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"Memory retrieval"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042188/network-based-brain-stimulation-selectively-impairs-spatial-retrieval
#1
Kamin Kim, Amber Schedlbauer, Matthew Rollo, Suganya Karunakaran, Arne D Ekstrom, Nitin Tandon
BACKGROUND: Direct brain stimulation via electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) permits the modulation of endogenous electrical signals with significantly greater spatial and temporal specificity than non-invasive approaches. It also allows for the stimulation of deep brain structures important to memory, such as the hippocampus, that are difficult, if not impossible, to target non-invasively. Direct stimulation studies of these deep memory structures, though, have produced mixed results, with some reporting improvement, some impairment, and others, no consistent changes...
October 5, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040763/oxytocin-effects-on-self-referential-processing-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#2
Yi Liu, Bing Wu, Xuena Wang, Wenxin Li, Ting Zhang, Xinhuai Wu, Shihui Han
Oxytocin (OT) influences other-oriented mental processes (e.g., trust and empathy) and the underlying neural substrates. However, whether and how OT modulates self-oriented processes and the underlying brain activity remains unclear. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we manipulated memory encoding and retrieval of trait adjectives related to the self, a friend and a celebrity in a self-referential task in male adults. Experiment 1 (N = 51) found that OT vs. placebo treatments reduced response times during encoding self-related trait adjectives but increased recognition scores of self-related information during memory retrieval...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038006/role-of-ca1-gabaa-and-gabab-receptors-on-learning-deficit-induced-by-d-ap5-in-passive-avoidance-step-through-task
#3
Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Masoumeh Rostampour, Mehdi Jamshidi-Mehr, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
To investigate the interaction between hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid GABAA receptor (GABAAR) or GABAB receptor (GABABR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the acquisition of passive avoidance memory in rats, we used GABAA or GABAB agents, D-AP5 (as a NMDAR antagonist), and a combination of the mentioned drugs in a step-through task. All agents were microinjected into the intra-CA1 regions at a volume of 1 µl/rat, prior to training. GABAAR agonist muscimol (0.2 µg/rat), selective GABABR agonist baclofen (0...
October 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033805/musical-expertise-increases-top-down-modulation-over-hippocampal-activation-during-familiarity-decisions
#4
Pierre Gagnepain, Baptiste Fauvel, Béatrice Desgranges, Malo Gaubert, Fausto Viader, Francis Eustache, Mathilde Groussard, Hervé Platel
The hippocampus has classically been associated with episodic memory, but is sometimes also recruited during semantic memory tasks, especially for the skilled exploration of familiar information. Cognitive control mechanisms guiding semantic memory search may benefit from the set of cognitive processes at stake during musical training. Here, we examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whether musical expertise would promote the top-down control of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) over the generation of hippocampally based goal-directed thoughts mediating the familiarity judgment of proverbs and musical items...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032058/cross-state-dependency-of-learning-between-arachidonylcyclopropylamide-acpa-and-muscimol-in-the-mouse-dorsal-hippocampus
#5
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Amir-Mohammad Karimi
The aim of the present study was to examine cross state-dependent learning between ACPA (a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) and muscimol (a selective GABAA receptor agonist) in the step-down inhibitory avoidance learning task. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated, and all drugs were microinjected into the intended sites of injection. Post-training and/or pre-test administration of ACPA (1 and 2ng/mouse) dose-dependently induced amnesia. Pre-test microinjection of the same doses of ACPA reversed the post-training ACPA-induced amnesia...
October 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031808/specific-disruption-of-contextual-memory-recall-by-sparse-additional-activity-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#6
Hye-Yeon Cho, Mujun Kim, Jin-Hee Han
The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is essential for contextual and spatial memory processing. While lesion or silencing of the DG impairs contextual memory encoding and recall, overly activated DG also prevents proper memory retrieval. Abnormally elevated activity in the DG is repeatedly reported in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients or aged adults. Although the correlation between memory failure and abnormally active hippocampus is clear, their causal relationship or the underlying nature of such interfering activity is not well understood...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987923/cognitive-costs-of-decision-making-strategies-a-resource-demand-decomposition-analysis-with-a-cognitive-architecture
#7
Hanna B Fechner, Lael J Schooler, Thorsten Pachur
Several theories of cognition distinguish between strategies that differ in the mental effort that their use requires. But how can the effort-or cognitive costs-associated with a strategy be conceptualized and measured? We propose an approach that decomposes the effort a strategy requires into the time costs associated with the demands for using specific cognitive resources. We refer to this approach as resource demand decomposition analysis (RDDA) and instantiate it in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R)...
