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"Memory retrieval"

Izabela Bialuk, Andrzej Taranta, Maria Małgorzata Winnicka
Significance of interleukin 6 (IL-6) deficiency in cognitive processes was evaluated in 4- and 24-month-old C57BL/6J IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO) and control (WT) mice in Morris water maze (MWM), holeboard test (HB) and elevated plus maze (EPM). During 3-day learning escape latency time (ELT) was longer in IL-6 KO than in WT mice, however their swimming was slower, floating longer, and path length did not differ. The comparison of ELT and the distance traveled between the first and the third learning day within each group revealed significant decrease of ELT in all groups with the highest difference in 4-month-old WT mice, and significant decrease of distance travelled only in both groups of WT mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Gabrielle A Pollack, Jessica L Bezek, Serena H Lee, Miranda J Scarlata, Leah T Weingast, Hadley C Bergstrom
Fear memory is a highly stable and durable form of memory, even over vast (remote) time frames. Nevertheless, some elements of fear memory can be forgotten, resulting in generalization. The purpose of this study is to determine how cued fear memory generalizes over time and measure underlying patterns of cortico-amygdala synaptic plasticity. We established generalization gradients at recent (1-d) and remote (30-d) retention intervals following auditory cued fear conditioning in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Results revealed a flattening of the generalization gradient (increased generalization) that was dissociated from contextual fear generalization, indicating a specific influence of time on cued fear memory performance...
July 2018: Learning & Memory
Michal M Milczarek, Seralynne D Vann, Frank Sengpiel
Memory relies on lasting adaptations of neuronal properties elicited by stimulus-driven plastic changes [1]. The strengthening (and weakening) of synapses results in the establishment of functional ensembles. It is presumed that such ensembles (or engrams) are activated during memory acquisition and re-activated upon memory retrieval. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has emerged as a key brain area supporting memory [2], including episodic and topographical memory in humans [3-5], as well as spatial memory in rodents [6, 7]...
May 30, 2018: Current Biology: CB
R K Das, K Walsh, J Hannaford, A I Lazzarino, S K Kamboj
Weakening drinking-related reward memories by blocking their reconsolidation is a potential novel strategy for treating alcohol use disorders. However, few viable pharmacological options exist for reconsolidation interference in humans. We therefore examined whether the NMDA receptor antagonising gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2 O) could reduce drinking by preventing the post-retrieval restabilisation of alcohol memories in a group of hazardous drinkers. Critically, we focussed on whether prediction error (PE; a key determinant of reconsolidation) was experienced at retrieval...
June 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Magdalena Pereyra, Cynthia Katche, Ana Belén de Landeta, Jorge H Medina
Understanding how stored information emerges is a main question in the neurobiology of memory that is now increasingly gaining attention. However, molecular events underlying this memory stage, including involvement of protein synthesis, are not well defined. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a central regulator of protein synthesis, has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and is required for memory formation. Using inhibitory avoidance (IA), we evaluated the role of mTORC1 in memory retrieval...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manoj K Doss, Jessica Weafer, David A Gallo, Harriet de Wit
BACKGROUND: It is well established that the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs episodic memory encoding and modulates emotional processing, but little is known about the impact of THC during the retrieval of emotional episodic memories. With the rise of cannabis to treat medical conditions, including those characterized by emotional and episodic memory disturbances, there is an urgent need to determine the effects of THC on memory accuracy and distortion...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Kathrin J Emmerdinger, Christof Kuhbandner
Numerous studies have shown that retrieving contents from memory in a test improves long-term retention for those contents, even when compared to restudying (i.e., the "testing effect"). The beneficial effect of retrieval practice has been demonstrated for many different types of memory representations; however, one particularly important memory system has not been addressed in previous testing effect research: autobiographical memory. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of retrieving memories for personally experienced events on long-term memory for those events...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Schizotypy offers a useful, multidimensional framework for understanding the development and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. Nonclinically ascertained young adults who endorse positive and negative schizotypy traits exhibit similar, albeit milder, versions of the symptoms and impairment seen in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that negative, but not positive, schizotypy is associated with impairment in free-recall, recognition, and source memory. Furthermore, these deficits appear to result from context processing deficits in negative schizotypy...
June 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Jing Fang, Selver Demic, Sen Cheng
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an impairment of episodic memory, but the mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Animal models of MDD find impaired adult neurogenesis (AN) in the dentate gyrus (DG), and AN in DG has been suggested to play a critical role in reducing the interference between overlapping memories through pattern separation. Here, we study the effect of reduced AN in MDD on the accuracy of episodic memory using computational modeling. We focus on how memory is affected when periods with a normal rate of AN (asymptomatic states) alternate with periods with a low rate (depressive episodes), which has never been studied before...
