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Arc and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797603/chronic-traumatic-stress-impairs-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-acetylcholine-neuroinflammation-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-expression-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Ami Bhakta, Kartheek Gavini, Euitaek Yang, Lani Lyman-Henley, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran
Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790897/regional-specific-evidence-for-memory-load-dependent-activity-in-the-dorsal-subiculum-and-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#2
Shih-Pi Ku, Nozomu H Nakamura, Nicolas Maingret, Liv Mahnke, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736134/stimulus-evoked-erk-dependent-phosphorylation-of-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-regulates-its-neuronal-subcellular-localization
#3
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Maria Steene Eriksen, Sudarshan Patil, Haruhiko Bito, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is implicated as a master regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation in mammalian brain. Arc acts at synapses and within the nucleus, but the mechanisms controlling Arc localization and function are little known. As Arc transcription and translation are regulated by extracellularsignal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, we asked whether Arc protein itself is phosphorylated by ERK. GST-fused Arc of rat origin was able to pull down endogenous ERK2 from rat hippocampal lysates...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716957/ampa-receptors-control-fear-extinction-through-an-arc-dependent-mechanism
#4
Simon Trent, Philip Barnes, Jeremy Hall, Kerrie L Thomas
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) supports fear memory through synaptic plasticity events requiring actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. We have previously shown that reducing hippocampal Arc levels through antisense knockdown leads to the premature extinction of contextual fear. Here we show that the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX elevates hippocampal Arc levels during extinction and blocks extinction that can be rescued by reducing Arc. Increasing Arc levels with CNQX also overcomes the actin-destabilizing properties of cytochalasin D and promotes extinction...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713251/age-related-changes-in-lateral-entorhinal-and-ca3-neuron-allocation-predict-poor-performance-on-object-discrimination
#5
Andrew P Maurer, Sarah A Johnson, Abbi R Hernandez, Jordan Reasor, Daniela M Cossio, Kaeli E Fertal, Jack M Mizell, Katelyn N Lubke, Benjamin J Clark, Sara N Burke
Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686801/exposure-to-complex-environments-results-in-more-sparse-representations-of-space-in-the-hippocampus
#6
David K Bilkey, Kirsten R Cheyne, Michael J Eckert, Xiaodong Lu, Shoaib Chowdhury, Paul F Worley, James E Crandall, Wickliffe C Abraham
The neural circuitry mediating sensory and motor representations is adaptively tuned by an animal's interaction with its environment. Similarly, higher order representations such as spatial memories can be modified by exposure to a complex environment (CE), but in this case the changes in brain circuitry that mediate the effect are less well understood. Here, we show that prolonged CE exposure was associated with increased selectivity of CA1 "place cells" to a particular recording arena compared to a social control (SC) group...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674997/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-affects-the-brain-function-through-mitochondrial-impairment
#7
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Francisco J Carvajal, Rodrigo G Mira, Camila Arce, José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
In the young population, binge drinking is a pattern of problematic alcohol consumption, characterized by a short period of heavy drinking followed by abstinence which is frequently repeated over time. This drinking pattern is associated with mental problems, use of other drugs, and an increased risk of excessive alcohol intake during adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on brain function in adolescents and its neurobiological impact during the adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of alcohol on hippocampal memory, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial function in adolescent rats after a binge drinking episode in vivo...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671113/implication-of-the-app-gene-in-intellectual-abilities
#8
Craig Myrum, Oleksii Nikolaienko, Clive R Bramham, Jan Haavik, Tetyana Zayats
