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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781946/co-occurrence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-cardiovascular-disease-among-ethnic-racial-groups-in-the-united-states
#1
Carmen Vidal, Ruth Polo, Kiara Alvarez, Irene Falgas-Bague, Ye Wang, Benjamin Lê Cook, Margarita Alegría
OBJECTIVE: Trauma and/or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the exact mechanism has not been determined. We examine if the risk of CVD is different among those who have a history of trauma without PTSD symptoms, those who have experienced trauma and developed any symptoms of PTSD, and those with a PTSD diagnosis. Furthermore, we examine whether this association varies across ethnic/racial groups. METHODS: We used two datasets that form part of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) - the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)...
May 17, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776780/racial-disparities-in-cardiovascular-health-behaviors-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study
#2
Kara M Whitaker, David R Jacobs, Kiarri N Kershaw, Ryan T Demmer, John N Booth, April P Carson, Cora E Lewis, David C Goff, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Catarina I Kiefe
INTRODUCTION: There are known racial differences in cardiovascular health behaviors, including smoking, physical activity, and diet quality. A better understanding of these differences may help identify intervention targets for reducing cardiovascular disease disparities. This study examined whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, and neighborhood environmental factors, in isolation or together, mediate racial differences in health behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 3,081 men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study who were enrolled in 1985-1986 (Year 0) and completed a follow-up examination in 2015-2016 (Year 30)...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761548/variation-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-with-body-mass-index-in-healthy-adults-of-black-african-descent
#3
Adesola Abiodun Asaleye, Kolawole Thomas Braimoh, Olalekan Ibukun Oyinloye, Christianah Mopelola Asaleye, Adeleye Dorcas Omisore
OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) measured by B-mode sonography increases with body mass index (BMI) among subjects with cardiovascular diseases in different populations. However, association of body fat and subclinical atherosclerosis in the absence of these cardiovascular diseases is understudied. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between BMI and CIMT in a healthy adult population of black African ancestry. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional prospective study in 300 consecutive apparently healthy subjects aged 18 to 70 years without history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761283/cardiovascular-disease-in-the-nation-s-capital-how-policy-and-the-built-environment-contribute-to-disparities-in-cvd-risk-factors-in-washington-d-c
#4
REVIEW
Phillip Mauller, Lauren A Doamekpor, Crystal Reed, Kweisi Mfume
On average, Washington D.C. residents experience low levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) behavioral risk factors compared to the rest of the country. Despite presenting as a city of low risk, CVD mortality is higher than the national average. Driving this inconsistency are vast racial disparities as Black D.C. residents die from CVD at a much higher rate than their White counterparts. A closer examination of the data also reveals significant disparities between White and Black populations with regard to behavioral risk factors...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753799/predictors-of-erectile-function-normalization-in-men-with-erectile-dysfunction-treated-with-placebo
#5
John P Mulhall, Martin Carlsson, Vera Stecher, Li-Jung Tseng
BACKGROUND: Clinical study and practice data have shown sildenafil improves sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). However, some men treated with placebo in double-blind, placebo-controlled sildenafil studies also report improved erectile function as measured by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Erectile Function Domain (EFD) scores. AIM: This analysis estimated the relationship between post-baseline IIEF-EFD scores and demographic variables, including co-morbidities, in men with ED receiving placebo in flexible-dose sildenafil studies...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738558/inflammatory-signatures-distinguish-metabolic-health-in-african-american-women-with-obesity
#6
Gerald V Denis, Paola Sebastiani, Kimberly A Bertrand, Katherine J Strissel, Anna H Tran, Jaromir Slama, Nilton D Medina, Guillaume Andrieu, Julie R Palmer
Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735525/orthostatic-hypotension-and-risk-of-clinical-and-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-in-middle-aged-adults
#7
Stephen P Juraschek, Natalie Daya, Lawrence J Appel, Edgar R Miller, John William McEvoy, Kunihiro Matsushita, Christie M Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin
BACKGROUND: Although orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a well-recognized manifestation of neuropathy and hypovolemia, its contribution to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants with OH, defined as a decrease in blood pressure (systolic ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic ≥10 mm Hg) from the supine to standing position, were identified during the first visit of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-1989) within 2 minutes of standing...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735485/longitudinal-associations-of-smoke-free-policies-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-cardia-study
#8
Stephanie L Mayne, Rachel Widome, Allison J Carroll, Pamela J Schreiner, Penny Gordon-Larsen, David R Jacobs, Kiarri N Kershaw
Background -Smoke-free legislation has been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease hospital admissions in ecological studies. However, prior studies lacked detailed information on individual-level factors (eg, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics) that could potentially confound associations. Our objective was to estimate associations of smoke-free policies with incident cardiovascular disease in a longitudinal cohort after controlling for sociodemographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and policy covariates...
