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Arc and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755331/immediate-early-genes-memory-and-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-c-fos-egr1-and-arc
#1
REVIEW
Francisco T Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Juan F Morici, Jorge H Medina, Noelia V Weisstaub
Many psychiatric disorders, despite their specific characteristics, share deficits in the cognitive domain including executive functions, emotional control and memory. However, memory deficits have been in many cases undervalued compared with other characteristics. The expression of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as, c-fos , Egr1 and arc are selectively and promptly upregulated in learning and memory among neuronal subpopulations in regions associated with these processes. Changes in expression in these genes have been observed in recognition, working and fear related memories across the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755318/arc-3-utr-splicing-leads-to-dual-and-antagonistic-effects-in-fine-tuning-arc-expression-upon-bdnf-signaling
#2
Chiara Paolantoni, Simona Ricciardi, Veronica De Paolis, Chinenye Okenwa, Caterina Catalanotto, Maria T Ciotti, Antonino Cattaneo, Carlo Cogoni, Corinna Giorgi
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) is an immediate-early gene critically involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Arc mRNA is rapidly induced by synaptic activation and a portion is locally translated in dendrites where it modulates synaptic strength. Being an activity-dependent effector of homeostatic balance, regulation of Arc is uniquely tuned to result in short-lived bursts of expression. Cis -Acting elements that control its transitory expression post-transcriptionally reside primarily in Arc mRNA 3' UTR...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747244/nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus-controls-fear-memory-intensity-specificity-and-long-term-maintenance-during-consolidation
#3
Fernanda Troyner, Maira A Bicca, Leandro J Bertoglio
The thalamic nucleus reuniens (NR) has been shown to support bidirectional medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus communication and synchronization relevant for cognitive processing. Using non-selective or prolonged inactivation of the NR, previous studies reported its activity positively modulates aversive memory consolidation. Here we examined the NR's role in consolidating contextual fear memories with varied strength, at both recent and more remote time points, using muscimol-induced temporary inactivation in rats...
May 10, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729246/oligodendrocyte-specific-loss-of-cdk5-disrupts-the-architecture-of-nodes-of-ranvier-as-well-as-learning-and-memory
#4
Fucheng Luo, Jessie Zhang, Kathryn Burke, Rita R Romito-DiGiacomo, Robert H Miller, Yan Yang
Myelination of the central nervous system is important for normal motor and sensory neuronal function and recent studies also link it to efficient learning and memory. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is required for normal oligodendrocyte development, myelination and myelin repair. Here we show that conditional deletion of Cdk5 by targeting with CNP (CNP;Cdk5 CKO) results in hypomyelination and disruption of the structural integrity of Nodes of Ranvier. In addition, CNP;Cdk5 CKO mice exhibited a severe impairment of learning and memory compared to controls that may reflect perturbed neuron-glial interactions...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723575/retrieval-of-inhibitory-avoidance-memory-induces-differential-transcription-of-arc-in-striatum-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#5
Sofía González-Salinas, Andrea C Medina, Eduardo Alvarado-Ortiz, Anaid Antaramian, Gina L Quirarte, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá
Similar to the hippocampus and amygdala, the dorsal striatum is involved in memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance, a task commonly used to study memory processes. It has been reported that memory retrieval of fear conditioning regulates gene expression of arc and zif268 in the amygdala and the hippocampus, and it is surprising that only limited effort has been made to study the molecular events caused by retrieval in the striatum. To further explore the involvement of immediate early genes in retrieval, we used real-time PCR to analyze arc and zif268 transcription in dorsal striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala at different time intervals after retrieval of step-through inhibitory avoidance memory...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663578/optimization-of-immunolabeling-and-clearing-techniques-for-indelibly-labeled-memory-traces
#6
Ina P Pavlova, Shannon C Shipley, Marcos Lanio, René Hen, Christine A Denny