BACKGROUND: Cognitive functions are highly heritable and polygenic, though the source of this genetic influence is unclear. On the neurobiological level, these functions rely on effective neuroplasticity, in which the activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) plays an essential role. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the ARC gene complex may contribute to the genetic components of intellectual function given the crucial role of ARC in brain plasticity and memory formation...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668486/glycogenolysis-an-astrocyte-specific-reaction-is-essential-for-both-astrocytic-and-neuronal-activities-involved-in-learning
#9
REVIEW
Leif Hertz, Ye Chen
In brain glycogen, formed from glucose, is degraded (glycogenolysis) in astrocytes but not in neurons. Although most of the degradation follows the same pathway as glucose, its breakdown product, l-lactate, is released from astrocytes in larger amounts than glucose when glycogenolysis is activated by noradrenaline. However, this is not the case when glycogenolysis is activated by high potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations - possibly because noradrenaline in contrast to high K(+) stimulates glycogenolysis by an increase not only in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) but also in cyclic AMP (c-AMP), which may increase the expression of the monocarboxylate transporter through which it is released...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630256/the-small-gtpase-rac1-contributes-to-extinction-of-aversive-memories-of-drug-withdrawal-by-facilitating-gabaa-receptor-endocytosis-in-the-vmpfc
#10
Weisheng Wang, Yun-Yue Ju, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jian-Xin Tang, Meng Li, Lei Zhang, Shuo Kang, Zhong-Guo Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Hui Ji, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Jing-Gen Liu
Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607167/the-role-of-creb-srf-and-mef2-in-activity-dependent-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-visual-cortex
#11
Nisha S Pulimood, Wandilson Dos Santos Rodrigues, Devon A Atkinson, Sandra M Mooney, Alexandre E Medina
The transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element binding factor), SRF (serum response factor), and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) play critical roles in the mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. However, the role of the activation of these transcription factors in the different components of plasticity in vivo is not well known. In this study, we tested the role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), a paradigm of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the visual cortex...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593137/msk1-regulates-transcriptional-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-in-response-to-neurotrophins
#12
Chris J Hunter, Judit Remenyi, Sonia A Correa, Lucia Privitera, Kathleen M S E Reyskens, Kirsty J Martin, Rachel Toth, Bruno G Frenguelli, J Simon C Arthur
The immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc)/Arg3.1 and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in the mammalian brain. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates the expression of Arc/Arg3.1 are unclear. In this study, we show that BDNF acts via the ERK1/2 pathway to activate the nuclear kinase mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 then induces Arc/Arg3.1 expression via the phosphorylation of histone H3 at the Arc/Arg3...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589041/attenuated-late-phase-arc-transcription-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-mice-lacking-egr3
#13
Amanda Maple, Rachel E Lackie, Diana I Elizalde, Stephanie L Grella, Chelsey C Damphousse, Collin Xa, Amelia L Gallitano, Diano F Marrone
The dentate gyrus (DG) engages in sustained Arc transcription for at least 8 hours following behavioral induction, and this time course may be functionally coupled to the unique role of the DG in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The factors that regulate long-term DG Arc expression, however, remain poorly understood. Animals lacking Egr3 show less Arc expression following convulsive stimulation, but the effect of Egr3 ablation on behaviorally induced Arc remains unknown. To address this, Egr3(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice explored novel spatial environments and were sacrificed either immediately or after 5, 60, 240, or 480 minutes, and Arc expression was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585865/protein-kinase-c-epsilon-delays-latency-until-anoxic-depolarization-through-arc-expression-and-glur2-internalization
#14
Charles H Cohan, Holly M Stradecki-Cohan, Kahlilia C Morris-Blanco, Nathalie Khoury, Kevin B Koronowski, Mehdi Youbi, Clinton B Wright, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
Global cerebral ischemia is a debilitating injury that damages the CA1 region of the hippocampus, an area important for learning and memory. Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation is a critical component of many neuroprotective treatments. The ability of PKCɛ activation to regulate AMPA receptors (AMPARs) remains unexplored despite the role of AMPARs in excitotoxicity after brain ischemia. We determined that PKCɛ activation increased expression of a protein linked to learning and memory, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (arc)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553222/dynamic-arc-sumoylation-and-selective-interaction-with-f-actin-binding-protein-drebrin-a-in-ltp-consolidation-in-vivo
