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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926127/recall-features-and-allorecognition-in-innate-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Hirofumi Uehara, Koichiro Minami, Markus Quante, Yeqi Nian, Timm Heinbokel, Haruhito Azuma, Abdala El Khal, Stefan G Tullius
Alloimmunity traditionally distinguishes short-lived, rapid and non-specific innate immune responses from adaptive immune responses that are characterized by a highly specific response initiated in a delayed fashion. Key players of innate immunity such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages present the first-line defense of immunity. The concept of unspecific responses in innate immunity has recently been challenged. The discovery of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) has demonstrated that innate immune cells respond in a semi-specific fashion through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) representing conserved molecular structures shared by large groups of microorganisms...
September 19, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922834/how-we-transmit-memories-to-other-brains-constructing-shared-neural-representations-via-communication
#2
A Zadbood, J Chen, Y C Leong, K A Norman, U Hasson
Humans are able to mentally construct an episode when listening to another person's recollection, even though they themselves did not experience the events. However, it is unknown how strongly the neural patterns elicited by mental construction resemble those found in the brain of the individual who experienced the original events. Using fMRI and a verbal communication task, we traced how neural patterns associated with viewing specific scenes in a movie are encoded, recalled, and then transferred to a group of naïve listeners...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922397/acute-exposure-to-blue-wavelength-light-during-memory-consolidation-improves-verbal-memory-performance
#3
Anna Alkozei, Ryan Smith, Natalie S Dailey, Sahil Bajaj, William D S Killgore
Acute exposure to light within the blue wavelengths has been shown to enhance alertness and vigilance, and lead to improved speed on reaction time tasks, possibly due to activation of the noradrenergic system. It remains unclear, however, whether the effects of blue light extend beyond simple alertness processes to also enhance other aspects of cognition, such as memory performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a thirty minute pulse of blue light versus placebo (amber light) exposure in healthy normally rested individuals in the morning during verbal memory consolidation (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920519/withdrawal-of-spatial-overt-attention-following-intentional-forgetting-evidence-from-eye-movements
#4
Yuh-Shiow Lee
Eye movements were measured to examine whether item-method directed forgetting involved a spatial overt attention shift. Experiment 1 showed that participants' eyes were moved away from the study word following the forget and ignore cues, but not the remember cue. Experiment 2 revealed that the eyes were moved away from the area that covered by the study word even when the study word disappeared upon the presentation of the memory cue. Both the study word and memory cue were presented auditorily in Experiment 3...
September 18, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912299/the-test-your-memory-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-tym-mci
#5
Jeremy M Brown, Claire J Lansdall, Julie Wiggins, Kate E Dawson, Kristina Hunter, James B Rowe, Richard A Parker
BACKGROUND: To validate a short cognitive test: the Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI) in the diagnosis of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD). METHODS: Two hundred and two patients with mild memory problems were recruited. All had 'passed' the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients completed the TYM-MCI, the Test Your Memory test (TYM), MMSE and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), had a neurological examination, clinical diagnostics and multidisciplinary team review...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912159/oscillatory-reinstatement-enhances-declarative-memory
#6
Amir-Homayoun Javadi, James C Glen, Sara Halkiopoulos, Mei Schulz, Hugo J Spiers
Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910813/the-neighborhood-built-environment-and-cognitive-function-of-older-persons-results-from-the-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-study
#7
Tze Pin Ng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Jia Yen Eng, Keng Bee Yap, Li Min Hee, Siew Pang Chan, Samuel Scherer
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of subjective (perceived) and objective (geographical information system [GIS]-based) measures of the neighborhood built environment (BE) attributes with cognitive function among older persons, and the mediating effect of transportation physical activity (TPA) and leisure time (physical, social and productive) activities (LTA). METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 402 residents aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910129/how-is-the-serial-order-of-a-visual-sequence-represented-insights-from-transposition-latencies
#8
Mark J Hurlstone, Graham J Hitch
