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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#1
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802645/p2x7-purinergic-receptors-participate-in-the-expression-and-extinction-processes-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-in-mice
#3
L B Domingos, S C Hott, A L B Terzian, L B M Resstel
The purinergic system consists of two large receptor families - P2X and P2Y. Both are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), although presenting different functions. These receptors are present in several brain regions, including those involved in emotion and stress-related behaviors. Hence, they seem to participate in fear- and anxiety-related responses. However, few studies have investigated the purinergic system in threatening situations, as observed in contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Therefore, this study investigated the involvement of purinergic receptors in the expression and extinction of aversive memories...
August 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800603/genetic-variants-specific-to-aging-related-verbal-memory-insights-from-gwass-in-a-population-based-cohort
#4
Thalida E Arpawong, Neil Pendleton, Krisztina Mekli, John J McArdle, Margaret Gatz, Chris Armoskus, James A Knowles, Carol A Prescott
Verbal memory is typically studied using immediate recall (IR) and delayed recall (DR) scores, although DR is dependent on IR capability. Separating these components may be useful for deciphering the genetic variation in age-related memory abilities. This study was conducted to (a) construct individual trajectories in IR and independent aspects of delayed recall, or residualized-DR (rDR), across older adulthood; and (b) identify genetic markers that contribute to four estimated phenotypes: IR and rDR levels and changes after age 60...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800429/bimanual-coordination-positively-predicts-episodic-memory-a-combined-behavioral-and-mri-investigation
#5
Keith B Lyle, Brynn A Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E Switala, Brendan E Depue
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands...
August 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799784/memory-as-a-cognitive-representation-of-post-traumatic-growth
#6
Shuhui Huang, Yiqun Gan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies on traumatic memory have primarily focused on the correlation between traumatic symptoms and negative memories, often utilizing the directed forgetting paradigm. Different from previous research, this study aimed to examine the correlation of post-traumatic growth (PTG) and positive memories, with the objective to explore the directed forgetting effect of positive material and its relationship with PTG. DESIGN: A 2 (PTG level: high vs...
August 11, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#7
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797975/characterisation-of-a-factual-knowledge-associated-brain-memory-area-by-functional-mr-imaging-and-implementation-in-tumour-and-epilepsy-brain-surgery
#8
Peter Grummich, Oliver Ganslandt, Michael Buchfelder, Karl Roessler
BACKGROUND: The role of the dominant hippocampus in verbal and episodical memory recall had been extensively investigated. However, there are categories of memory estimated independent of hippocampal function. Particularly, factual knowledge is solely constituted from written or spoken input independent from undertaken experience, but the temporal structures involved are not well defined yet. METHODS: In this retrospective study we mapped the activity of factual knowledge recall using functional MR imaging in 60 patients scheduled for tumour or epilepsy surgery and in 18 patients resected within or close to the left mesial temporal lobe...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797212/effect-of-conceptual-and-lexical-errorless-versus-trial-and-error-learning-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Brandy L Callahan, Nicole D Anderson
Errorless learning (EL), involving presenting the target information during encoding, is generally considered effective for teaching information to memory-impaired populations. However, evidence suggests that trial-and-error learning (TEL) can benefit healthy older adults' memory when guesses are conceptually related to the target. To determine whether TEL can benefit persons with mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 24 participants with aMCI were given cues associated with nine target words. Half the sample received Conceptual cues (e...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796318/he-says-she-says-mothers-and-children-remembering-the-same-events
#10
Qi Wang, Qingfang Song
This study examined the consistency of memories for the same events in mothers and children, and how that varied as a function of culture and organizational components of memories. European American (EA) and Chinese immigrant (CI) mothers and their 6-year-old children (N = 127) independently recalled two emotionally salient events. In both cultures, mothers and children agreed more on factual event details and observable behaviors and less on subjective experiences and idiosyncratic interpretations. EA mothers and children told more diverse stories than did CI mothers and children...