2018: PloS One
Samrah Ahmed, Muireann Irish, Clare Loane, Ian Baker, Masud Husain, Sian Thompson, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Clare Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni, David Foxe, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Christopher Butler
Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive disruption of visual and perceptual processing, associated with atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. Current diagnostic criteria describe relative sparing of episodic memory function, but recent findings suggest that anterograde memory is often impaired. Whether these deficits extend to remote memory has not been addressed. A large body of evidence suggests that the recollection of an autobiographical event from the remote past coincides with the successful retrieval of visual images...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Signy Sheldon, Sonja Chu, Jonas P Nitschke, Jens C Pruessner, Jennifer A Bartz
Although acute psychosocial stress can impact autobiographical memory retrieval, the nature of this effect is not entirely clear. One reason for this ambiguity is because stress can have opposing effects on the different stages of autobiographical memory retrieval. We addressed this issue by testing how acute stress affects three stages of the autobiographical memory retrieval - accessing, recollecting and reconsolidating a memory. We also investigate the influence of emotion valence on this effect. In a between-subjects design, participants were first exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor or a control task...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wilma A Bainbridge, Jesse Rissman
While much of memory research takes an observer-centric focus looking at participant performance, recent work has pinpointed important item-centric effects on memory, or how intrinsically memorable a given stimulus is. However, little is known about the neural correlates of memorability during memory retrieval, or how such correlates relate to subjective memory behavior. Here, stimuli and blood-oxygen-level dependent data from a prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study were reanalyzed using a memorability-based framework...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci, Travis P Todd
Although the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is critically involved in spatial learning and memory, it appears to have more selective contributions to learning and memory for discrete cues. For example, damage to the RSC does not impair Pavlovian delay fear conditioning to a discrete auditory cue (e.g., tone), when RSC manipulation occurs just prior to, or shortly after, conditioning. In contrast, when lesions of the RSC occur following a substantial retention interval (e.g., 28 days), the RSC is necessary for retrieval of fear to the tone...
June 4, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Travis P Todd, Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci
Although the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is necessary for the retrieval of remotely acquired fear to a discrete auditory cue, it is not necessary for the retrieval of recently acquired cued-fear memories. Thus, the RSC's role in memory retrieval for discrete cues is time-dependent. The purpose of the current experiment was to identify the larger cortical circuit involved in the retrieval of remotely-acquired auditory fear memories. One candidate circuit involves the RSC and secondary auditory cortex; the secondary auditory cortex is also necessary for the retrieval of remotely acquired auditory fear memories (Sacco & Sacchetti, 2010), and sends direct projections to the RSC...
June 4, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Danielle S Dickson, Kara D Federmeier
Arabic numerals have come to be used for many purposes beyond representing a particular quantity (e.g., as a label for an athlete on their jersey), but it remains to be determined how this type of meaningfulness is accessed and utilized by readers. Motivated by previous work showing that item-level ratings of personal familiarity can influence traditional indices of memory retrieval, we recorded ERPs while participants read double-digit Arabic numerals (e.g., "65"), presented in a list, and rated whether or not each was familiar/personally meaningful...
May 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Celeste Leung, Feng Cao, Robin Nguyen, Krutika Joshi, Afif J Aqrabawi, Shuting Xia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead, Jun Chul Kim, Zhengping Jia
Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lobe have been implicated in social memory, but the underlying mechanisms that tune these neural circuits remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that optical activation of excitatory entorhinal cortical perforant projections to the dentate gyrus (EC-DG) is necessary and sufficient for social memory retrieval. We further show that inducible disruption of p21-activated kinase (PAK) signaling, a key pathway important for cytoskeletal reorganization, in the EC-DG circuit leads to impairments in synaptic function and social recognition memory, and, importantly, optogenetic activation of the EC-DG terminals reverses the social memory deficits in the transgenic mice...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
Marina A Gruden, Alexander M Ratmirov, Zinaida I Storozheva, Olga A Solovieva, Vladimir V Sherstnev, Robert D E Sewell
NR2B-containing NMDA (NR2B/NMDA) receptors are important in controlling neurogenesis and are involved in generating spatial memory. Ro25-6981 is a selective antagonist at these receptors and actuates neurogenesis and spatial memory. Inter-structural neuroanatomical profiles of gene expression regulating adult neurogenesis and neuroapoptosis require examination in the context of memory retrieval and reversal learning. The aim was to investigate spatial memory retrieval and reversal learning in relation to gene expression-linked neurogenetic processes following blockade of NR2B/NMDA receptors by Ro25-6981...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lisa-Marie Stock, Christian J Merz
Psychosocial stress is known to crucially influence learning and memory processes. Several studies have already shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol concentrations on memory retrieval. These studies mainly used learning material consisting of stimuli with a limited ecological validity. When using material with a social contextual component or with educational relevant material both impairing and enhancing stress effects on memory retrieval could be observed. In line with these latter studies, the present experiment also used material with a higher ecological validity (a coherent text consisting of daily relevant numeric, figural and verbal information)...
May 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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