A central goal of research on short-term memory (STM) over the past 2 decades has been to identify the mechanisms that underpin the representation of serial order, and to establish whether these mechanisms are the same across different modalities and domains (e.g., verbal, visual, spatial). A fruitful approach to addressing this question has involved comparing the transposition error latency predictions of models built from different candidate mechanisms for representing serial order. Experiments involving the output-timed serial recall of sequences of verbal (Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2004) and spatial (Hurlstone & Hitch, 2015) items have revealed an error latency profile consistent with the prediction of a competitive queuing mechanism within which serial order is represented via a primacy gradient of activations over items, associations between items and position markers, with suppression of items following recall...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904508/changes-in-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-primary-insomnia
#9
Hui Guo, Meijie Wei, Wantao Ding
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological evidence is not sufficient concerning whether there is cognitive impairment in patients with primary insomnia. Further study is needed in this regard. AIMS: To measure the changes in cognitive functioning in patients with primary insomnia. METHODS: 40 patients with insomnia (insomnia group) and 48 normal sleepers (control group) were tested using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), episodic memory test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
June 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903041/mir-150-mediated-foxo1-regulation-programs-cd8-t-cell-differentiation
#10
Young Ho Ban, Se-Chan Oh, Sang-Hwan Seo, Seok-Min Kim, In-Pyo Choi, Philip D Greenberg, Jun Chang, Tae-Don Kim, Sang-Jun Ha
MicroRNA (miR)-150 is a developmental regulator of several immune-cell types, but its role in CD8(+) T cells is largely unexplored. Here, we show that miR-150 regulates the generation of memory CD8(+) T cells. After acute virus infection, miR-150 knockout (KO) mice exhibited an accelerated differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into memory cells and improved production of effector cytokines. Additionally, miR-150 KO CD8(+) T cells displayed an enhanced recall response and improved protection against infections with another virus and bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899422/moderating-effects-of-sex-on-the-impact-of-diagnosis-and-amyloid-positivity-on-verbal-memory-and-hippocampal-volume
#11
Jessica Z K Caldwell, Jody-Lynn Berg, Jeffrey L Cummings, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A(+)) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). METHODS: Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899402/the-international-food-unit-a-new-measurement-aid-that-can-improve-portion-size-estimation
#12
T Bucher, M Weltert, M E Rollo, S P Smith, W Jia, C E Collins, M Sun
BACKGROUND: Portion size education tools, aids and interventions can be effective in helping prevent weight gain. However consumers have difficulties in estimating food portion sizes and are confused by inconsistencies in measurement units and terminologies currently used. Visual cues are an important mediator of portion size estimation, but standardized measurement units are required. In the current study, we present a new food volume estimation tool and test the ability of young adults to accurately quantify food volumes...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895997/-elevated-incidence-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis
#13
E Hernandez-Rodriguez, E Sirumal, P J Perez-Lorensu, J L Perez-Burkhardt, J Barroso, I Galtier
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and functional disability in developed countries. Carotid stenosis (CS) is considered the reason for 20-30% of strokes. However, the studies that have gone into depth on the cognitive status of these patients are limited. AIM: To investigate the cognitive performance of CS patients and its relationship with clinical variables (carotid obstruction, lifestyle). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 33 CS patients were evaluated using a broad neuropsychological protocol, and were divided into two groups: symptomatic CS and asymptomatic CS...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895460/comparison-of-neuropsychological-functioning-between-adults-with-early-and-late-onset-dsm-5-adhd
#14
Yu-Ju Lin, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. METHOD: We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset <7 years (early-onset, n = 142); (b) ADHD, onset between 7 and <12 years (late-onset, n = 41); (c) non-ADHD controls ( n = 148)-and compared their neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895111/phonological-recoding-under-articulatory-suppression
#15
Dennis Norris, Sally Butterfield, Jane Hall, Michael P A Page
We report data from an experiment in which participants performed immediate serial recall of visually presented words with or without articulatory suppression, while also performing homophone or rhyme detection. The separation between homophonous or rhyming pairs in the list was varied. According to the working memory model (Baddeley, 1986; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), suppression should prevent articulatory recoding. Nevertheless, rhyme and homophone detection was well above chance. However, with suppression, participants showed a greater tendency to false-alarm to orthographically related foils (e...
