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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165085/a-speech-recognition-based-solution-for-the-automatic-detection-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-spontaneous-speech
#1
Laszlo Toth, Ildiko Hoffmann, Gabor Gosztolya, Veronika Vincze, Greta Szatloczki, Zoltan Banreti, Magdolna Pakaski, Janos Kalman
BACKGROUND: Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164524/the-anchoring-effect-in-metamemory-monitoring
#2
Chunliang Yang, Bukuan Sun, David R Shanks
Judgments about future memory performance (metamemory judgments) are known to be susceptible to illusions and bias. Here we asked whether metamemory judgments are affected, like many other forms of judgment, by numerical anchors. Experiment 1 confirmed previous research showing an effect of informative anchors (e.g., past peer performance) on metamemory monitoring. In four further experiments, we then explored the effects of uninformative anchors. All of the experiments obtained significant anchoring effects on metamemory monitoring; in contrast, the anchors had no effect on recall itself...
November 21, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163311/auditory-and-visual-memories-in-ptsd-patients-targeted-with-eye-movements-and-counting-the-effect-of-modality-specific-loading-of-working-memory
#3
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Liselotte C M Verhoeven, Marcel A van den Hout, Ivo Heitland
Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163298/the-effects-of-cognitive-reappraisal-and-expressive-suppression-on-memory-of-emotional-pictures
#4
Yan Mei Wang, Jie Chen, Ben Yue Han
In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral) were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS) as experimental materials...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163283/the-influence-of-background-music-on-learning-in-the-light-of-different-theoretical-perspectives-and-the-role-of-working-memory-capacity
#5
Janina A M Lehmann, Tina Seufert
This study investigates how background music influences learning with respect to three different theoretical approaches. Both the Mozart effect as well as the arousal-mood-hypothesis indicate that background music can potentially benefit learning outcomes. While the Mozart effect assumes a direct influence of background music on cognitive abilities, the arousal-mood-hypothesis assumes a mediation effect over arousal and mood. However, the seductive detail effect indicates that seductive details such as background music worsen learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163254/using-self-generated-cues-to-facilitate-recall-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca L Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert
We draw upon the Associative Network model of memory, as well as the principles of encoding-retrieval specificity, and cue distinctiveness, to argue that self-generated cue mnemonics offer an intuitive means of facilitating reliable recall of personally experienced events. The use of a self-generated cue mnemonic allows for the spreading activation nature of memory, whilst also presenting an opportunity to capitalize upon cue distinctiveness. Here, we present the theoretical rationale behind the use of this technique, and highlight the distinction between a self-generated cue and a self-referent cue in autobiographical memory research...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163125/-cerebellar-challenge-for-older-adults-evaluation-of-a-home-based-internet-intervention
#7
Zoe Gallant, Roderick I Nicolson
There is converging evidence that maintenance of function in the multiple connectivity networks involving the cerebellum is a key requirement for healthy aging. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a home-based, internet-administered "cerebellar challenge" intervention designed to create progressive challenges to vestibular function, multi-tasking, and dynamic coordination. Participants (n = 98, mean age 68.2, SD 6.6) were randomly allocated to either intervention (the cerebellar challenge training for 10 weeks) or no intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163115/anodal-tdcs-enhances-verbal-episodic-memory-in-initially-low-performers
#8
Annegret Habich, Stefan Klöppel, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Elisa Scheller, Christoph Nissen, Jessica Peter
The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in encoding and retrieval of episodic memories, and thus, is frequently targeted in non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms, aiming for its functional modulation. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), that boosts neuronal excitability in stimulated cortical areas, has been found to increase cognitive skills differentially, depending on the initial performance. We hypothesize that the benefit of tDCS on verbal episodic memory can be extrapolated from the participants' baseline performance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161973/a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-of-reactivity-to-judgements-of-learning
#9
Kit S Double, Damian P Birney, Sarah A Walker
Judgements of learning (JoL) are often used in memory research as a means for assessing an individual's metacognitive beliefs about their learning. JoL have been shown to reliably predict performance as well as learning behaviours and decisions . Participants may, however, modify their behaviour in response to performing JoL. There has, however, been little consensus as to the reliability and direction of the effect. We report on a meta-analyses that assesses the evidence that memory performance is reactive to JoL...
November 21, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161563/memory-retrieval-taking-the-route-via-subiculum
#10
Debora Ledergerber, Edvard Ingjald Moser
An episodic memory goes through three different stages: acquisition, consolidation and recall. A new study suggests that distinct microcircuits in the hippocampus underlie the process of memory acquisition and recall.
