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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507320/the-microbiome-regulates-amygdala-dependent-fear-recall
#1
A E Hoban, R M Stilling, G Moloney, F Shanahan, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The amygdala is a key brain region that is critically involved in the processing and expression of anxiety and fear-related signals. In parallel, a growing number of preclinical and human studies have implicated the microbiome-gut-brain in regulating anxiety and stress-related responses. However, the role of the microbiome in fear-related behaviours is unclear. To this end we investigated the importance of the host microbiome on amygdala-dependent behavioural readouts using the cued fear conditioning paradigm...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467439/comparison-of-the-spatial-cognitive-functions-of-dorsomedial-striatum-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-mice
#2
Tine Pooters, Annelies Laeremans, Ilse Gantois, Ben Vermaercke, Lutgarde Arckens, Rudi D'Hooge
Neurons in anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) project to dorsomedial striatum (DMS) as part of a corticostriatal circuit with putative roles in learning and other cognitive functions. In the present study, the spatial-cognitive importance of aCC and DMS was assessed in the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM). Brain lesion experiments that focused on areas of connectivity between these regions indicated their involvement in spatial cognition. MWM learning curves were markedly delayed in DMS-lesioned mice in the absence of other major functional impairments, whereas there was a more subtle, but still significant influence of aCC lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452254/the-effect-of-tio2-coating-on-biological-niti-alloys-after-micro-arc-oxidation-treatment-for-corrosion-resistance
#3
Ebru Emine Sukuroglu, Suleyman Sukuroglu, Kubra Akar, Yasar Totik, Ihsan Efeoglu, Ersin Arslan
NiTi alloys exhibit good properties, such as shape memory behavior, high corrosion resistant, having the closest elasticity modulus of a human bone and superior biocompatibility properties. However, the surface problems that arise during the use of this alloy limit the usage in the industry and health sector. In recent years, micro-arc oxidation method is used to improve the surface properties and increase the usage of these alloys. In this study, the TiO2 coatings were deposited on the NiTi substrates. The surface topography, morphology, crystallographic structure, and thickness of the coatings were determined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451632/skill-learning-modulates-rna-pol-ii-poising-at-immediate-early-genes-in-the-adult-striatum
#4
Pedro Galvão-Ferreira, Michal Lipinski, Fernando Santos, Angel Barco, Rui M Costa
A multilayered complexity of epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlies neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. The regulation of RNA Pol II progression along the transcription cycle, from promoter-proximal poising (with RNA Pol II paused at promoter-proximal regions, characterized by a Ser5P(+)-rich and Ser2P(+)-poor RPB1 CTD) to active elongation, has emerged as a major step in transcriptional regulation across several organisms, tissues, and developmental stages, including the nervous system...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380666/whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-the-human-hippocampus-suggests-an-involvement-of-the-kibra-rs17070145-polymorphism-in-differential-activation-of-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#5
I S Piras, J Krate, I Schrauwen, J J Corneveaux, G E Serrano, L Sue, T G Beach, M J Huentelman
The rs17070145-T variant of the WWC1 gene, coding for the KIBRA protein, has been associated with both increased episodic memory performance and lowered risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease, although the mechanism behind this protective effect has not been completely elucidated. To achieve a better understanding of the pathways modulated by rs17070145 and its associated functional variant(s), we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and RNA-sequencing to investigate the effect of rs17070145 genotypes on whole transcriptome expression in the human hippocampus (HP) of 22 neuropathologically normal individuals, with a specific focus on the dentate gyrus (DG) and at the pyramidal cells (PC) of CA1 and CA3 sub-regions...