May 7, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733939/ethnic-differences-and-comorbidities-of-909-prurigo-nodularis-patients
#9
Emily Boozalis, Olive Tang, Shivani Patel, Yevgeniy R Semenov, Manuel P Pereira, Sonja Stander, Sewon Kang, Shawn G Kwatra
BACKGROUND: Prurigo Nodularis (PN) is a poorly understood, understudied pruritic dermatosis that reduces quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and comorbidities associated with PN. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients ≥ 18 years old seen at the Johns Hopkins Health System (JHHS) between 12/6/2012-12/6/2017. RESULTS: Over the last five years, 909 patients with PN were seen at JHHS. African-American patients were 3...
May 4, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730535/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-mortality-in-an-elderly-cohort-in-hong-kong
#10
Yang Yang, Robert Tang, Hong Qiu, Poh-Chin Lai, Paulina Wong, Thuan-Quoc Thach, Ryan Allen, Michael Brauer, Linwei Tian, Benjamin Barratt
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported associations between long term exposure to air pollutants and cause-specific mortality. However, since the concentrations of air pollutants in Asia are much higher compared to those reported in North American and European cohort studies, cohort studies on long term effects of air pollutants in Asia are needed for disease burden assessment and to inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2...
May 3, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729518/short-term-effects-of-physical-activity-air-pollution-and-their-interaction-on-the-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-system
#11
Michelle Laeremans, Evi Dons, Ione Avila-Palencia, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Esther Anaya, Tom Cole-Hunter, Audrey de Nazelle, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Arnout Standaert, Martine Van Poppel, Patrick De Boever, Luc Int Panis
Physical activity (PA) in urban environments may lead to increased inhalation of air pollutants. As PA and air pollution (AP) have respectively beneficial and detrimental effects on the cardiorespiratory system, the responses to these exposures can interact. Therefore, we assessed the short-term effects of PA, AP and their interaction on a set of subclinical cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes in a panel of healthy adults: heart rate variability (HRV), retinal vessel diameters, lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
May 2, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728915/results-meta-analysis-and-a-first-evaluation-of-u-nox-r-the-urinary-nitrate-to-nitrite-molar-ratio-as-a-measure-of-nitrite-reabsorption-in-experimental-and-clinical-settings
#12
Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Alexander Bollenbach, Ruan Kruger, Vu Vi Pham, Kristine Chobanyan-Jürgens, Dirk Wedekind, Tanja Arndt, Anne Jörns, Jimmy F P Berbée, Hans M G Princen, Thomas Lücke, François Mariotti, Jean-François Huneau, Stefan Ückert, Jürgen C Frölich, Sigurd Lenzen
We recently found that renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) is involved in the reabsorption of inorganic nitrite (NO2 - ), an abundant reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) in tissues and cells. Impaired NO synthesis in the endothelium and decreased NO bioavailability in the circulation are considered major contributors to the development and progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases in different conditions including diabetes. Isolated human and bovine erythrocytic CAII and CAIV can convert nitrite to nitrous acid (HONO) and its anhydride N2 O3 which, in the presence of thiols (RSH), are further converted to S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) and NO...
May 4, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728015/race-ethnic-and-sex-differences-in-the-association-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-healthy-lifestyle-behaviors
#13
Alanna A Morris, Yi-An Ko, Sarah H Hutcheson, Arshed Quyyumi
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle behaviors influence atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. We examined race and sex differences in the association of ASCVD risk with obesity and lifestyle behaviors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of race/ethnicity and sex with obesity and lifestyle behaviors among 12 351 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys cycles 2005 to 2014. Ten-year ASCVD risk was estimated using the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720501/bilirubin-is-inversely-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-individuals-in-vacs-veterans-aging-cohort-study
#14
Vincent C Marconi, Meredith S Duncan, Kaku So-Armah, Vincent Lo Re, Joseph K Lim, Adeel A Butt, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Charles W Alcorn, Jeffrey Lennox, Joshua A Beckman, Amy Justice, Matthew Freiberg
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. Whether elevated bilirubin reduces the risk of CVD events among HIV+ individuals and if this differs from uninfected individuals remain unclear. We assessed whether bilirubin independently predicted the risk of CVD events among HIV+ and uninfected participants in VACS (Veterans Aging Cohort Study). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using VACS participants free of baseline CVD...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712737/fgf23-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-and-incident-hypertension-in-young-and-middle-aged-adults-the-cardia-study-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults
#15
Ehimare Akhabue, Samantha Montag, Jared P Reis, Lindsay R Pool, Rupal Mehta, Clyde W Yancy, Lihui Zhao, Myles Wolf, Orlando M Gutierrez, Mercedes R Carnethon, Tamara Isakova
Blacks have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the United States. Higher levels of FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor-23) have been associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Whether FGF23 is associated with rising blood pressure (BP) and racial differences in incident hypertension is unclear. We studied 1758 adults (45.0±3.7 years; 57.8% female; 36.9% black) without hypertension or cardiovascular disease who participated in the year 20 (2005-2006) follow-up examination of the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)...
