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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352421/predictors-of-insulin-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-the-look-ahead-randomized-trial
#1
Scott J Pilla, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Stephen P Juraschek, Jeanne M Clark, Nisa M Maruthur
BACKGROUND: The decision to initiate insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is a challenging escalation of care that requires an individualized approach. However, the sociodemographic and clinical factors affecting insulin initiation are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify patient factors that were independent predictors of insulin initiation among participants in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a randomized clinical trial...
January 19, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350093/thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances-relate-to-arterial-stiffness-and-blood-pressure-in-6-to-8-year-old-boys-stratified-by-maternal-risk
#2
Ashleigh Craig, Catharina M C Mels, Ruan Kruger
Early cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset can be inflicted by familial cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors. We aimed to compare phenotypic characteristics and explore associations between oxidative stress and vascular function in boys stratified by maternal cardiovascular and lifestyle risk. We included 40 Black and 41 White boys (ages 6-8 years), along with the biological mother of each child. The study population was divided into two groups (nonmaternal risk vs. maternal risk) according to maternal risk predetermined by their selfreported cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors...
January 19, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343252/insights-into-the-genetics-of-blood-pressure-in-black-south-african-individuals-the-birth-to-twenty-cohort
#3
Liesl M Hendry, Venesa Sahibdeen, Ananyo Choudhury, Shane A Norris, Michèle Ramsay, Zané Lombard
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of non-communicable disease deaths globally, with hypertension being a major risk factor contributing to CVDs. Blood pressure is a heritable trait, with relatively few genetic studies having been performed in Africans. This study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with variance in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in black South Africans. METHODS: Genotyping was performed using the Metabochip in a subset of participants (mixed sex; median age 17...
January 17, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338952/behavioral-risk-factors-and-regional-variation-in-cardiovascular-health-care-and-death
#4
Kathleen M Fairfield, Adam W Black, F Lee Lucas, Andrea E Siewers, Mylan C Cohen, Christopher T Healey, Allison C Briggs, Paul K J Han, John E Wennberg
INTRODUCTION: Reducing the burden of death from cardiovascular disease includes risk factor reduction and medical interventions. METHODS: This was an observational analysis at the hospital service area (HSA) level, to examine regional variation and relationships between behavioral risks, health services utilization, and cardiovascular disease mortality (the outcome of interest). HSA-level prevalence of cardiovascular disease behavioral risks (smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity) were calculated from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; HSA-level rates of stress tests, diagnostic cardiac catheterization, and revascularization from a statewide multi-payer claims data set from Maine in 2013 (with 606,260 patients aged ≥35 years), and deaths from state death certificate data...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320465/crp-genotypes-predict-increased-risk-to-co-present-with-low-vitamin-d-and-elevated-crp-in-a-group-of-healthy-black-south-african-women
#5
Pieter H Myburgh, G Wayne Towers, Iolanthé M Kruger, Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau
Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are independently associated with adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although an inverse association between these factors has been described, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We postulate that environment-gene interactions, through which 25(OH)D interacts with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CRP gene, modulate CRP; that certain CRP genotypes predispose individuals to a co-phenotype of low 25(OH)D and elevated CRP concentrations; and that this co-phenotype is associated with higher CVD risk...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318514/the-impact-of-biologics-and-tofacitinib-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-rheumatic-disease-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Michael Nurmohamed, Ernest Choy, Sadiq Lula, Blerina Kola, Ryan DeMasi, Paola Accossato
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic diseases are autoimmune, inflammatory diseases often associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease, a major cause of mortality in these patients. In recent years, treatment with biologic and targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), either as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs, have become the standard of treatment. In this systematic literature review, we evaluated the effect of treatment with biologic or tofacitinib on the CV risk and outcomes in these patients...