April 5, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330743/temporal-dynamics-of-immediate-early-gene-expression-during-cellular-consolidation-of-spatial-memory
#6
Daniel N Barry, Sean Commins
The consolidation of newly acquired memories on a cellular level is thought to take place in the first few hours following learning. This process is dependent on de novo protein synthesis during this time, which ultimately leads to long-term structural and functional neuronal changes and the stabilisation of a memory trace. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly expressed in neurons following learning, and previous research has suggested more than one wave of IEG expression facilitates consolidation in the hours following learning...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298553/dissociation-between-complete-hippocampal-context-memory-formation-and-context-fear-acquisition
#7
Jessica Leake, Raphael Zinn, Laura Corbit, Bryce Vissel
Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related activity. We found that hippocampal Arc expression continued to increase well past the minimal time required for plateau-level fear. This raises the possibility that context fear conditioning occurs more rapidly than complete memory formation...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292834/functional-connectivity-of-multiple-brain-regions-required-for-the-consolidation-of-social-recognition-memory
#8
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Justin W Kenney, Emiko Okano, Kazune Kadoma, Paul W Frankland, Satoshi Kida
Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286259/the-life-stories-of-adults-with-amnesia-insights-into-the-contribution-of-the-medial-temporal-lobes-to-the-organization-of-autobiographical-memory
#9
Matthew D Grilli, Aubrey A Wank, Mieke Verfaellie
Autobiographical memories are not stored in isolation but rather are organized into life chapters, higher-order knowledge structures that represent major themes conveying the arc of one's life. Neuropsychological studies have revealed that both episodic memory and some aspects of personal semantic memory are impaired in adults with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage. However, whether such impairment compromises the retrieval and formation of life chapters is unknown. Therefore, we had 10 adults with MTL amnesia and 20 control participants narrate their life stories, and we extracted life chapters from these narratives using a novel scoring protocol...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230107/regulation-of-visual-wulst-cell-responsiveness-by-imprinting-causes-stimulus-specific-activation-of-rostral-cells
#10
Tomoharu Nakamori, Tomomi Kato, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Kohichi Tanaka, Hiroko Ohki-Hamazaki
Imprinting behaviour in chicks can be induced exclusively during a short period after hatching. During this period, visual information on the imprinting stimulus is conveyed to the visual Wulst (VW) in the telencephalon, which corresponds to the visual cortex of mammals, and then to the memory-storing region known as the intermediate medial mesopallium. These two regions are indispensable for imprinting. We previously showed that imprinting training altered the response pattern of the VW to the imprinting stimulus; however, the precise distribution of cells and the mechanism involved with this altered response remains unclear...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217086/increased-sparsity-of-hippocampal-ca1-neuronal-ensembles-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-assayed-by-arc-expression
#11
Constance L Smith-Hicks, Peiling Cai, Alena V Savonenko, Roger H Reeves, Paul F Worley
Down syndrome (DS) is the leading chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, yet the neural substrates of learning and memory deficits remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate neural networks linked to learning and memory in a well-characterized model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit exploratory behavior that is not different from littermate wild-type (WT) controls yet behavioral activation of Arc mRNA transcription in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus is altered in Ts65Dn mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202907/calpain-1-deletion-impairs-mglur-dependent-ltd-and-fear-memory-extinction
#12
Guoqi Zhu, Victor Briz, Jeff Seinfeld, Yan Liu, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Recent studies indicate that calpain-1 is required for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by theta-burst stimulation in field CA1 of hippocampus. Here we determined the contribution of calpain-1 in another type of synaptic plasticity, the long-term depression (LTD) elicited by activation of type-I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-LTD). mGluR-LTD was associated with calpain-1 activation following T-type calcium channel opening, and resulted in the truncation of a regulatory subunit of PP2A, B56α...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185871/differential-arc-protein-expression-in-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-after-moderate-and-intense-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#13
Diego A González-Franco, Víctor Ramírez-Amaya, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Gina L Quirarte
Intense training refers to training mediated by emotionally arousing experiences, such as aversive conditioning motivated by relatively high intensities of foot-shock, which produces a strong memory that is highly resistant to extinction. Intense training protects memory consolidation against the amnestic effects of a wide variety of treatments, administered systemically or directly into brain structures. The mechanisms of this protective effect are unknown. To determine a potential neurobiological correlate of the protective effect of intense training, rats were trained in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task using different intensities of foot-shock (0...
February 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121049/ventral-hippocampal-neurons-inhibit-postprandial-energy-intake
#14
Reilly C Hannapel, Yoko H Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Marise B Parent
Evidence suggests that the memory of a recently ingested meal limits subsequent intake. Given that ventral hippocampal (vHC) neurons are involved in memory and energy intake, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that vHC neurons contribute to the formation of a memory of a meal and inhibit energy intake during the postprandial period. We tested (1) whether pharmacological inactivation of vHC neurons during the period following a sucrose meal, when the memory of the meal would be undergoing consolidation, accelerates the onset of the next sucrose meal and increases intake and (2) whether sucrose intake increases vHC expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc)...
