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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329717/characteristics-of-memories-for-near-death-experiences
#1
Lauren E Moore, Bruce Greyson
Near-death experiences are vivid, life-changing experiences occurring to people who come close to death. Because some of their features, such as enhanced cognition despite compromised brain function, challenge our understanding of the mind-brain relationship, the question arises whether near-death experiences are imagined rather than real events. We administered the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire to 122 survivors of a close brush with death who reported near-death experiences. Participants completed Memory Characteristics Questionnaires for three different memories: that of their near-death experience, that of a real event around the same time, and that of an event they had imagined around the same time...
March 19, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329381/the-effects-of-an-afternoon-nap-on-episodic-memory-in-young-and-older-adults-napping-and-aging
#2
Michael K Scullin, Jacqueline Fairley, Michael J Decker, Donald L Bliwise
Study Objectives: In young adults, napping is hypothesized to benefit episodic memory retention (e.g., via consolidation). Whether this relationship is present in older adults has not been adequately tested, but is an important question because older adults display marked changes in sleep and memory. Design: Between-subjects design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at Emory University School of Medicine. Participants: 50 healthy young adults (18-29) and 45 community dwelling older adults (58-83)...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326035/hippocampal-and-amygdala-gray-matter-loss-in-elderly-controls-with-subtle-cognitive-decline
#3
Davide Zanchi, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Stefan Borgwardt, Cristelle Rodriguez, Sven Haller
In contrast to the idea that hippocampal and amygdala volume loss occur in late phases of neurodegeneration, recent contributions point to the relevance of preexisting structural deficits that are associated with aging and are independent of amyloid deposition in preclinical Alzheimer disease cases. The present work explores GM hippocampal and amygdala volumes in elderly controls displaying the first signs of cognitive decline. 455 subjects (263 females), including 374 controls (228 females) and 81 middle cognitive impairment subjects (35 females), underwent two neuropsychological evaluations (baseline and 18 months follow-up) and a MRI-T1 examination (only baseline)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324066/hippocampal-aromatization-modulates-spatial-memory-and-characteristics-of-the-synaptic-membrane-in-the-male-zebra-finch
#4
David J Bailey, Yekaterina V Makeyeva, Elizabeth R Paitel, Alyssa L Pedersen, Angel T Hon, Jordan A Gunderson, Colin J Saldanha
The estrogen-synthesizing enzyme aromatase is abundant at the synapse in the zebra finch hippocampus (HP) and its inhibition impairs spatial memory function. To more fully test the role of local estradiol (E2) synthesis in memory, the HP of adult male zebra finches was exposed to either control pellets or those containing the aromatase inhibitor ATD, ATD and E2, ATD and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) agonist G1, or the antagonist G15 alone. Birds were tested for spatial memory acquisition and performance, and HP levels of the postsynaptic protein PSD95 were measured...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323874/c-type-allatostatins-mimic-stress-related-effects-of-alarm-pheromone-on-honey-bee-learning-and-memory-recall
#5
Elodie Urlacher, Jean-Marc Devaud, Alison R Mercer
As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323680/transient-global-amnesia-commentary-on-trip-gabriel-s-first-person-account
#6
Howard S Kirshner
This paper comments on a companion article, a first-person account of an episode of transient global amnesia written by New York Times reporter Trip Gabriel (Gabriel T. 2017. Cogn Behav Neurol. 30:1-4). Mr Gabriel describes having no memories of a cold, rainy day that he had spent on a sailboat competing in two races. The episode may have been triggered by his exposure to water. Afterward, the skipper recalled that Mr Gabriel had functioned fine on the boat, although after returning to shore he needed help finding his car...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323201/the-recency-ratio-is-associated-with-reduced-csf-glutamate-in-late-life-depression
#7
Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Thomas B Cooper, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Kenji Hashimoto, Nunzio Pomara
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is thought to be involved in the process of memory encoding and storage. Glutamate disturbances have also been reported in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD), and in Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we set out to study the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate levels and memory performance, which we believe has not been reported previously. In particular, we focused on recall performance broken down by serial position...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323200/brief-exercise-enhances-intrusive-memories-of-traumatic-stimuli
#8
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Brief physical exercise enhances memories for neutral events, and recently has been shown to modulate fear learning in animals. To date there is no evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise on emotional memories in humans. Accordingly, this study investigated the role of brief exercise in the development of emotional intrusive memories. Forty-nine university students (18-29 year olds) viewed a car accident film depicting accident and injury, and were then randomly assigned to engage in either 10 minutes of intense exercise or easy walking...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321798/numerosity-estimates-for-attended-and-unattended-items-in-visual-search
#9
Troy D Kelley, Daniel N Cassenti, Laura R Marusich, Thomas G Ghirardelli
The goal of this research was to examine memories created for the number of items during a visual search task. Participants performed a visual search task for a target defined by a single feature (Experiment 1A), by a conjunction of features (Experiment 1B), or by a specific spatial configuration of features (Experiment 1C). On some trials following the search task, subjects were asked to recall the total number of items in the previous display. In all search types, participants underestimated the total number of items, but the severity of the underestimation varied depending on the efficiency of the search...
