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Unsolicited finding

Charys Kunkel, Wendy Kopp, Melissa Hanson
The use of simulation to provide end-of-life (EOL) education is a means to enhance self-efficacy levels among nursing students. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate self-efficacy levels of nursing students and recent graduate nurses following an EOL simulation experience. Data were obtained using the Simulation Effectiveness Tool developed by Medical Education Technologies, Inc.; 72 participants in three groups completed the study. Moderate to strong levels of confidence in providing EOL care were found following the simulation experience; observations by the researcher and unsolicited participant statements supported the findings...
September 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Roel H P Wouters, Rhodé M Bijlsma, Margreet G E M Ausems, Johannes J M van Delden, Emile E Voest, Annelien L Bredenoord
Ever since genetic testing is possible for specific mutations, ethical debate has sparked on the question of whether professionals have a duty to warn not only patients but also their relatives that might be at risk for hereditary diseases. As next generation sequencing swiftly finds its way into clinical practice, the question who is responsible for conveying unsolicited findings to family members becomes increasingly urgent. Traditionally, there is a strong emphasis on the duties of the professional in this debate...
September 20, 2016: Human Mutation
Alessandro Bessi, Fabiana Zollo, Michela Del Vicario, Michelangelo Puliga, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Brian Uzzi, Walter Quattrociocchi
Users online tend to select information that support and adhere their beliefs, and to form polarized groups sharing the same view-e.g. echo chambers. Algorithms for content promotion may favour this phenomenon, by accounting for users preferences and thus limiting the exposure to unsolicited contents. To shade light on this question, we perform a comparative study on how same contents (videos) are consumed on different online social media-i.e. Facebook and YouTube-over a sample of 12M of users. Our findings show that content drives the emergence of echo chambers on both platforms...
2016: PloS One
Jo River
There is a striking gender difference in suicide rates worldwide, with men accounting for approximately 80% of all suicide deaths. In contradictory public discussions, suicidal men are presented sometimes as victims of "poor" health services and sometimes as irremediable, "poor" help seekers. A more substantive theory of suicidal men's help seeking, which moves beyond homogenizing accounts to examine the complex interplay between help seeking and health services, is now required. Eighteen life history interviews were undertaken with men who had engaged in nonfatal suicide...
July 29, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Candice Cornelis, Aad Tibben, Wybo Dondorp, Mieke van Haelst, Annelien L Bredenoord, Nine Knoers, Marcus Düwell, Ineke Bolt, Marieke van Summeren
Parents' preferences for unsolicited findings (UFs) from diagnostic whole-exome sequencing (WES) for their children remain largely unexplored. Our aim was to gain insight into parental considerations favoring acceptance/decline of UFs pertaining to their child. We conducted 20 qualitative, semistructured interviews with parents (n=34) of children with a developmental delay, aged <1 to 17 years, after consenting to WES, but before feedback of results. Key findings from our study were that all parents favored acceptance of UFs for medically actionable conditions in childhood, but that preferences and considerations diverged for UFs with no medical actionability, or only in adulthood, and regarding carrier-status...
July 27, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Elizabeth X Kwan, Xiaobin S Wang, Haley M Amemiya, Bonita J Brewer, M K Raghuraman
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus is known to exhibit greater instability relative to the rest of the genome. However, wild-type cells preferentially maintain a stable number of rDNA copies, suggesting underlying genetic control of the size of this locus. We performed a screen of a subset of the Yeast Knock-Out (YKO) single gene deletion collection to identify genetic regulators of this locus and to determine if rDNA copy number correlates with yeast replicative lifespan. While we found no correlation between replicative lifespan and rDNA size, we identified 64 candidate strains with significant rDNA copy number differences...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Mosa Moshabela, Thembelihle Zuma, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Collins Iwuji, Joseph Larmarange, Nuala McGrath
The ANRS 12249 Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa uses a "test and treat" approach. Home-based testing services and antiretroviral treatment initiation satellite clinics were implemented in every cluster as part of the trial. A social science research agenda was nested within TasP with the aim of understanding the social, economic and contextual factors that affect individuals, households, communities and health systems with respect to TasP. Considering the rural nature of the trial setting, we sought to understand community perceptions and experiences of the TasP Trial interventions as seen through the eyes of traditional health practitioners (THPs)...
2016: AIDS Care
K Homayounfar, S König, C Rabe, B Beck-Broichsitter, U Lützen, M B Ghadimi, C Schmidt
Background: Cut-throat competition, cost pressure, generation Y, shortage of qualified staff and feminisation influence human resources management in visceral surgery. The assessment of the current situation by chief surgeons (CS) as well as proof of transferability of strategies from industry and service business (ISB) have not yet been investigated. Material and Methods: The CS of university hospitals and large referral centres (> 800 beds) were interviewed (n = 100) on the basis of a standardised questionnaire including 43 items...
