spread of this antibiotic resistance mechanism. Although it is believed that the associated resistance gene blaNDM-1 originated in Acinetobacter spp., the role of Enterobacteriaceae in its dissemination remains unclear. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to investigate the dissemination dynamics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmids in a set of 21 clinical NDM-1-positive isolates from Colombia and Mexico (Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii) as well as six representative NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli transconjugants...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853114/low-prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-among-wounded-military-personnel
#18
Katrin Mende, Miriam L Beckius, Wendy C Zera, Fatma Onmus-Leone, Clinton K Murray, David R Tribble
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are a global health problem that affect both civilian and military populations. Among wounded warriors, MDROs further complicate the care of trauma-related infections, resulting in extended duration of hospitalization, as well as increased morbidity and mortality. During the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were frequently isolated from wounded warriors. The potential emergence of difficult-to-treat carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae represented a serious challenge for clinicians...
July 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852474/the-prevalence-of-pulmonary-complications-after-thoracic-and-abdominal-surgery-and-associated-risk-factors-in-patients-admitted-at-a-government-hospital-in-harare-zimbabwe-a-retrospective-study
#19
Cathrine Tadyanemhandu, Rufaro Mukombachoto, Clement Nhunzvi, Farayi Kaseke, Vasco Chikwasha, Samson Chengetanai, Shamila Manie
BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa has presented unusual and challenging acute surgical problems across all specialties. Thoraco-abdominal surgery cuts through muscle and thereby disrupts the normal anatomy and activity of the respiratory muscles leading to reduced lung volumes and putting the patients at greater risk of developing post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). PPCs remain an important cause of post-operative morbidity, mortality, and impacts on the long-term outcomes of patients post hospital discharge...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830529/oral-hygiene-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-photodynamic-therapy-study-protocol-for-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Gabriela Alves Da Collina, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini-Horliana, Daniela de Fátima Teixeira da Silva, Priscila Larcher Longo, Maria Luisa Faria Makabe, Christiane Pavani
BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs), nosocomial infections are prevalent conditions and they have been related to high mortality indexes. Some studies have suggested that inefficient oral hygiene and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are related. Nowadays, in the Brazilian public health system there is no well-defined protocol for oral hygiene in an ICU. Due to the drawbacks of the use of antibiotics, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an interesting technique in order to reduce antimicrobial-resistant pathogens...
August 22, 2017: Trials
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