January 9, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317456/neighborhood-deprivation-predicts-heart-failure-risk-in-a-low-income-population-of-blacks-and-whites-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#7
Elvis A Akwo, Edmond K Kabagambe, Frank E Harrell, William J Blot, Justin M Bachmann, Thomas J Wang, Deepak K Gupta, Loren Lipworth
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic environment predicts heart failure (HF) hospital readmissions. We investigated whether neighborhood deprivation predicts risk of incident HF beyond individual socioeconomic status in a low-income population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 27 078 whites and blacks recruited during 2002 to 2009 in the SCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study), who had no history of HF and were using Centers for Medicare or Medicaid Services...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313596/miaquant-a-novel-system-for-automatic-segmentation-measurement-and-localization-comparison-of-different-biomarkers-from-serialized-histological-slices
#8
Elena Casiraghi, Mara Cossa, Veronica Huber, Licia Rivoltini, Matteo Tozzi, Antonello Villa, Barbara Vergani
In the clinical practice, automatic image analysis methods quickly quantizing histological results by objective and replicable methods are getting more and more necessary and widespread. Despite several commercial software products are available for this task, they are very little flexible, and provided as black boxes without modifiable source code. To overcome the aforementioned problems, we employed the commonly used MATLAB platform to develop an automatic method, MIAQuant, for the analysis of histochemical and immunohistochemical images, stained with various methods and acquired by different tools...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313223/impact-of-a-population-health-management-intervention-on-disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-control
#9
Aisha James, Seth A Berkowitz, Jeffrey M Ashburner, Yuchiao Chang, Daniel M Horn, Sandra M O'Keefe, Steven J Atlas
BACKGROUND: Healthcare systems use population health management programs to improve the quality of cardiovascular disease care. Adding a dedicated population health coordinator (PHC) who identifies and reaches out to patients not meeting cardiovascular care goals to these programs may help reduce disparities in cardiovascular care. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a program that used PHCs decreased racial/ethnic disparities in LDL cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) control...
January 8, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306879/observational-study-of-the-differential-impact-of-time-varying-depressive-symptoms-on-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-by-health-status-in-community-dwelling-adults-the-regards-study
#10
Nathalie Moise, Yulia Khodneva, Deanna Pereira Jannat-Khah, Joshua Richman, Karina W Davidson, Ian M Kronish, Jonathan Shaffer, Monika M Safford
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between time-varying depressive symptoms with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: The REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a national, population-based longitudinal study conducted from 2003 to 2007. SETTING: General continental US communities. PARTICIPANTS: 29 491 black and white US adults ≥45 years randomly sampled within race-sex-geographical strata...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306794/the-short-term-effects-of-indoor-size-fractioned-particulate-matter-and-black-carbon-on-cardiac-autonomic-function-in-copd-patients
#11
Lu Pan, Shaowei Wu, Hongyu Li, Junhui Xu, Wei Dong, Jiao Shan, Xuan Yang, Yahong Chen, Masayuki Shima, Furong Deng, Xinbiao Guo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants especially particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been shown to be more likely with cardiovascular comorbidities in which cardiac autonomic dysfunction plays an important role. However, there is little evidence for the effect of indoor PM and BC exposures on cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between exposure to indoor size-fractioned PM and BC and changes in HRV and HR in COPD patients...
January 3, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298214/heart-rate-variability-and-its-relation-to-chronic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-prevend-study
#12
Christian H L Thio, Arie M van Roon, Joop D Lefrandt, Ron T Gansevoort, Harold Snieder
OBJECTIVE: In the general population, reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is debated. We therefore investigated the relation between low HRV and renal outcomes. METHODS: In the population-based PREVEND Study, renal outcomes (CKD, eGFR, urinary albumin) were measured at baseline and three consecutive examinations. HRV measures (among which SDNN, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR-intervals) were calculated from time-series of beat-to-beat pulse-wave recordings at baseline...