October 4, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986084/on-the-functional-significance-of-retrieval-mode-task-switching-disrupts-the-recollection-of-conceptual-stimulus-information-from-episodic-memory
#8
Kristina Küper
Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to be associated with the tonic cognitive state of retrieval mode. Despite extensive research into the neurophysiological correlates of retrieval mode, as of yet, relatively little is known about its functional significance. The present event-related potential (ERP) study was aimed at examining the impact of retrieval mode on the specificity of memory content retrieved in the course of familiarity and recollection processes. In two experiments, participants performed a recognition memory inclusion task in which they had to distinguish identically repeated and re-colored versions of study items from new items...
October 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984578/process-specific-analysis-in-episodic-memory-retrieval-using-fast-optical-signals-and-hemodynamic-signals-in-the-right-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Dong Sunghee, Jichai Jeong
Memory is formed by the interaction of various brain functions at the item and task level. Revealing individual and combined effects of item- and task-related processes on retrieving episodic memory is an unsolved problem because of limitations in existing neuroimaging techniques. To investigate these issues, we analyze fast and slow optical signals measured from a custom-built continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-fNIRS) system. In our work, we visually encode the words to the subjects and let them recall the words after a short rest...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984525/brain-networks-related-to-beta-oscillatory-activity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval
#10
Erika Nyhus
Evidence from fMRI has consistently located a widespread network of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe regions during episodic retrieval. However, the temporal limitations of the fMRI methodology have made it difficult to assess the transient network dynamics by which these distributed regions coordinate activity. Recent evidence suggests that beta oscillations (17-20 Hz) are important for top-down control for memory suppression. However, the spatial limitations of the EEG methodology make it difficult to assess the relationship between these oscillatory signals and the distributed networks identified with fMRI...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975576/covert-shifts-of-attention-can-account-for-the-functional-role-of-eye-movements-to-nothing
#11
Agnes Scholz, Anja Klichowicz, Josef F Krems
When trying to remember verbal information from memory, people look at spatial locations that have been associated with visual stimuli during encoding, even when the visual stimuli are no longer present. It has been shown that such "eye movements to nothing" can influence retrieval performance for verbal information, but the mechanism underlying this functional relationship is unclear. More precisely, covert in comparison to overt shifts of attention could be sufficient to elicit the observed differences in retrieval performance...
October 3, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968648/cortical-and-subcortical-contributions-to-long-term-memory-guided-visuospatial-attention
#12
Maya L Rosen, Chantal E Stern, Kathryn J Devaney, David C Somers
Long-term memory (LTM) helps to efficiently direct and deploy the scarce resources of the attentional system; however, the neural substrates that support LTM-guidance of visual attention are not well understood. Here, we present results from fMRI experiments that demonstrate that cortical and subcortical regions of a network defined by resting-state functional connectivity are selectively recruited for LTM-guided attention, relative to a similarly demanding stimulus-guided attention paradigm that lacks memory retrieval and relative to a memory retrieval paradigm that lacks covert deployment of attention...
July 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961775/brain-responses-at-encoding-predict-limited-verbal-memory-retrieval-by-persons-with-schizophrenia
#13
Julia M Longenecker, Noah C Venables, Seung Suk Kang, Kathryn A McGuire, Scott R Sponheim
Objective: Special attention has been given to verbal memory deficits in schizophrenia because they are apparent in healthy biological relatives of affected individuals, indicating a link to genetic risk for the disorder. Despite a growing consensus that encoding abnormalities contribute to poor verbal memory in the disorder, few studies have directly examined how neural responses during encoding contribute to later memory performance. Method: We evaluated event-related potentials (ERPs) during encoding of verbal material by patients with schizophrenia, healthy first-degree biological relatives of patients, and healthy controls...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958045/age-by-emotion-interactions-in-memory-retrieval-processes-an-event-related-potential-study
#14
Jaclyn H Ford, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Objectives: Although research has identified age-by-emotion interactions in memory performance and in neural recruitment during retrieval, it remains unclear which retrieval processes are affected. The temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) provides a way to examine different component processes that operate during retrieval. Methods: In the present study, younger and older adults encoded neutral and emotional images paired with neutral titles. ERPs were assessed during a recognition memory task in which participants viewed neutral titles and indicated whether each had been presented during encoding...