April 30, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687016/dietary-patterns-and-physical-activity-correlate-with-total-cholesterol-independently-of-lipid-lowering-drugs-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-aging-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#16
Alex Marzel, Roger D Kouyos, Sara Reinschmidt, Katharina Balzer, Fabienne Garon, Monica Spitaleri, Nicolas Matthes, Paolo Suter, Rainer Weber, Cornelia Staehelin, Thanh Doco Lecompte, Philip Tarr, Helen Kovari
Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a well established risk factor for coronary heart disease and is highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can both directly modify total cholesterol and have drug-drug interactions with statins. This makes investigating modifiable behavioral predictors of total cholesterol a pertinent task. Methods: To explore the association between diet and physical activity with cross-sectionally measured total cholesterol, we administered a validated Food-Frequency-Questionnaire to participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study ≥45 years old...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685862/usage-of-a-digital-health-workplace-intervention-based-on-socioeconomic-environment-and-race-retrospective-secondary-cross-sectional-study
#17
Conor Senecal, R Jay Widmer, Kent Bailey, Lilach O Lerman, Amir Lerman
BACKGROUND: Digital health tools have been associated with improvement of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and outcomes; however, the differential use of these technologies among various ethnic and economic classes is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of socioeconomic environment on usage of a digital health intervention. METHODS: A retrospective secondary cross-sectional analysis of a workplace digital health tool use, in association with a change in intermediate markers of CVD, was undertaken over the course of one year in 26,188 participants in a work health program across 81 organizations in 42 American states between 2011 and 2014...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669697/the-prevalence-of-sarcopaenia-in-a-vascular-surgical-patient-cohort-and-its-impact-on-outcome
#18
Rachel Heard, Douglas Black, George Ramsay, Neil Scott, Diane Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: Sarcopaenia, loss of lean muscle mass and quality, has prognostic significance and can be used to guide the management of oncology patients.1 However, there is limited research into the prevalence and effect of sarcopaenia in vascular populations. We aim to investigate the prevalence of this measure of physiological reserve in a vascular patient group. METHODS: All patients admitted to a tertiary vascular unit in a single year were considered for the study...
April 16, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666066/association-of-peripheral-artery-disease-with-incident-atrial-fibrillation-the-aric-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#19
Wobo Bekwelem, Faye L Norby, Sunil K Agarwal, Kunihiro Matsushita, Josef Coresh, Alvaro Alonso, Lin Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Although peripheral artery disease as defined by ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with incident atrial fibrillation (AF), questions remain about the risk of AF in borderline ABI (>0.90 to <1.0) or noncompressible arteries (>1.4). We evaluated the association of borderline ABI and ABI >1.4 in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, a population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 14 794 participants (age, 54...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663526/racial-ethnic-differences-in-the-prognostic-utility-of-left-ventricular-mass-index-for-incident-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Emmanuel Akintoye, Karim Mahmoud, Mohamed Shokr, Aubin Sandio, Sagar Mallikethi-Reddy, Muhammad Sheikh, Oluwole Adegbala, Alexander Egbe, Alexandros Briasoulis, Luis Afonso
BACKGROUND: Evidence exists for racial/ethnic differences in left ventricular mass index (LVMI). How this translates to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: The impact of racial/ethnic differences in LVMI on incident cardiovascular outcomes could have potential implications for the optimization of risk stratification strategies. METHODS: Using the prospectively collected database of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) involving 4 racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic Whites, Chinese, Blacks, and Hispanics) free of CVD at baseline, we assessed for racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between LVMI and incident CVD using a Cox model...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
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