March 20, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321696/accelerated-and-accentuated-neurocognitive-aging-in-hiv-infection
#10
David P Sheppard, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Rujvi Kamat, Lindsay R Clark, Gunes Avci, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods
There is debate as to whether the neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection represent an acceleration of the typical aging process or more simply reflect a greater accentuated risk for age-related declines. We aimed to determine whether accelerated neurocognitive aging is observable in a sample of older HIV-infected individuals compared to age-matched seronegatives and older old (i.e., aged ≥65) seronegative adults. Participants in a cross-sectional design included 48 HIV-seronegative (O-) and 40 HIV-positive (O+) participants between the ages of 50-65 (mean ages = 55 and 56, respectively) and 40 HIV-seronegative participants aged ≥65 (OO-; mean age = 74) who were comparable for other demographics...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321185/sex-matters-hippocampal-volume-predicts-individual-differences-in-associative-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-women-but-not-men
#11
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
The hippocampus plays a prominent role in associative memory by supporting relational binding and recollection processes. Structural atrophy in the hippocampus is likely to induce associative memory deficits in older adults. Previous studies have primarily focused on average age-related differences in hippocampal structure and memory performance. To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in hippocampal morphometry underlie differential associative memory performance, and whether there are sex differences in the structural correlates of associative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320753/do-memory-b-cells-form-secondary-germinal-centers-impact-of-antibody-class-and-quality-of-memory-t-cell-help-at-recall
#12
Louise J McHeyzer-Williams, Chad Dufaud, Michael G McHeyzer-Williams
Antigen recall can clearly induce a germinal center (GC) reaction. What has become an issue for debate are the origins of the antigen-specific B cells that form memory-response GCs (mGCs). Using antigen labeling and adoptive transfer, memory B cells expressing different antibody class can give rise to mGCs with differing efficiency. Here, we will argue that the range of class-specific memory responses reported across multiple systems represents the spectrum of memory B-cell fate and function. While the formulation of recall immunogen and location of mGCs have an important role, we propose that effective cognate regulation is the key variable influencing recall outcome...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319238/behavioral-and-neural-constraints-on-hierarchical-representations
#13
Odelia Schwartz, Luis Gonzalo Sanchez Giraldo
Central to behavior and cognition is the way that sensory stimuli are represented in neural systems. The distributions over such stimuli enjoy rich structure; however, how the brain captures and exploits these regularities is unclear. Here, we consider different sources of perhaps the most prevalent form of structure, namely hierarchies, in one of its most prevalent cases, namely the representation of images. We review experimental approaches across a range of subfields, spanning inference, memory recall, and visual adaptation, to investigate how these constrain hierarchical representations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317646/clinical-validity-of-delayed-recall-tests-as-a-gateway-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#14
REVIEW
Chiara Cerami, Bruno Dubois, Marina Boccardi, Andreas U Monsch, Jean Francois Demonet, Stefano F Cappa
Although Alzheimer's disease criteria promote the use of biomarkers, their maturity in clinical routine still needs to be assessed. In the light of the oncology framework, we conducted a literature review on measures used to assess delayed recall impairment due to medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e., free and cued word list recall tests). Ample evidence is available for phases 1 (rationale for use), 2 (discriminative ability), and 3 (early detection ability) for many of the tests in routine use. Evidence about phase 4 (performance in real world) and phase 5 (quantify impact and costs) is yet to come...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316598/t-cell-receptor-and-cytokine-signaling-can-function-at-different-stages-to-establish-and-maintain-transcriptional-memory-and-enable-t-helper-cell-differentiation
#15
REVIEW
Sarah L Bevington, Pierre Cauchy, David R Withers, Peter J L Lane, Peter N Cockerill
Experienced T cells exhibit immunological memory via a rapid recall response, responding to restimulation much faster than naïve T cells. The formation of immunological memory starts during an initial slow response, when naïve T cells become transformed to proliferating T blast cells, and inducible immune response genes are reprogrammed as active chromatin domains. We demonstrated that these active domains are supported by thousands of priming elements which cooperate with inducible transcriptional enhancers to enable efficient responses to stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316271/visuospatial-declarative-learning-despite-profound-verbal-declarative-amnesia-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#16
Erik Oudman, Albert Postma, Tanja C W Nijboer, Jan W Wijnia, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315585/eye-movement-during-recall-reduces-objective-memory-performance-an-extended-replication
#17
Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard, Bert Lenaert, Dieter Struyf, Bram Vervliet, Dirk Hermans
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance...
March 9, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315065/do-actions-speak-louder-than-words-examining-children-s-ability-to-follow-instructions
#18
Amanda H Waterman, Amy L Atkinson, Sadia S Aslam, Joni Holmes, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Richard J Allen
The ability to encode, retain, and implement instructions within working memory is central to many behaviours, including classroom activities which underpin learning. The three experiments presented here explored how action-planned, enacted, and observed-impacted 6- to 10-year-old's ability to follow instructions. Experiment 1 (N = 81) found enacted recall was superior to verbal recall, but self-enactment at encoding had a negative effect on enacted recall and verbal recall. In contrast, observation of other-enactment (demonstration) at encoding facilitated both types of recall (Experiment 2a: N = 81)...
March 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314919/interference-between-a-fast-paced-spatial-puzzle-task-and-verbal-memory-demands
#19
Samantha L Epling, Megan J Blakely, Paul N Russell, William S Helton
Research continues to provide evidence that people are poor multi-taskers. Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for the inability to efficiently perform multiple tasks at the same time. This theory proposes that one's limited supply of cognitive resources can be utilized faster than it is replenished, which results in a performance decline, particularly when these limited resources must be allocated among multiple tasks. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example, spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#20
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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