August 30, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954841/consumption-of-iron-biofortified-beans-positively-affects-cognitive-performance-in-18-to-27-year-old-rwandan-female-college-students-in-an-18-week-randomized-controlled-efficacy-trial
#15
Laura E Murray-Kolb, Michael J Wenger, Samuel P Scott, Stephanie E Rhoten, Mercy G Lung'aho, Jere D Haas
Background: Evidence shows that iron deficiency in adulthood may affect cognitive performance, possibly by disrupting neurotransmitter regulation or brain energy metabolism. Women of reproductive age (WRA) are among those who are most vulnerable to iron deficiency; however, they have been largely ignored in the literature relating iron status to cognition.Objective: Our aim was to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans in improving cognition in WRA compared with control beans.Methods: A double-blind, randomized intervention study was conducted in 150 women aged 18-27 y with low iron status (ferritin <20 μg/L)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951163/dynamic-changes-in-large-scale-functional-network-organization-during-autobiographical-memory-retrieval
#16
Cory S Inman, G Andrew James, Katherine Vytal, Stephan Hamann
Autobiographical memory (AM), episodic memory for life events, involves the orchestration of multiple dynamic cognitive processes, including memory access and subsequent elaboration. Previous neuroimaging studies have contrasted memory access and elaboration processes in terms of regional brain activation and connectivity within large, multi-region networks. Although interactions between key memory-related regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to play an important role in AM retrieval, it remains unclear how such connectivity between specific, individual regions involved in AM retrieval changes dynamically across the retrieval process and how these changes relate to broader memory networks throughout the whole brain...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943858/effects-of-sleep-on-word-pair-memory-in-children-separating-item-and-source-memory-aspects
#17
Jing-Yi Wang, Frederik D Weber, Katharina Zinke, Hannes Noack, Jan Born
Word paired-associate learning is a well-established task to demonstrate sleep-dependent memory consolidation in adults as well as children. Sleep has also been proposed to benefit episodic features of memory, i.e., a memory for an event (item) bound into the spatiotemporal context it has been experienced in (source). We aimed to explore if sleep enhances word pair memory in children by strengthening the episodic features of the memory, in particular. Sixty-one children (8-12 years) studied two lists of word pairs with 1 h in between...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940045/a-neuronal-retuning-hypothesis-of-sentence-specificity-in-broca-s-area
#18
REVIEW
William G Matchin
It is clear that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) contributes in some fashion to sentence processing. While neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence support a domain-general working memory function, recent neuroimaging data show that particular subregions of the LIFG, particularly the pars triangularis (pTri), show selective activation for sentences relative to verbal working memory and cognitive control tasks. These data suggest a language-specific function rather than a domain-general one. To resolve this apparent conflict, I propose separating claims of domain-generality and specificity independently for computations and representations-a given brain region may respond to a specific representation while performing a general computation over that representation, one shared with other systems...
September 22, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936483/looking-forwards-and-backwards-the-real-time-processing-of-strong-and-weak-crossover
#19
Dave Kush, Jeffrey Lidz, Colin Phillips
We investigated the processing of pronouns in Strong and Weak Crossover constructions as a means of probing the extent to which the incremental parser can use syntactic information to guide antecedent retrieval. In Experiment 1 we show that the parser accesses a displaced wh-phrase as an antecedent for a pronoun when no grammatical constraints prohibit binding, but the parser ignores the same wh-phrase when it stands in a Strong Crossover relation to the pronoun. These results are consistent with two possibilities...
2017: Glossa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935268/repeated-cortisol-administration-does-not-reduce-intrusive-memories-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-experimental-study
#20
Alexandra Heike Graebener, Tanja Michael, Elena Holz, Johanna Lass-Hennemann
PTSD is a severe mental disorder, which may develop after exposure to traumatic events and is characterized by intrusive memories. Intrusions are sudden brief sensory memories of the traumatic event, that cause immense distress and impairment in every day functioning. Thus, the reduction of intrusive memories is one of the main aims of PTSD therapy. Recently, the glucocorticoid cortisol has been proposed as a pharmacological option to reduce intrusive memories, because cortisol is known to have memory retrieval inhibiting effects...
September 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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