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156409/it-s-in-the-details-the-role-of-selective-discussion-in-forgetting-of-children-s-autobiographical-memories
#11
Ruth Glynn, Karen Salmon, Jason Low
This experiment investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) would be found in children's self-generated autobiographical memory recall. An adapted version of the RIF paradigm for adults' autobiographical memories was administered to 8- and 9-year-old children (N = 65). We hypothesized that RIF would be found in terms of both number of memories recalled and amount of memory detail reported. The relationship between memory detail at the retrieval practice phase and RIF magnitude was also investigated...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154649/the-limits-of-visual-working-memory-in-children-exploring-prioritization-and-recency-effects-with-sequential-presentation
#12
Ed D J Berry, Amanda H Waterman, Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Richard J Allen
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory (WM), adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to nonprioritized items (e.g., Hu, Hitch, Baddeley, Zhang, & Allen, 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the most recently presented item (i.e., the recency effect) is relatively automatic, possibly driven by perceptual mechanisms. In 3 Experiments 7 to 10 year-old's ability to prioritize items in WM was investigated using a sequential visual task (total N = 208)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#13
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154279/biological-factors-contributing-to-the-response-to-cognitive-training-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Jessica Peter, Lena V Schumacher, Verena Landerer, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Christoph P Kaller, Jacob Lahr, Stefan Klöppel
In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), small benefits from cognitive training were observed for memory functions but there appears to be great variability in the response to treatment. Our study aimed to improve the characterization and selection of those participants who will benefit from cognitive intervention. We evaluated the predictive value of disease-specific biological factors for the outcome after cognitive training in MCI (n = 25) and also considered motivation of the participants. We compared the results of the cognitive intervention group with two independent control groups of MCI patients (local memory clinic, n = 20; ADNI cohort, n = 302)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154166/sickness-absence-indicating-depressive-symptoms-of-working-population-in-south-korea
#15
Cheolmin Shin, Young-Hoon Ko, Seoyoung Yoon, Sang Won Jeon, Chi-Un Pae, Yong-Ku Kim, Ashwin A Patkar, Changsu Han
BACKGROUND: Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. METHODS: We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154034/effects-of-grasp-compatibility-on-long-term-memory-for-objects
#16
Ivonne Canits, Diane Pecher, René Zeelenberg
Previous studies have shown action potentiation during conceptual processing of manipulable objects. In four experiments, we investigated whether these motor actions also play a role in long-term memory. Participants categorized objects that afforded either a power grasp or a precision grasp as natural or artifact by grasping cylinders with either a power grasp or a precision grasp. In all experiments, responses were faster when the affordance of the object was compatible with the type of grasp response. However, subsequent free recall and recognition memory tasks revealed no better memory for object pictures and object names for which the grasp affordance was compatible with the grasp response...
November 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152755/interviewing-intoxicated-witnesses-memory-performance-in-theory-and%C3%A2-practice
#17
Malin Hildebrand Karlén
Memory encoding and recall involving complex, effortful cognitive processes are impaired by alcohol primarily due to impairment of a select few, but crucial, cortical areas. This review shows how alcohol affects some, but not all, aspects of eyewitnesses' oral free recall performance. The principal results, so far, are that: a) free recall reports by intoxicated witnesses (at the investigated BAC-levels) may contain less, but as accurate, information as reports by sober witnesses; b) immediate reports given by intoxicated witnesses may yield more information compared to reports by sober witnesses given after a one week delay; c) an immediate interview may enhance both intoxicated and sober witnesses' ability to report information in a later interview; and d) reminiscence seems to occur over repeated interviews and the new information seems to be as accurate as the previously reported information...
November 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150566/the-loss-of-tet2-promotes-cd8-t-cell-memory-differentiation
#18
Shannon A Carty, Mercy Gohil, Lauren B Banks, Renee M Cotton, Matthew E Johnson, Erietta Stelekati, Andrew D Wells, E John Wherry, Gary A Koretzky, Martha S Jordan
T cell differentiation requires appropriate regulation of DNA methylation. In this article, we demonstrate that the methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation (TET)2 regulates CD8(+) T cell differentiation. In a murine model of acute viral infection, TET2 loss promotes early acquisition of a memory CD8(+) T cell fate in a cell-intrinsic manner without disrupting Ag-driven cell expansion or effector function. Upon secondary recall, TET2-deficient memory CD8(+) T cells demonstrate superior pathogen control...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145007/sleep-preserves-original-and-distorted-memory-traces
#19
Scott A Cairney, Shane Lindsay, Ken A Paller, M Gareth Gaskell
Retrieval facilitates the long-term retention of memories, but may also enable stored representations to be updated with new information that is available at the time of retrieval. However, if information integrated during retrieval is erroneous, future recall can be impaired: a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced distortion (RID). Whether RID causes an "overwriting" of existing memory traces or leads to the co-existence of original and distorted memory traces is unknown. Because sleep enhances memory consolidation, the effects of sleep after RID can provide novel insights into the structure of updated memories...
October 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#20
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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