#15
Rajeevkumar R Nair, Sudarshan Patil, Adrian Tiron, Tambudzai Kanhema, Debabrata Panja, Lars Schiro, Kamil Parobczak, Grzegorz Wilczynski, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulatedcytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) protein is implicated as a master regulator of long-term forms of synaptic plasticity and memory formation, but the mechanisms controlling Arc protein function are little known. Post-translation modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins has emerged as a major mechanism for regulating protein-protein interactions and function. We first show in cell lines that ectopically expressed Arc undergoes mono-SUMOylation. The covalent addition of a single SUMO1 protein was confirmed by in vitro SUMOylation of immunoprecipitated Arc...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#16
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467439/comparison-of-the-spatial-cognitive-functions-of-dorsomedial-striatum-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-mice
#17
Tine Pooters, Annelies Laeremans, Ilse Gantois, Ben Vermaercke, Lutgarde Arckens, Rudi D'Hooge
Neurons in anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) project to dorsomedial striatum (DMS) as part of a corticostriatal circuit with putative roles in learning and other cognitive functions. In the present study, the spatial-cognitive importance of aCC and DMS was assessed in the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM). Brain lesion experiments that focused on areas of connectivity between these regions indicated their involvement in spatial cognition. MWM learning curves were markedly delayed in DMS-lesioned mice in the absence of other major functional impairments, whereas there was a more subtle, but still significant influence of aCC lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452254/the-effect-of-tio2-coating-on-biological-niti-alloys-after-micro-arc-oxidation-treatment-for-corrosion-resistance
#18
Ebru Emine Sukuroglu, Suleyman Sukuroglu, Kubra Akar, Yasar Totik, Ihsan Efeoglu, Ersin Arslan
NiTi alloys exhibit good properties, such as shape memory behavior, high corrosion resistant, having the closest elasticity modulus of a human bone and superior biocompatibility properties. However, the surface problems that arise during the use of this alloy limit the usage in the industry and health sector. In recent years, micro-arc oxidation method is used to improve the surface properties and increase the usage of these alloys. In this study, the TiO2 coatings were deposited on the NiTi substrates. The surface topography, morphology, crystallographic structure, and thickness of the coatings were determined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451632/skill-learning-modulates-rna-pol-ii-poising-at-immediate-early-genes-in-the-adult-striatum
#19
Pedro Galvão-Ferreira, Michal Lipinski, Fernando Santos, Angel Barco, Rui M Costa
A multilayered complexity of epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlies neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. The regulation of RNA Pol II progression along the transcription cycle, from promoter-proximal poising (with RNA Pol II paused at promoter-proximal regions, characterized by a Ser5P(+)-rich and Ser2P(+)-poor RPB1 CTD) to active elongation, has emerged as a major step in transcriptional regulation across several organisms, tissues, and developmental stages, including the nervous system...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380666/whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-the-human-hippocampus-suggests-an-involvement-of-the-kibra-rs17070145-polymorphism-in-differential-activation-of-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#20
Ignazio S Piras, Jonida Krate, Isabelle Schrauwen, Jason J Corneveaux, Geidy E Serrano, Lucia Sue, Thomas G Beach, Matthew J Huentelman
The rs17070145-T variant of the WWC1 gene, coding for the KIBRA protein, has been associated with both increased episodic memory performance and lowered risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease, although the mechanism behind this protective effect has not been completely elucidated. To achieve a better understanding of the pathways modulated by rs17070145 and its associated functional variant(s), we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and RNA-sequencing to investigate the effect of rs17070145 genotypes on whole transcriptome expression in the human hippocampus (HP) of 22 neuropathologically normal individuals, with a specific focus on the dentate gyrus (DG) and at the pyramidal cells (PC) of CA1 and CA3 sub-regions...
July 2017: Hippocampus
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