Recent genetic tools have allowed researchers to visualize and manipulate memory traces (i.e. engrams) in small brain regions. However, the ultimate goal is to visualize memory traces across the entire brain in order to better understand how memories are stored in neural networks and how multiple memories may coexist. Intact tissue clearing and imaging is a new and rapidly growing area of focus that could accomplish this task. Here, we utilized the leading protocols for whole-brain clearing and applied them to the ArcCreERT2 mice, a murine line that allows for the indelible labeling of memory traces...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659666/reliable-digit-span-does-it-adequately-measure-suboptimal-effort-in-an-adult-epilepsy-population
#7
Moshe Maiman, Victor A Del Bene, William S MacAllister, Sloane Sheldon, Eileen Farrell, Miguel Arce Rentería, Mitchell Slugh, Siddhartha S Nadkarni, William B Barr
Objective: Assessment of performance validity is a necessary component of any neuropsychological evaluation. Prior research has shown that cutoff scores of ≤6 or ≤7 on Reliable Digit Span (RDS) can detect suboptimal effort across numerous adult clinical populations; however, these scores have not been validated for that purpose in an adult epilepsy population. This investigation aims to determine whether these previously established RDS cutoff scores could detect suboptimal effort in adults with epilepsy...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601142/relocating-cued-goals-induces-population-remapping-in-ca1-related-to-memory-performance-in-a-two-platform-water-task-in-rats
#8
Justin Quinn Lee, Deryn O LeDuke, Kate Chua, Robert J McDonald, Robert J Sutherland
The activity of CA1 neurons in the rodent hippocampus represents multiple aspects of learning episodes, including cue and place information. Previous reports on cue and place representation in CA1 have examined activity in single neurons and population recordings during free exploration of an environment or when actions are directed to either cue or place aspects of memory tasks. To better understand cue and place memory representation in CA1, and how these interact during goal-directed navigation, we investigated population activity in CA1 during memory encoding and retrieval in a novel water task with two visibly distinct platforms, using mRNA for immediate early genes Arc and Homer1a as markers of neural activity...
March 30, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588465/mef2a-regulates-mglur-dependent-ampa-receptor-trafficking-independently-of-arc-arg3-1
#9
Ruth E Carmichael, Kevin A Wilkinson, Tim J Craig, Michael C Ashby, Jeremy M Henley
Differential trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from the postsynaptic membrane is a key determinant of the strength of excitatory neurotransmission, and is thought to underlie learning and memory. The transcription factor MEF2 is a negative regulator of memory in vivo, in part by regulating trafficking of the AMPAR subunit GluA2, but the molecular mechanisms behind this have not been established. Here we show, via knockdown of endogenous MEF2A in primary neuronal culture, that MEF2A is specifically required for Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated GluA2 internalisation, but does not regulate AMPAR expression or trafficking under basal conditions...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559111/the-arc-of-cognition-signaling-cascades-regulating-arc-and-implications-for-cognitive-function-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Irina Epstein, Steven Finkbeiner
The activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc) gene is implicated in numerous synaptic plasticity paradigms, including long-term potentiation and depression and homeostatic plasticity, and is critical for consolidating memory. How Arc facilitates these forms of plasticity is not fully understood. Unlike other neuronal immediate-early genes, Arc encodes a protein that shuttles between the somatodendritic and nuclear compartments to regulate synaptic plasticity. Little attention has been paid to Arc's role in the nucleus...
May 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554926/interaction-of-basolateral-amygdala-ventral-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-the-consolidation-and-extinction-of-social-fear
#11
Chu-Chu Qi, Qing-Jun Wang, Xue-Zhu Ma, Hai-Chao Chen, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process...
March 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548782/erythropoietin-improves-object-placement-recognition-memory-in-a-time-dependent-manner-in-both-uninjured-animals-and-fimbria-fornix-lesioned-male-rats
#12
W Almaguer-Melian, D Mercerón-Martinez, S Delgado-Ocaña, E Alberti-Amador, R Gonzalez-Gómez, Jorge A Bergado
An increasing number of reports sustain a possible role of erythropoietin (EPO) as neuroprotective agent. In two previous articles we have evaluated EPO as plasticity promoting agent, and to contribute the restoration of brain function affected by acquired damage. We have shown that EPO is able to induce an increased synaptic efficacy in vivo along with a plasticity promoting effect. In the Morris water maze EPO administration to fimbria-fornix lesioned male rats induces a significant improvement of their spatial memory, affected by the lesion...
