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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913591/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-alpha-oscillations
#1
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: While working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks employed to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static", involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed: 1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant and 2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913253/vibrissal-paralysis-produces-increased-corticosterone-levels-and-impairment-of-spatial-memory-retrieval
#2
William E Patarroyo, Milady García-Perez, Marisol Lamprea, Alejandro Múnera, Julieta Troncoso
This research was aimed at establishing how the absence of active whisking in rats affects acquisition and recovery of spatial memory. The mystacial vibrissae were irreversibly paralyzed by cutting the facial nerve's mandibular and buccal branches bilaterally in the facial nerve lesion group (N=14); control animals were submitted to sham-surgery (N=15). Sham-operated (N=11) and facial nerve-lesioned (N=10) animals were trained (one session, eight acquisition trials) and tested 24hours later in a circular Barnes maze...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909312/the-association-between-physical-activity-during-the-day-and-long-term-memory-stability
#3
Matthew B Pontifex, Kathryn L Gwizdala, Andrew C Parks, Karin A Pfeiffer, Kimberly M Fenn
Despite positive associations between chronic physical activity and memory; we have little understanding of how best to incorporate physical activity during the day to facilitate the consolidation of information into memory, nor even how time spent physically active during the day relates to memory processes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relation between physical activity during the day and long-term memory. Ninety-two young adults learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-hour interval during which heart rate was recorded continuously...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#4
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891468/influence-of-teaching-strategies-and-its-order-of-exposure-on-pre-clinical-teeth-arrangement-a-pilot-study
#5
Karthigeyan Jeyapalan, Uma Maheswari Mani, Jayanth Christian, Madhan Kumar Seenivasan, Parthasarathy Natarajan, Anand Kumar Vaidhyanathan
INTRODUCTION: Teeth arrangement is a vital skill for the undergraduate dental student. The attainment of skills depends largely on the methodology of teaching. In a dental curriculum, the students are exposed to a wide variety of inputs and teaching methodologies from different sources. The educational unit in dental school must identify the sequence of teaching methods that enhance the learning and practising ability of students. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different teaching methodologies for teeth arrangement and compare the differences between the orders of exposure to each teaching methodology on the development of teeth arrangement skills...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889331/portulaca-oleracea-l-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-passive-avoidance-learning-and-memory-and-tnf-%C3%AE-impairments-in-hippocampus-of-rat
#6
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Leila Karimi-Zandi
There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammation can impair memory. It has been indicated that Portulaca oleracea Linn. (POL), possess anti-inflammatory activity and might improve memory disruption caused by inflammation. In this study the effect of pre-treatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL on memory retrieval investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Male Wistar rats (200-220g) received either a control diet or a diet containing of POL (400mg/kg, p.o.) for 14days. Then, they received injections of either saline or LPS (1mg/kg, i...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885031/retrieval-practice-protects-memory-against-acute-stress
#7
Amy M Smith, Victoria A Floerke, Ayanna K Thomas
More than a decade of research has supported a robust consensus: Acute stress impairs memory retrieval. We aimed to determine whether a highly effective learning technique could strengthen memory against the negative effects of stress. To bolster memory, we used retrieval practice, or the act of taking practice tests. Participants first learned stimuli by either restudying or engaging in retrieval practice. Twenty-four hours later, we induced stress in half of the participants and assessed subsequent memory performance...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881773/novel-roles-for-the-insulin-regulated-glucose-transporter-4-in-hippocampally-dependent-memory
#8
Jiah Pearson-Leary, Ewan C McNay
: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872586/loss-of-ensemble-segregation-in-dentate-gyrus-but-not-in-somatosensory-cortex-during-contextual-fear-memory-generalization
#9
Marie Yokoyama, Naoki Matsuo
The details of contextual or episodic memories are lost and generalized with the passage of time. Proper generalization may underlie the formation and assimilation of semantic memories and enable animals to adapt to ever-changing environments, whereas overgeneralization of fear memory evokes maladaptive fear responses to harmless stimuli, which is a symptom of anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To understand the neural basis of fear memory generalization, we investigated the patterns of neuronal ensemble reactivation during memory retrieval when contextual fear memory expression is generalized using transgenic mice that allowed us to visualize specific neuronal ensembles activated during memory encoding and retrieval...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870781/neuroanatomical-assessment-of-the-impact-of-negative-emotion-on-explicit-memory-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
In-Soo Jang, Gwang-Won Kim, Gwang-Woo Jeong
The aim of this study was to identify the brain activation patterns associated with emotionally neutral or unpleasant words during explicit memory tasks in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a functional MRI. Sixteen patients with OCD (mean age=31.4±10.1 years) and 16 healthy controls (mean age=32.6±5.8 years) who had no history of neurological or psychiatric illness underwent functional MRI examinations on a 3-T Siemens MR Scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of five times rest-condition, two times encoding of two-syllable words, and two times explicit retrieval of the previously learned words...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870412/cortisol-reactivity-and-emotional-memory-after-psychosocial-stress-in-oral-contraceptive-users
#11
Kristen L Mordecai, Leah H Rubin, Erin Eatough, Erin Sundermann, Lauren Drogos, Antonia Savarese, Pauline M Maki
Oral contraceptive (OC) users typically show a blunted or no cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Although most OC regimens include both an inactive (dummy) and active pill phase, studies have not systematically investigated cortisol responses during these pill phases. Further, high levels of cortisol following a stressor diminish retrieval of emotional material, but the effects of stress on memory among OC users are poorly understood. We examined the effects of a psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, vs...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869586/hyperfamiliarity-in-amnestic-and-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Pei Shi Chia, Shahul Hameed, Kok Pin Yong, Ling Ling Chan, Simon Kang Seng Ting
OBJECTIVE: Hyperfamiliarity is a phenomenon where new stimuli are perceived as familiar. Previous studies have demonstrated familiarity disorder in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but mostly from the perspective of a neuropsychological approach, and the exact correlation of MCI aetiologies with the phenomenon remains uncertain. Based on current evidence suggesting a frontal-subcortical pathway contributing to familiarity processing, we hypothesize that individuals with a vascular aetiology of MCI will likely suffer more familiarity deficits...