March 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108859/the-arc-gene-confers-genetic-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-han-chinese
#15
Rui Bi, Li-Li Kong, Min Xu, Guo-Dong Li, Deng-Feng Zhang, Tao Li, Yiru Fang, Chen Zhang, Buchang Zhang, Yong-Gang Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain was considered one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. As the loss of synapses always occurs during AD progression, AD has been gradually regarded as a "synaptopathy." The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) was recently identified as a key factor for AD due to its active roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, and Aβ generation. However, there is little evidence to support the association of the Arc gene with AD...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108332/sex-dependent-effects-of-early-life-inflammatory-pain-on-sucrose-intake-and-sucrose-associated-hippocampal-arc-expression-in-adult-rats
#16
Yoko O Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Anne Z Murphy, Marise B Parent
We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memory, form a memory of a meal and inhibit the initiation of the next meal and the amount ingested during that meal. In support, we showed previously that (1) consuming a sucrose meal induces expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in dHC neurons and (2) reversible inactivation of these neurons immediately following a sucrose meal accelerates the onset of the next meal and increases the size of that meal...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069635/evaluating-approaches-to-find-exon-chains-based-on-long-reads
#17
Anna Kuosmanen, Tuukka Norri, Veli Mäkinen
Transcript prediction can be modeled as a graph problem where exons are modeled as nodes and reads spanning two or more exons are modeled as exon chains. Pacific Biosciences third-generation sequencing technology produces significantly longer reads than earlier second-generation sequencing technologies, which gives valuable information about longer exon chains in a graph. However, with the high error rates of third-generation sequencing, aligning long reads correctly around the splice sites is a challenging task...
January 9, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004803/convergent-evidence-for-the-molecular-basis-of-musical-traits
#18
Jaana Oikkonen, Päivi Onkamo, Irma Järvelä, Chakravarthi Kanduri
To obtain aggregate evidence for the molecular basis of musical abilities and the effects of music, we integrated gene-level data from 105 published studies across multiple species including humans, songbirds and several other animals and used a convergent evidence method to prioritize the top candidate genes. Several of the identified top candidate genes like EGR1, FOS, ARC, BDNF and DUSP1 are known to be activity-dependent immediate early genes that respond to sensory and motor stimuli in the brain. Several other top candidate genes like MAPK10, SNCA, ARHGAP24, TET2, UBE2D3, FAM13A and NUDT9 are located on chromosome 4q21-q24, on the candidate genomic region for music abilities in humans...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995769/triad3-rnf216-mutations-associated-with-gordon-holmes-syndrome-lead-to-synaptic-and-cognitive-impairments-via-arc-misregulation
#19
Nilofer Husain, Qiang Yuan, Yi-Chun Yen, Olga Pletnikova, Dong Qianying Sally, Paul Worley, Zoë Bichler, H Shawn Je
Multiple loss-of-function mutations in TRIAD3 (a.k.a. RNF216) have recently been identified in patients suffering from Gordon Holmes syndrome (GHS), characterized by cognitive decline, dementia, and movement disorders. TRIAD3A is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes and facilitates the ubiquitination of its target for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Here, we demonstrate that two of these missense substitutions in TRIAD3 (R660C and R694C) could not regulate the degradation of their neuronal target, activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg 3...
April 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939977/melatonin-ameliorates-amygdala-dependent-emotional-memory-deficits-in-tg2576-mice-by-up-regulating-the-creb-c-fos-pathway
#20
Caixia Peng, Xiaoping Hong, Weiqun Chen, Hongfeng Zhang, Lu Tan, Xiong Wang, Yu Ding, Jinrong He
The effects of melatonin on spatial memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been thoroughly investigated. Our previous study demonstrated that melatonin rescues hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits by arresting hippocampal pathological progression in an animal model of AD, which occurs via the inhibition of GSK3β and an increase in c-Fos. Based on the interaction between the amygdala and hippocampus, it is important to determine whether melatonin also improves amygdala-dependent emotional memory to understand the mechanism of melatonin amelioration of memory deficits in AD...
December 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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