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Arc and memory

Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Atsushi Nishigaki, Bun Aoyama, Hiroki Tateiwa, Marie Shigematsu-Locatelli, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
PURPOSE: In the present study, we examined whether and by what mechanisms dexmedetomidine (DMED) prevents the development of systemic inflammation (SI)-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. LPS-treated rats were further divided into three groups: early DMED, late DMED, or midazolam (MDZ) treatment (n = 12 each). Seven days after LPS injection, cognitive function was evaluated using a novel object recognition task, followed by measurement of hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expression...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal aversive memories generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking, with plasticity changes in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) being essential in aversive motivational learning. The conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm allows for measuring the negative affective component of drug withdrawal. First, CPA triggers association between negative affective consequences of withdrawal with context (memory consolidation). Afterwards, when the animals are re-exposed to the paired environment, they avoid it due to the association between the context and aversive memories (memory retrieval)...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Angel Lago-Rodriguez, R Chris Miall
Prolonged exposure to movement perturbations leads to creation of motor memories which decay towards previous states when the perturbations are removed. However, it remains unclear whether this decay is due only to a spontaneous and passive recovery of the previous state. It has recently been reported that activation of reinforcement-based learning mechanisms delays the onset of the decay. This raises the question whether other motor learning mechanisms may also contribute to the retention and/or decay of the motor memory...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jean-Pascal Morin, Sofía Díaz-Cintra, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni, Ilse Delint-Ramírez
It was recently suggested that alteration in lipid raft composition in Alzheimer's disease may lead to perturbations in neurons signalosome, which may help explain the deficits observed in synaptic plasticity mechanisms and long-term memory impairments in AD models. As a first effort to address this issue, we evaluated lipid-raft contents of distinct NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of the 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease. Our results show that compared to controls, 10 months-old 3xTg-AD mice have diminished levels of NMDA receptors in rafts but not in post-synaptic density or total fractions...
September 17, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Akash Gautam, Renu Wadhwa, Mahendra K Thakur
BACKGROUND: In our earlier study, we have shown the memory enhancing and scopolamine-induced amnesia recovery properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract using behavioral paradigm and expression analysis of synaptic plasticity genes. PURPOSE: However, the exact mechanism through which Ashwagandha demonstrates these effects is still unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we hypothesized that the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract) possesses cholinergic properties, which in turn inhibit the anti-cholinergic nature of scopolamine...
July 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Balapal S Basavarajappa
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of a single-day exposure to 5-Azacytidine (5-AzaC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, on neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice. Our findings suggest that the 5-AzaC treatment significantly inhibited DNA methylation, impaired extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation and reduced expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc). These events lead to the activation of caspase-3 (a marker for neurodegeneration) in several brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex, two brain areas that are essential for memory formation and memory storage, respectively...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Zhi-Hua Liu, Jin-Jun Ding, Qian-Qian Yang, Hua-Zeng Song, Xiang-Tao Chen, Yi Xu, Gui-Ran Xiao, Hui-Li Wang
Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4'-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marine Salery, Marc Dos Santos, Estefani Saint-Jour, Lara Moumné, Christiane Pagès, Vincent Kappès, Sébastien Parnaudeau, Jocelyne Caboche, Peter Vanhoutte
BACKGROUND: Addiction relies on persistent alterations of neuronal properties, which depends on gene regulation. Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is an immediate early gene that modulates neuronal plasticity underlying learning and memory. Its role in cocaine-induced neuronal and behavioral adaptations remains elusive. METHODS: Acute cocaine-treated mice were used for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and confocal imaging from striatum...
June 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Jin-Hyung Cho, Ben S Huang, Jesse M Gray
The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dongmei Wang, Ellen S Mitchell
Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats...
2016: PloS One
Xu Li, Fen Lu, Wei Li, Jun Xu, Xiao-Jing Sun, Ling-Zhi Qin, Qian-Lin Zhang, Yong Yao, Qing-Kai Yu, Xin-Liang Liang
Dysfunction of learning and memory is widely found in many neurological diseases. Understanding how to preserve the normal function of learning and memory will be extremely beneficial for the treatment of these diseases. However, the possible protective effect of minocycline in memory impairment is unknown. We used the well-established D-galactose rat amnesia model and two behavioral tasks, the Morris water maze and the step-down task, for memory evaluation. Western blot and PCR were used to examine the protein and mRNA levels of Arc/Arg3...
