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cardiovascular disease black

Carmela Alcántara, Luciana Andrea Giorgio Cosenzo, Weijia Fan, David Matthew Doyle, Jonathan A Shaffer
Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (<7h of sleep/night), and whether anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ruan Kruger, Moliehi Mothae, Wayne Smith
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking weakens the antioxidant defence system and is considered a lifestyle risk factor contributing to cardiovascular disease progression. Little information exists on these links in non-smoking versus smoking populations. We aimed to explore the associations of oxidative stress with markers of vascular function in a young, normotensive bi-ethnic population. DESIGN AND METHOD: We included 237 non-smokers (108 black and 129 white) and 145 smokers (78 black and 67 white) from South Africa between ages 20 and 30 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
William C Cushman
Beginning with the Veterans Administration (VA) Cooperative Hypertension Study of the 1960 s, blood pressure (BP) lowering with antihypertensive medications has been shown to reduce major cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure (HF) and CV and all-cause mortality in randomized controlled CV outcome trials. Multiple drugs were usually required in these trials to lower BP in treated participants. Medication regimens in the early trials, including the VA trial, included a thiazide-type diuretic (TTD) as initial therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Longjian Liu, Jessica Dow, Barbara Simon, Howard Eisen
OBJECTIVE: Multiple medication use in patients with hypertension (HTN) is a common clinical problem faced by both primary and specialists. Patients who remain to have higher BP in spite of the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes are defined as resistant hypertension (RH). In the study we aimed to identify the prevalence of RH, and examined its association with mortality from all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN AND METHOD: Data from the U...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Aletta Schutte
Less than 100 years ago reports from studies in Kenya indicated that the prevalence of hypertension was exceptionally low in tribal areas that have undergone no changes possibly for centuries. In recent decades, however, the transition of populations in many African countries from traditional lifestyles to urbanised environments seems to have contributed to the significant escalation of hypertension and cardiovascular events in black populations. This is confirmed by reports from the World Health Organization indicating that the prevalence of hypertension is globally the highest on the African continent...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Solomon Kadiri
Hypertension prevalence rates in most urbanized areas of Africa range from 20-30%, with a recent systematic review reporting 16.2% for sub-Saharan Africa. These rates are lower than those in the West but the age standardized rates are higher than in other regions of the world. The attendant morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high. For example, failure of nocturnal dipping and microalbuminuria, predictive of vascular disease, occur relatively early in the course of hypertension and predispose to early vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mahmoud Al Rifai, Jaideep Patel, Rupert K Hung, Khurram Nasir, Steven J Keteyian, Clinton A Brawner, Jonathan K Ehrman, Sherif Sakr, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against mortality; however, little is known about the benefits of improved fitness in individuals with a family history of coronary heart disease. We studied the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of incident coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality, hypothesizing an inverse relationship similar to individuals without a family history of coronary heart disease. METHODS: We included 57,999 patients (53±13 years; 49% females; 29% Black), from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Kerstin Gerst Emerson, Jennifer Gay
The goals of this study were 1) to test the relative contribution of light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) to Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk in older adults, and 2) to examine the influence of ethnicity. We used pooled data from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 waves of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 1,171 White, Black and Mexican American adults aged 65 and older. Using ordinary least squares regression, we showed no statistically significant relationship between lower CVD risk with light intensity activity...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Ilaria Peluso, Mauro Serafini
Consumption of Tea (Camellia Sinensis) has been correlated with low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in which oxidative stress is deeply involved. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of Green Tea (GT) and Black Tea (BT). Apart from the redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as lowering effects on glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA)...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ashley S Felix, Julie K Bower, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Subha V Raman, David E Cohn, Mark E Sherman
Obesity is a strong risk factor for developing endometrial cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD); consequently, understanding CVD mortality among endometrial cancer survivors is important. We analyzed Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) data for 157,496 endometrial cancer cases diagnosed between 1988 and 2012. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for CVD and all-cause mortality comparing endometrial cancer cases and general population women. We categorized women into one of three prognostic groups (excellent, intermediate, poor) based on tumor characteristics...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Mitch M Matoga, Mina C Hosseinipour, Evgenia Aga, Heather J Ribaudo, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, John Bartlett, Michael D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an emerging concern for HIV-infected patients. Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for CVD and a complication of protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy, but little is known about its incidence and risk factors in treated patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of ACTG A5230 trial in which HIV-infected adults from India, Malawi, Tanzania, Thailand and South Africa, with virologic relapse on first line therapy were initiated on lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Valery S Effoe, Jeffrey A Katula, Julienne K Kirk, Carolyn F Pedley, Linda Y Bollhalter, W Mark Brown, Margaret R Savoca, Stedman T Jones, Janet Baek, Alain G Bertoni
BACKGROUND: The use of the electronic medical record (EMR) system in recruitment in clinical trials has the potential for providing a very reliable and cost-effective recruiting methodology which may improve participant recruitment in clinical trials. We examined a recruitment approach centered on the use of the EMR, as well as other traditional methods, in the Lifestyle Intervention for Treatment of Diabetes (LIFT Diabetes) trial. METHODS: LIFT Diabetes is a randomized controlled trial designed to investigate the effects of two contrasting interventions on cardiovascular disease risk: a community-based intensive lifestyle program aimed at achieving weight loss and a clinic-based enhanced diabetes self-management program...