November 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866038/separating-content-specific-retrieval-from-post-retrieval-processing
#13
Amie N Doidge, Lisa H Evans, Jane E Herron, Edward L Wilding
According to cortical reinstatement accounts, neural processes engaged at the time of encoding are re-engaged at the time of memory retrieval. The temporal precision of event-related potentials (ERPs) has been exploited to assess this possibility, and in this study ERPs were acquired while people made memory judgments to visually presented words encoded in two different ways. There were reliable differences between the scalp distributions of the signatures of successful retrieval of different contents from 300 to 1100 ms after stimulus presentation...
October 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865867/d1-like-dopamine-receptor-dysfunction-in-the-lateral-habenula-nucleus-increased-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rat
#14
Jiangping Chan, Yiling Ni, Pengyue Zhang, Yanmei Chen, Jichuan Zhang
Lateral habenula (LHb) is important for emotional processing. It is a link node between forebrain and midbrain. LHb is reciprocally connected with ventral tegmental area, acting as a regulatory center for the dopaminergic system. However, the role of dopamine receptors in the LHb in emotional processing is less clear. In the present study, the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in LHb was testified by western blot. In addition, D1- or D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist was bilaterally administered into the LHb, anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were tested 15min later in rats...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859647/spatial-but-not-oculomotor-information-biases-perceptual-memory-evidence-from-face-perception-and-cognitive-modeling
#15
Andrea L Wantz, Janek S Lobmaier, Fred W Mast, Walter Senn
Recent research put forward the hypothesis that eye movements are integrated in memory representations and are reactivated when later recalled. However, "looking back to nothing" during recall might be a consequence of spatial memory retrieval. Here, we aimed at distinguishing between the effect of spatial and oculomotor information on perceptual memory. Participants' task was to judge whether a morph looked rather like the first or second previously presented face. Crucially, faces and morphs were presented in a way that the morph reactivated oculomotor and/or spatial information associated with one of the previously encoded faces...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859315/dissociating-retrieval-interference-and-reanalysis-in-the-p600-during-sentence-comprehension
#16
Darren Tanner, Sarah Grey, Janet G van Hell
We investigated the relative independence of two key processes in language comprehension, as reflected in the P600 ERP component. Numerous studies have linked the P600 to sentence- or message-level reanalysis; however, much research has shown that skilled, cue-based memory retrieval operations are also important to successful language processing. Our goal was to identify whether these cue-based retrieval operations are part of the reanalysis processes indexed by the P600. To this end, participants read sentences that were either grammatical or ungrammatical via subject-verb agreement violations, and in which there was either no possibility for retrieval interference or there was an attractor noun interfering with the computation of subject-verb agreement (e...
November 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824681/sex-differences-in-episodic-memory-in-early-midlife-impact-of-reproductive-aging
#17
Dorene M Rentz, Blair K Weiss, Emily G Jacobs, Sara Cherkerzian, Anne Klibanski, Anne Remington, Harlyn Aizley, Jill M Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Few have characterized cognitive changes with age as a function of menopausal stage relative to men, or sex differences in components of memory in early midlife. The study aim was to investigate variation in memory function in early midlife as a function of sex, sex steroid hormones, and reproductive status. METHODS: A total of 212 men and women aged 45 to 55 were selected for this cross-sectional study from a prenatal cohort of pregnancies whose mothers were originally recruited in 1959 to 1966...
November 7, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818270/consolidation-of-spatial-memory-in-the-rat-findings-using-zeta-inhibitory-peptide
#18
Jena B Hales, Amber C Ocampo, Nicola J Broadbent, Robert E Clark
Whether or not spatial memories reorganize in the rodent brain is an unanswered question that carries the importance of whether the rodent provides a suitable animal model of human retrograde amnesia. The finding of equally impaired recent and remote spatial memory could reflect the continued importance of the hippocampus for spatial memory or a performance deficit (for example, hippocampal lesions may impair the rat's ability to use distal spatial cues to navigate to a specific point in space). In the current study, we tested recent and remote spatial memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP (zeta-pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide) infusion to inhibit PKMzeta...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815095/neural-correlates-of-memory-encoding-and-recognition-for-own-race-and-other-race-faces-in-an-associative-memory-task
#19
Grit Herzmann, Greta Minor, Makenzie Adkins
The ability to recognize faces of family members, friends, and acquaintances plays an important role in our daily interactions. The other-race effect is the reduced ability to recognize other-race faces as compared to own-race faces. Previous studies showed different patterns of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with recollection and familiarity during memory encoding (i.e., Dm) and recognition (i.e., parietal old/new effect) for own-race and other-race faces in a subjective-recollection task (remember-know judgments)...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813146/the-matrix-verb-as-a-source-of-comprehension-difficulty-in-object-relative-sentences
#20
Adrian Staub, Brian Dillon, Charles Clifton
Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is entirely eliminated if additional material intervenes between the object gap and the matrix verb. An explanation in terms of spillover processing is ruled out, suggesting that it is the gap-matrix verb sequence that is itself responsible for the difficulty...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Science
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