October 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Su-Zhen Guan, Li Ning, Ning Tao, Yu-Long Lian, Ji-Wen Liu, Tzi Bun Ng
The intrauterine environment has a significant long-term impact on individual's life, this study was designed to investigate the effect of stress during pregnancy on offspring's learning and memory abilities and analyze its mechanisms from the expression of BDNF and Arc in the hippocampus of the offspring. A rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy was mating from 3rd day during been subjecting to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The body weights and behavioral changes were recorded, and plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yang-An Chuang, Tsung-Ming Hu, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Shih-Hsin Hsu, Hsin-Yao Tsai, Min-Chih Cheng
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC), which interacts with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complex, is a critical effector molecule downstream of multiple neuronal signaling pathways. Dysregulation of the ARC/NMDAR complex can disrupt learning, memory, and normal brain functions. This study examined the role of ARC in susceptibility to schizophrenia. We used a resequencing strategy to identify the variants of ARC in 1078 subjects, including patients with schizophrenia and normal controls...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Dano J Morrison, Asim J Rashid, Adelaide P Yiu, Chen Yan, Paul W Frankland, Sheena A Josselyn
Memories are thought to be represented by discrete physiological changes in the brain, collectively referred to as an engram, that allow patterns of activity present during learning to be reactivated in the future. During the formation of a conditioned fear memory, a subset of principal (excitatory) neurons in the lateral amygdala (LA) are allocated to a neuronal ensemble that encodes an association between an initially neutral stimulus and a threatening aversive stimulus. Previous experimental and computational work suggests that this subset consists of only a small proportion of all LA neurons, and that this proportion remains constant across different memories...
July 12, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Pablo M Vergara, Gerardo E Soto, Darío Moreira-Arce, Amanda D Rodewald, Luis O Meneses, Christian G Pérez-Hernández
Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations...
2016: PloS One
Y M Yang, M Svatos, C Zankowski, B Bednarz
PURPOSE: The future of radiation therapy will require advanced inverse planning solutions to support single-arc, multiple-arc, and "4π" delivery modes, which present unique challenges in finding an optimal treatment plan over a vast search space, while still preserving dosimetric accuracy. The successful clinical implementation of such methods would benefit from Monte Carlo (MC) based dose calculation methods, which can offer improvements in dosimetric accuracy when compared to deterministic methods...
June 2016: Medical Physics
D Mercerón-Martínez, W Almaguer-Melian, E Alberti-Amador, B Estupiñán, I Fernández, J A Bergado
Amygdala seems to promote the consolidation of plastic modification in different brain areas and these long-term brain changes require a rapid de novo RNA and protein synthesis. We have previously shown that basolateral amygdala electrical stimulation produces a partial recovery of spatial memory in fimbria-fornix lesioned animals and it is also able to increase the BDNF protein content in the hippocampus. The emerging question is whether these increased BDNF protein content arises from previously synthesized RNA or from de novo RNA expression...
June 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Yeonghoon Son, Sohi Kang, Jinwook Kim, Sueun Lee, Jong-Choon Kim, Sung-Ho Kim, Joong-Sun Kim, Sung-Kee Jo, Uhee Jung, BuHyun Youn, Taekyun Shin, Miyoung Yang, Changjong Moon
Cranial irradiation can trigger adverse effects on brain functions, including cognitive ability. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cognitive impairments remain still unknown. Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are implicated in neuronal plasticity and the related functions (i.e., memory formation) in the hippocampus. The present study quantitatively assessed changes in the mRNA and protein levels of the learning-induced IEGs, including Arc, c-fos, and zif268, in the mouse hippocampus after cranial irradiation using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
L A Gouty-Colomer, B Hosseini, I M Marcelo, J Schreiber, D E Slump, S Yamaguchi, A R Houweling, D Jaarsma, Y Elgersma, S A Kushner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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