March 23, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518437/spatial-information-is-preferentially-processed-by-the-distal-part-of-ca3-implication-for-memory-retrieval
#13
Vera Flasbeck, Erika Atucha, Nozomu H Nakamura, Motoharu Yoshida, Magdalena M Sauvage
For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas...
March 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515368/cb1r-mediated-activation-of-caspase-3-causes-epigenetic-and-neurobehavioral-abnormalities-in-postnatal-ethanol-exposed-mice
#14
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494759/transcriptional-co-repressor-sin3a-silencing-rescues-decline-in-memory-consolidation-during-scopolamine-induced-amnesia
#15
Sweta Srivas, Mahendra K Thakur
Epigenetic modifications through methylation of DNA and acetylation of histones modulate neuronal gene expression and regulate long-term memory. Earlier we demonstrated that scopolamine-induced decrease in memory consolidation is correlated with enhanced expression of hippocampal DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in mice. DNMT1 and HDAC2 act together by recruiting a co-repressor complex and deacetylating the chromatin. The catalytic activity of HDACs is mainly dependent on its incorporation into multiprotein co-repressor complexes, among which SIN3A-HDAC2 co-repressor is widely studied to regulate synaptic plasticity...
May 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488342/pge2-ep3-signaling-exacerbates-hippocampus-dependent-cognitive-impairment-after-laparotomy-by-reducing-expression-levels-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-related-proteins-in-aged-mice
#16
Jing-Yu Xiao, Bing-Rui Xiong, Wen Zhang, Wen-Chang Zhou, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hong-Bing Xiang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Bi Tian, Yu-Ke Tian
AIM: Multifactors contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), of which the most important mechanism is neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key neuroinflammatory molecule and could modulate hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate whether PGE2 and its receptors signaling pathway were involved in the pathophysiology of POCD. METHODS: Sixteen-month old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to laparotomy...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463267/hippocampus-sparing-radiotherapy-using-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-to-the-primary-brain-tumor-the-result-of-dosimetric-study-and-neurocognitive-function-assessment
#17
Kyung Su Kim, Chan Woo Wee, Jin-Yong Seok, Joo Wan Hong, Jin-Beom Chung, Keun-Yong Eom, Jae-Sung Kim, Chae-Yong Kim, Young Ho Park, Yu Jung Kim, In Ah Kim
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy via volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) could preserve the neurocognitive function (NCF) of patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed data from patients with primary brain tumors who underwent hippocampal-sparing brain radiotherapy via VMAT between February 2014 and December 2015. The optimization criteria for the contralateral hippocampus was a maximum dose (Dmax ) of less than 17 Gy...
February 20, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441001/early-life-stress-related-elevations-in-reaction-time-variability-are-associated-with-brain-volume-reductions-in-hiv-adults
#18
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407532/the-involvement-of-crf1-receptor-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-dentate-gyrus-in-the-naloxone-induced-conditioned-place-aversion-in-morphine-dependent-mice
#19
E Valero, I Gómez-Milanés, P Almela, B Ribeiro Do Couto, M L Laorden, M V Milanés, C Núñez
Drug withdrawal-associated aversive memories trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important mediator of the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. However, the involvement of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in aversive memory induced by opiate withdrawal has yet to be elucidated. We used the conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to evaluate the role of CRF1R on opiate withdrawal memory acquisition, along with plasticity-related processes that occur after CPA within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dentate gyrus (DG)...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370673/arc-arg3-1-protein-expression-in-dorsal-hippocampal-ca1-a-candidate-event-as-a-biomarker-for-the-effects-of-exercise-on-chronic-stress-evoked-behavioral-abnormalities
#20
Yea-Hyun Leem, Hyukki Chang
PURPOSE: Chronic stress is a risk factor for behavioral deficits, including impaired memory processing and depression. Exercise is well known to have beneficial impacts on brain health. METHODS: Mice were forced to treadmill running (4-week) during chronic restraint stress (6h/21d), and then behavioral tests were conducted by Novel object recognition, forced swimming test: FST, sociality test: SI. Dissected brain was stained with anti-calbindin-d28k and anti-Arc antibodies...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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