September 11, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894929/recalling-feature-bindings-differentiates-alzheimer-s-disease-from-frontotemporal-dementia
#16
Mario Amore Cecchini, Mônica Sanches Yassuda, Valéria Santoro Bahia, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães, Paulo Caramelli, Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart, Flávia Patrocínio, Maria Paula Foss, Vitor Tumas, Thaís Bento Lima-Silva, Sônia Maria Dozzi Brucki, Ricardo Nitrini, Sergio Della Sala, Mario A Parra
It has been challenging to identify clinical cognitive markers that can differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The short-term memory binding (STMB) test assesses the ability to integrate colors and shapes into unified representations and to hold them temporarily during online performance. The objective of this study is to investigate whether free recall deficits during short-term memory binding (STMB) test can differentiate patients with AD from those with bvFTD and controls...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894184/il-7-plays-a-critical-role-for-the-homeostasis-of-allergen-specific-memory-cd4-t-cells-in-the-lung-and-airways
#17
Seung-Min Yeon, Lea Halim, Anmol Chandele, Curtis J Perry, Sang Hoon Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Youngjoo Byun, Soon Hong Yuk, Susan M Kaech, Yong Woo Jung
Memory T cells respond rapidly to repeated antigen exposure and can maintain their population for extended periods through self-renewal. These characteristics of memory T cells have mainly been studied during viral infections, whereas their existence and functions in allergic diseases have been studied incompletely. Since allergic patients can suffer repeated relapses caused by intermittent allergen exposure, we hypothesized that allergen- specific memory Th2 cells are present and the factors necessary for the maintenance of these cells are provided by the lung and airways...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893979/exposure-to-unpredictable-maternal-sensory-signals-influences-cognitive-development-across-species
#18
Elysia Poggi Davis, Stephanie A Stout, Jenny Molet, Brian Vegetabile, Laura M Glynn, Curt A Sandman, Kevin Heins, Hal Stern, Tallie Z Baram
Maternal care is a critical determinant of child development. However, our understanding of processes and mechanisms by which maternal behavior influences the developing human brain remains limited. Animal research has illustrated that patterns of sensory information is important in shaping neural circuits during development. Here we examined the relation between degree of predictability of maternal sensory signals early in life and subsequent cognitive function in both humans (n = 128 mother/infant dyads) and rats (n = 12 dams; 28 adolescents)...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893581/tryptophan-circuit-in-fatigue-from-blood-to-brain-and-cognition
#19
Masatoshi Yamashita, Takanobu Yamamoto
Brain tryptophan and its neuroactive metabolites play key roles in central fatigue. However, previous brain function analysis targets may have included both glia and neurons together. Here, we clarified the fatigue-cognitive circuit of the central-peripheral linkage, including the role of glial-neuronal interaction in cognition. Using a rat model of central fatigue induced by chronic sleep disorder (CFSD), we isolated presynaptic terminals and oligodendrocytes. Results showed that compared to control group, presynaptic levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid, but not serotonin, in the CFSD group were higher in the hypothalamus and hippocampus...
September 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893335/the-effect-of-age-on-the-fcsrt-ir-and-temporary-visual-memory-binding
#20
Lewis Killin, Sharon Abrahams, Mario A Parra, Sergio Della Sala
BACKGROUND: Cognitive markers of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) should be sensitive and specific to memory impairments that are not associated with healthy cognitive aging. In the present study, we investigated the effect of healthy cognitive aging on two proposed cognitive markers of AD: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Task with Immediate Recall (FCSRT-IR) and a temporary visual memory binding (TMB) task. METHOD: Free recall and the cost of holding bound information in visual memory were compared between 24 younger and 24 older participants in a mixed, fully counterbalanced experiment...
September 12, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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