June 23, 2016: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Saskia Tamminga, Merel van Maarle, Lidewij Henneman, Cees B M Oudejans, Martina C Cornel, Erik A Sistermans
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Rhodé M Bijlsma, Annelien L Bredenoord, Christa G Gadellaa-Hooijdonk, Martijn Pj Lolkema, Stefan Sleijfer, Emile E Voest, Margreet Gem Ausems, Neeltje Steeghs
Cancer patients participating in studies involving experimental or diagnostic next-generation sequencing (NGS) procedures are confronted with the possibility of unsolicited findings. The Center for Personalized Cancer Treatment (CPCT), a Dutch consortium of cancer centers, is offering centralized large-scale NGS for the discovery of somatic tumor mutations with their germline DNA as reference. The CPCT aims to give all cancer patients with advanced disease stages access to tumor DNA analysis in order to improve selection for experimental therapy...
October 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Lisi J Gordon, Charlotte E Rees, Jean S Ker, Jennifer Cleland
CONTEXT: As doctors in all specialties are expected to undertake leadership within health care organisations, leadership development has become an inherent part of medical education. Whereas the leadership literature within medical education remains mostly focused on individual, hierarchical leadership, contemporary theory posits leadership as a group process, which should be distributed across all levels of health care organisation. This gap between theory and practice indicates that there is a need to understand what leadership and followership mean to medical trainees working in today's interprofessional health care workplace...
December 2015: Medical Education
Phillip D Kronstein, Eiji Ishida, Ni A Khin, Eric Chang, H M James Hung, Robert J Temple, Peiling Yang
OBJECTIVE: Sexual dysfunction is a significant treatment-emergent adverse reaction to the serotonergic antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]). However, the rate of sexual dysfunction is often underestimated in registration trials, which have relied on unsolicited reports. We conducted a literature search to examine the rates of sexual dysfunction with SSRIs/SNRIs when these rates were ascertained by structured questionnaires or standardized instruments...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Emily M Cody, Andrew J Reagan, Lewis Mitchell, Peter Sheridan Dodds, Christopher M Danforth
The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news...
2015: PloS One
Edith Van Dyck, Bart Moens, Jeska Buhmann, Michiel Demey, Esther Coorevits, Simone Dalla Bella, Marc Leman
BACKGROUND: Since accumulating evidence suggests that step rate is strongly associated with running-related injuries, it is important for runners to exercise at an appropriate running cadence. As music tempo has been shown to be capable of impacting exercise performance of repetitive endurance activities, it might also serve as a means to (re)shape running cadence. The aim of this study was to validate the impact of music tempo on running cadence. METHODS: Sixteen recreational runners ran four laps of 200 m (i...
2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Anna Middleton, Katherine I Morley, Eugene Bragin, Helen V Firth, Matthew E Hurles, Caroline F Wright, Michael Parker
Genome-wide sequencing in a research setting has the potential to reveal health-related information of personal or clinical utility for the study participant. There is increasing pressure to return research findings to participants that may not be related to the project aims, particularly when these could be used to prevent disease. Such secondary, unsolicited or 'incidental findings' (IFs) may be discovered unintentionally when interpreting sequence data, or as the result of a deliberate opportunistic screen...
January 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Patricia Izurieta, Woo Joo Kim, Seong-Heon Wie, Jacob Lee, Jin-Soo Lee, Mamadou Dramé, David W Vaughn, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccines have been assessed in an extensive clinical development program conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia including children from 6 months of age, adults, and elderly adults. We evaluated AS03-H5N1 in Korean adults 18 through 60 years of age. METHODS: This Phase IV, randomized, study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of two doses (3.75μg of hemagglutinin antigen) of A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1) adjuvanted with AS03 given 21 days apart in Korean adults...
June 4, 2015: Vaccine
Michael J Hall, Karen J Ruth, David Yt Chen, Laura M Gross, Veda N Giri
BACKGROUND: Advancements in genomic testing have led to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer. The clinical utility of SNP tests to evaluate prostate cancer risk is unclear. Studies have not examined predictors of interest in novel genomic SNP tests for prostate cancer risk in a diverse population. METHODS: Consecutive participants in the Fox Chase Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) (n = 40) and unselected men from surgical urology clinics (n = 40) completed a one-time survey...
2015: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Mary R O'Brien, David Clark
OBJECTIVE: The notion of spirituality/religious belief is recognized internationally as a domain within end-of-life care and is important in patients' and carers' quality-of-life. When faced with incurable illness, patients often become more philosophical about their life; many seek comfort in spiritual or religious philosophies. Our intention was to understand how personal spirituality and religious faith might help those living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) cope with their impending death...
December 2015: Palliative & Supportive Care
Nicholas Genes, Jacob Appel
When physicians search the web for personal information about their patients, others have argued that this undermines patients' trust, and the physician-patient relationship in general. We add that this practice also places other relationships at risk, and could jeopardize a physician's career. Yet there are also reports of web searches that have unambiguously helped in the care of patients, suggesting circumstances in which a routine search of the web could be beneficial. We advance the notion that, just as nonverbal cues and unsolicited information can be useful in clinical decision making, so too can online information from patients...
2015: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Sue Lasiter, Susan M McLennon
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to offer qualitative support for the assertion that nurses possess professional capital. BACKGROUND: Nurses embrace professional standards and tenets that have been measured as trust and ethics. By understanding forms of capital and combining quantitative public-opinion surveys and our qualitative findings, a case can be made that nurses possess professional capital. METHOD: This was a focused review of existing interview data and was conducted using inductive content analysis...
February 2015: Journal of Nursing Administration
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