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Arc and memory

Vera Flasbeck, Erika Atucha, Nozomu H Nakamura, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas...
March 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sweta Srivas, Mahendra K Thakur
Epigenetic modifications through methylation of DNA and acetylation of histones modulate neuronal gene expression and regulate long-term memory. Earlier we demonstrated that scopolamine-induced decrease in memory consolidation is correlated with enhanced expression of hippocampal DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in mice. DNMT1 and HDAC2 act together by recruiting a co-repressor complex and deacetylating the chromatin. The catalytic activity of HDACs is mainly dependent on its incorporation into multiprotein co-repressor complexes, among which SIN3A-HDAC2 co-repressor is widely studied to regulate synaptic plasticity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Jing-Yu Xiao, Bing-Rui Xiong, Wen Zhang, Wen-Chang Zhou, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hong-Bing Xiang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Bi Tian, Yu-Ke Tian
AIM: Multifactors contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), of which the most important mechanism is neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key neuroinflammatory molecule and could modulate hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate whether PGE2 and its receptors signaling pathway were involved in the pathophysiology of POCD. METHODS: Sixteen-month old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to laparotomy...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Kyung Su Kim, Chan Woo Wee, Jin-Yong Seok, Joo Wan Hong, Jin-Beom Chung, Keun-Yong Eom, Jae-Sung Kim, Chae-Yong Kim, Young Ho Park, Yu Jung Kim, In Ah Kim
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy via volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) could preserve the neurocognitive function (NCF) of patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed data from patients with primary brain tumors who underwent hippocampal-sparing brain radiotherapy via VMAT between February 2014 and December 2015. The optimization criteria for the contralateral hippocampus was a maximum dose (Dmax ) of less than 17 Gy...
February 20, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
E Valero, I Gómez-Milanés, P Almela, B Ribeiro Do Couto, M L Laorden, M V Milanés, C Núñez
Drug withdrawal-associated aversive memories trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important mediator of the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. However, the involvement of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in aversive memory induced by opiate withdrawal has yet to be elucidated. We used the conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to evaluate the role of CRF1R on opiate withdrawal memory acquisition, along with plasticity-related processes that occur after CPA within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dentate gyrus (DG)...
January 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Yea-Hyun Leem, Hyukki Chang
PURPOSE: Chronic stress is a risk factor for behavioral deficits, including impaired memory processing and depression. Exercise is well known to have beneficial impacts on brain health. METHODS: Mice were forced to treadmill running (4-week) during chronic restraint stress (6h/21d), and then behavioral tests were conducted by Novel object recognition, forced swimming test: FST, sociality test: SI. Dissected brain was stained with anti-calbindin-d28k and anti-Arc antibodies...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Nicholas F Parrish, Keizo Tomonaga
Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, contains sequence elements that are evolutionarily related to retrotransposon Gag genes. Two related papers in this issue of Cell show that Arc retains retroviral-like capsid-forming ability and can transmit mRNA between cells in the nervous system, a process that may be important for synaptic function.