October 13, 2016: Trials
J M Beasley, A L Deierlein, K B Morland, E C Granieri, A Spark
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. SETTING: New York City community centers. PARTICIPANTS: 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Meghan K Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, Paul D Loprinzi
OBJECTIVE: The predictive validity of the Pooled Cohort risk (PCR) equations for residual-specific mortality (deaths not resulting from the 9 leading causes of death) among a national sample of U.S. adults has not previously been evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed up through December 31, 2011 to ascertain mortality status. The analyzed sample included 11,171 cardiovascular disease-free adults (40-79 years of age)...
October 4, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Isaac Sasson
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy at birth in the United States will likely surpass 80 years in the coming decade. Yet recent studies suggest that longevity gains are unevenly shared across age and socioeconomic groups. First, mortality in midlife has risen among non-Hispanic whites. Second, low-educated whites have suffered stalls (men) or declines (women) in adult life expectancy, which is significantly lower than among their college-educated counterparts. Estimating the number of life years lost or gained by age and cause of death, broken down by educational attainment, is crucial in identifying vulnerable populations...
2016: PloS One
Dante Cicchetti, Susan Hetzel, Fred A Rogosch, Elizabeth D Handley, Sheree L Toth
In the present investigation, differential methylation analyses of the whole genome were conducted among a sample of 548 school-aged low-income children (47.8% female, 67.7% Black, M age = 9.40 years), 54.4% of whom had a history of child maltreatment. In the context of a summer research camp, DNA samples via saliva were obtained. Using GenomeStudio, Methylation Module, and the Illumina Custom Model, differential methylation analyses revealed a pattern of greater methylation at low methylation sites (n = 197 sites) and medium methylation sites (n = 730 sites) and less methylation at high methylation sites (n = 907 sites) among maltreated children...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Christine Susara du Plooy, Catharina Martha Cornelia Mels, Hugo Willem Huisman, Ruan Kruger
Both endothelin-1 and oxidative stress have important roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on the interaction between oxidative stress, the glutathione system and endothelin-1 in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of endothelin-1 with markers of oxidative stress and the antioxidant capacity in a biethnic South African cohort. This cross-sectional study included 195 black and 198 white South Africans. Serum endothelin-1 levels and oxidative stress-related markers such as reactive oxygen species (measured as serum peroxides), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured...
September 29, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Shalini Vaid, Lynae Hanks, Russell Griffin, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have an extremely high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is well known that dyslipidemia is a subclinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze presence and predicting factors of lipoprotein abnormalities prevalent in children with T1DM and whether race-specific differences exist between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) in the lipoprotein characteristics...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Raymond R Townsend, Tara I Chang, Debbie L Cohen, William C Cushman, Gregory W Evans, Stephen P Glasser, William E Haley, Christine Olney, Suzanne Oparil, Rita Del Pinto, Roberto Pisoni, Addison A Taylor, Kausik Umanath, Jackson T Wright, Joseph Yeboah
Orthostatic changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) impact cardiovascular outcomes. In this study, we aimed to determine the pattern of orthostatic systolic pressure changes in participants enrolled in the SBP Intervention Trial (SPRINT) at their baseline visit before randomization and sought to understand clinical factors predictive of these changes. Of the 9323 participants enrolled in SPRINT, 8662 had complete data for these analyses. The SBP after 1 minute of standing was subtracted from the mean value of the three preceding seated SBP values...
August 26, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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