January 2, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290351/red-meat-intake-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-two-sides-of-the-coin
#13
REVIEW
Denise Mafra, Natalia A Borges, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de Franca Cardozo, Juliana S Anjos, Ana Paula Black, Cristiane Moraes, Peter Bergman, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Red meat is an important dietary source of high biological value protein and micronutrients such as vitamins, iron, and zinc that exert many beneficial functions. However, high consumption of animal protein sources, especially red meat, results in an increased intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, iron, and salt, as well as an excessive acid load. Red meat intake may lead to an elevated production of uremic toxins by the gut microbiota, such as trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO), indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresyl sulfate...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274759/acute-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-paraplegia-characteristics-management-and-outcomes
#14
Susan Feng Lu, Lauren Xiaoyuan Lu, Sidney C Smith, Xuming Dai
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has become a leading cause of death for patients with paraplegia. Acute myocardial infarction in patients with paraplegia has not been described in literature. Evidence gathered from studies of acute myocardial infarction in ambulating individuals may not be directly applicable to paraplegic patients. This study investigates clinical features, management strategies, and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with paraplegia. METHODS: Acute myocardial infarction in patients with or without paraplegia was identified in the New York State Inpatient Database between 2007 and 2013...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234990/african-americans-african-immigrants-and-afro-caribbeans-differ-in-social-determinants-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-evidence-from-the-national-health-interview-survey
#15
Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Nadine Matthie, Jessica Wells, Sandra B Dunbar, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, Lisa A Cooper, Rasheeta D Chandler
In the United States (U.S.), Blacks have higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than other racial groups. The Black racial group includes African Americans (AAs), African immigrants (AIs), and Afro-Caribbeans (ACs); however, little research examines how social determinants differentially influence CVD risk factors in each ethnic subgroup. We analyzed the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized civilians...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221643/respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-walking-down-a-traffic-polluted-road-compared-with-walking-in-a-traffic-free-area-in-participants-aged-60-years-and-older-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-age-matched-healthy-controls-a-randomised-crossover
#16
Rudy Sinharay, Jicheng Gong, Benjamin Barratt, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Sabine Ernst, Frank Kelly, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Peter Collins, Paul Cullinan, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults...
December 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217675/ten-year-mortality-in-the-wise-study-women-s-ischemia-syndrome-evaluation
#17
Tanya S Kenkre, Pankaj Malhotra, B Delia Johnson, Eileen M Handberg, Diane V Thompson, Oscar C Marroquin, William J Rogers, Carl J Pepine, C Noel Bairey Merz, Sheryl F Kelsey
BACKGROUND: The WISE study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation) was a prospective cohort study of 936 clinically stable symptomatic women who underwent coronary angiography to evaluate symptoms and signs of ischemia. Long-term mortality data for such women are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as ≥50% stenosis on angiography by core laboratory. We conducted a National Death Index search to assess the mortality of women who were alive at their final WISE contact date...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206233/genome-wide-admixture-and-association-study-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study-wihs
#18
Aditi Shendre, Howard W Wiener, Marguerite R Irvin, Bradley E Aouizerat, Edgar T Overton, Jason Lazar, Chenglong Liu, Howard N Hodis, Nita A Limdi, Kathleen M Weber, Stephen J Gange, Degui Zhi, Michelle A Floris-Moore, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Qibin Qi, David B Hanna, Robert C Kaplan, Sadeep Shrestha
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT) is a valid and reliable subclinical measure of atherosclerosis and is known to predict CVD. We performed genome-wide association (GWA) and admixture analysis among 682 HIV-positive and 288 HIV-negative Black, non-Hispanic women from the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS) cohort using a combined and stratified analysis approach. We found some suggestive associations but none of the SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance in our GWAS analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203629/exaggerated-vasoconstriction-to-spontaneous-bursts-of-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-healthy-young-black-men
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jennifer R Vranish, Seth W Holwerda, Benjamin E Young, Daniel P Credeur, Jordan C Patik, Thales C Barbosa, David M Keller, Paul J Fadel
Blacks have the highest prevalence of hypertension, putting them at greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Previous studies have reported that, relative to whites, healthy black men have augmented pressor responses to sympathoexcitatory stressors. Although important, these studies do not inform about the resting state and the influence of spontaneous changes in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Likewise, little is known about the transduction of MSNA into a vascular response at rest on a beat-to-beat basis...
January 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202104/a-health-profile-of-senior-aged-women-veterans-a-latent-class-analysis-of-condition-clusters
#20
Margaret E Gonsoulin, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Karen M Goldstein, Guichan Cao, Qiuying Zhang, Dharani Ramanathan, Denise M Hynes
Background and Objectives: This study characterizes the multiple morbidities experienced by senior-aged women Veterans so that the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and other healthcare systems may be better prepared to meet the healthcare needs of this growing cohort. Research Design and Methods: Using the VHA's Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), we conducted a retrospective observational study of the 38,597 female veteran patients who were at least sixty-five years old and received care in the VHA during 2013 and 2014...
September 1, 2017: Innovation in Aging
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