August 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795859/thirty-five-month-old-children-have-spontaneous-memories-despite-change-of-context-for-retrieval
#11
Trine Sonne, Osman S Kingo, Dorthe Berntsen, Peter Krøjgaard
Many parents have experienced incidents in which their preschool child spontaneously (i.e., without prompting of any kind) recall a previously experienced event. Until recently, such spontaneous memories had only been examined in non-controlled settings (e.g., diary studies). Using a novel experimental paradigm, a previous study has shown that when young children are brought back to a highly distinct setting (same room, same experimenter, same furnishing), in which they previously experienced an interesting event (a Teddy or a Game event), spontaneous memories can be triggered...
August 10, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#12
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#13
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781928/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-autobiographical-memories-in-everyday-life
#14
Sabine Schönfeld, Anke Ehlers
Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776906/association-of-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-with-immediate-memory-and-other-cognitive-functions
#15
Lumine Matsumoto, Kazushi Suzuki, Yoshiko Mizuno, Yumiko Ohike, Atsuko Ozeki, Satoshi Ono, Mikio Takanashi, Daigo Sawaki, Toru Suzuki, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shoji Tsuji, Atsushi Iwata
AIM: To clarify whether carotid atherosclerosis and its risk factors are associated with cognitive decline. METHODS: We evaluated 206 individuals who visited our center for health screening. We carried out physical examinations, blood tests, intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement by carotid ultrasonography, brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning and cognitive function assessments. A total of 30 individuals, who had significant cerebrovascular lesions detected in magnetic resonance imaging scans, were excluded...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776897/relationship-between-cortisol-reactivity-to-psychosocial-stress-and-declarative-memory-decline-during-aging-impact-of-age-and-sex
#16
Aline Talita Dos Santos, Dayse Maria D Leyendecker, Ana Lucia Siqueira Costa, Juliana Nery de Souza-Talarico
AIM: To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. METHODS: We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor ( the Trier social stress test [TSST])...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772125/discovering-event-structure-in-continuous-narrative-perception-and-memory
#17
Christopher Baldassano, Janice Chen, Asieh Zadbood, Jonathan W Pillow, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
During realistic, continuous perception, humans automatically segment experiences into discrete events. Using a novel model of cortical event dynamics, we investigate how cortical structures generate event representations during narrative perception and how these events are stored to and retrieved from memory. Our data-driven approach allows us to detect event boundaries as shifts between stable patterns of brain activity without relying on stimulus annotations and reveals a nested hierarchy from short events in sensory regions to long events in high-order areas (including angular gyrus and posterior medial cortex), which represent abstract, multimodal situation models...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772124/proximodistal-heterogeneity-of-hippocampal-ca3-pyramidal-neuron-intrinsic-properties-connectivity-and-reactivation-during-memory-recall
#18
Qian Sun, Alaba Sotayo, Alejandro S Cazzulino, Anna M Snyder, Christine A Denny, Steven A Siegelbaum
The hippocampal CA3 region is classically viewed as a homogeneous autoassociative network critical for associative memory and pattern completion. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a striking heterogeneity along the transverse, or proximodistal, axis of CA3 in spatial encoding and memory. Here we report the presence of striking proximodistal gradients in intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic connectivity for dorsal CA3. A decreasing gradient of mossy fiber synaptic strength along the proximodistal axis is mirrored by an increasing gradient of direct synaptic excitation from entorhinal cortex...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771634/regional-gray-matter-correlates-of-memory-for-emotion-laden-words-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#19
Carina Saarela, Juho Joutsa, Matti Laine, Riitta Parkkola, Juha O Rinne, Mira Karrasch
Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770642/playing-with-fire-effects-of-negative-mood-induction-and-working-memory-on-vocabulary-acquisition
#20
Zachary F Miller, Jessica K Fox, Jason S Moser, Aline Godfroid
We investigated the impact of emotions on learning vocabulary in an unfamiliar language to better understand affective influences in foreign language acquisition. Seventy native English speakers learned new vocabulary in either a negative or a neutral emotional state. Participants also completed two sets of working memory tasks to examine the potential mediating role of working memory. Results revealed that participants exposed to negative stimuli exhibited difficulty in retrieving and correctly pairing English words with Indonesian words, as reflected in a lower performance on the prompted recall tests and the free recall measure...
August 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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