January 11, 2018: Cell
Guzmán-Ramos Kioko, Venkataraman Archana, Morin Jean-Pascal, Osorio-Gómez Daniel, Bermúdez-Rattoni Federico
Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Moritz Merklein, Birgit Stiller, Khu Vu, Stephen J Madden, Benjamin J Eggleton
The original version of this Article omitted the Acknowledgements section:"This work was sponsored by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Laureate Fellowship (FL120100029) and the Centre of Excellence program (CUDOS CE110001010). We acknowledge the support of the ANFF ACT."This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
M K Chawla, V L Sutherland, K Olson, B L McNaughton, C A Barnes
Anatomical connectivity and lesion studies reveal distinct functional heterogeneity along the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. The immediate early gene Arc is known to be involved in neural plasticity and memory and can be used as a marker for cell activity that occurs, for example, when hippocampal place cells fire. We report here, that Arc is expressed in a greater proportion of cells in dorsal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), following spatial behavioral experiences compared to ventral hippocampal subregions (dorsal CA1= 33%; ventral CA1= 13%; dorsal CA3 = 23%; ventral CA3 = 8%; and dorsal DG = 2...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
Nicholas A Heroux, Brittany F Osborne, Lauren A Miller, Malak Kawan, Katelyn N Buban, Jeffrey B Rosen, Mark E Stanton
The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which learning about the context, acquiring the context-shock association, and retrieving/expressing contextual fear are temporally dissociated into three distinct phases (context preexposure, immediate-shock training, and retention). The current study examined changes in the expression of plasticity-associated immediate early genes (IEGs) during context and contextual fear memory formation on the preexposure and training days of the CPFE, respectively...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Ana Martinez Hernandez, Hendrik Urbanke, Alan L Gillman, Joon Lee, Sergey Ryazanov, Hope Y Agbemenyah, Eva Benito, Gaurav Jain, Lalit Kaurani, Gayane Grigorian, Andrei Leonov, Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh, Petra Wilken, Fernando Teran Arce, Jens Wagner, Martin Fuhrman, Mario Caruana, Angelique Camilleri, Neville Vassallo, Markus Zweckstetter, Roland Benz, Armin Giese, Anja Schneider, Martin Korte, Ratnesh Lal, Christian Griesinger, Gregor Eichele, Andre Fischer
Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disease eventually leading to dementia. An effective treatment does not yet exist. Here we show that oral application of the compound anle138b restores hippocampal synaptic and transcriptional plasticity as well as spatial memory in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease, when given orally before or after the onset of pathology. At the mechanistic level, we provide evidence that anle138b blocks the activity of conducting Aβ pores without changing the membrane embedded Aβ-oligomer structure...
January 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Adonis Yiannakas, Kobi Rosenblum
The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC), among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jasmin Lalonde, Surya A Reis, Sudhir Sivakumaran, Carl S Holland, Hendrik Wesseling, John F Sauld, Begum Alural, Wen-Ning Zhao, Judith A Steen, Stephen J Haggarty
The role of Arc in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation has been investigated for many years with recent evidence that defects in the expression or activity of this immediate-early gene may also contribute to the pathophysiology of brain disorders including schizophrenia and fragile X syndrome. These results bring forward the concept that reversing Arc abnormalities could provide an avenue to improve cognitive or neurological impairments in different disease contexts, but how to achieve this therapeutic objective has remained elusive...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Tamara N Ivanova, Christina Gross, Rudolph C Mappus, Yong Jun Kwon, Gary J Bassell, Robert C Liu
Learning to recognize a stimulus category requires experience with its many natural variations. However, the mechanisms that allow a category's sensorineural representation to be updated after experiencing new exemplars are not well understood, particularly at the molecular level. Here we investigate how a natural vocal category induces expression in the auditory system of a key synaptic plasticity effector immediate early gene, Arc/Arg3.1 , which is required for memory consolidation. We use the ultrasonic communication system between mouse pups and adult females to study whether prior familiarity with pup vocalizations alters how Arc is engaged in the core auditory cortex after playback of novel exemplars from the pup vocal category...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
Mayumi Machida, György Lonart, Larry D Sanford
Controllability is an important factor in determining stress outcomes. Uncontrollable stress is associated with the development of psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder, whereas controllable stress is associated with adaptive stress responses and positive outcomes. In this study, we investigated how controllability affects poststress neurobiology by assessing transcriptional levels of activity-dependent genes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, regions important in mediating stress outcomes...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
Qian-Lin Zhu, Yan Luo, Qing-Sheng Xue, Fu-Jun Zhang, Bu-Wei Yu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane has been shown to stimulate or depress memory in adult rats; however, the cellular mechanism of this bidirectional effect has not been fully investigated. METHODS: We used an intra-hippocampal microinfusion of U0126 to suppress ERK activation. Male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Sham, 0.11%SEV, 0.3%SEV and 0.3%+U0126. They received bilateral injections of U0126 or saline. Rats were anesthetized, and Inhibitory Avoidance (IA) training was performed immediately after anesthesia...
January 1, 2018: Brain Research
Tom S Koemans, Tjitske Kleefstra, Melissa C Chubak, Max H Stone, Margot R F Reijnders, Sonja de Munnik, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Connie T R M Stumpel, Levinus A Bok, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Kyna A Byerly, Linda B Baughn, Alexander P A Stegmann, Rolph Pfundt, Huiqing Zhou, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Jamie M Kramer
Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C), in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
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