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methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731664/-severe-infection-by-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-producing-panton-valentine-leukocidin-reports-of-two-cases
#1
Martín Brizuela, Guadalupe Pérez, Silvina Ruvinsky, Claudia Sarkis, Romina Romero, Alejandra Mastroianni, Lidia Casimir, María E Venuta, Verónica Gómez Bonduele, Rosa Bologna
Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724393/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-emerged-long-before-the-introduction-of-methicillin-into-clinical-practice
#2
Catriona P Harkins, Bruno Pichon, Michel Doumith, Julian Parkhill, Henrik Westh, Alexander Tomasz, Herminia de Lencastre, Stephen D Bentley, Angela M Kearns, Matthew T G Holden
BACKGROUND: The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens poses a major threat to global health. It is widely recognised that the widespread use of antibiotics has generated selective pressures that have driven the emergence of resistant strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first observed in 1960, less than one year after the introduction of this second generation beta-lactam antibiotic into clinical practice. Epidemiological evidence has always suggested that resistance arose around this period, when the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance carried on an SCCmec element, was horizontally transferred to an intrinsically sensitive strain of S...
July 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721014/determining-optimal-dosing-regimen-of-oral-administration-of-dicloxacillin-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#3
Wei Yu, Jinru Ji, Tingting Xiao, Chaoqun Ying, Jiaheng Fang, Ping Shen, Yonghong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Dicloxacillin, a semisynthetic isoxazolyl penicillin, exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as stability against penicillinases and low level of toxicity. The objective of this study was to obtain optimal dosing regimen of oral administration of dicloxacillin by analyzing the pharmacokinetic (PK) index in healthy volunteers and in vitro antibacterial activity by using Monte Carlo simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 867 clinical isolates from community-onset infections were collected from 31 secondary hospitals in People's Republic of China...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720732/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alters-staphylococcus-aureus-sensitivity-to-vancomycin-in-a-biofilm-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-infection
#4
Giulia Orazi, George A O'Toole
The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717843/septic-arthritis-associated-with-systemic-sepsis
#5
Sung-Weon Jung, Dong-Hee Kim, Sung-Jin Shin, Byoung-Youl Kang, Yil-Ju Eho, Seong-Wook Yang
PURPOSE: Septic arthritis presents with good joint function, but sometimes leads to poor outcomes. Concurrent systemic sepsis has been regarded as the poor outcome, and the exact cause remains unclear. This paper was performed to identify factors associated with concurrent systemic sepsis and to research results to predict poor outcomes in patients with septic arthritis. METHODS: Laboratory and medical data were reviewed for 137 adults with acute septic arthritis who underwent open or arthroscopic surgical debridement at our institution between January 2005 and December 2014...
July 17, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717308/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-nasal-carriage-isolates-from-bovines-and-its-antibiogram
#6
Alok Kumar, Purushottam Kaushik, Anjay, Pankaj Kumar, Manoj Kumar
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cattle and buffalo and to study their antibiotic resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 samples (skin and nasal swab) from cattle and buffalo were collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture techniques which were further confirmed by amplification of S. aureus-specific 16S rRNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715781/effects-of-blue-or-violet-light-on-the-inactivation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-by-riboflavin-5-phosphate-photolysis
#7
Tak-Wah Wong, Chien-Wei Cheng, Zong-Jhe Hsieh, Ji-Yuan Liang
The light sensitive compound riboflavin-5'-phosphate (or flavin mononucleotide, FMN) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photo-irradiation. FMN is required by all flavoproteins because it is a cofactor of biological blue-light receptors. The photochemical effects of FMN after irradiation by blue or violet light on the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus strains, including a methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA), were investigated in this study. Upon blue- or violet-light photo-treatment, FMN was shown to inactivate S...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698673/a-quinolinol-based-small-molecule-with-anti-mrsa-activity-that-targets-bacterial-membrane-and-promotes-fermentative-metabolism
#8
Dhanalakshmi R Nair, Ji Chen, João M Monteiro, Michaele Josten, Mariana G Pinho, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jimmy Wu, Ambrose Cheung
In a loss-of-viability screen of small molecules against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, we found a small molecule, designated DNAC-2, which has an MIC of 8 μg ml(-1). DNAC-2 is a quinolinol derivative that is bactericidal at 2X MIC. Macromolecular synthesis assays at 2 × MIC of DNAC-2 revealed inhibition of DNA, cell wall, RNA and protein synthesis within fifteen to thirty minutes of treatment when compared to the untreated control. Transmission electron microscopy of DNAC-2-treated cells revealed a significantly thicker cell wall and impaired daughter cell separation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691491/peptidoglycan-cross-linking-preferences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-penicillin-binding-proteins-have-implications-for-treating-mrsa-infections
#9
Veerasak Srisuknimit, Yuan Qiao, Kaitlin Schaefer, Daniel Kahne, Suzanne Walker
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a global public health problem. MRSA strains have acquired a non-native penicillin-binding protein called PBP2a that cross-links peptidoglycan when the native S. aureus PBPs are inhibited by β-lactams. It has been proposed that the native S. aureus PBPs can use cell wall precursors having different glycine branch lengths (penta-, tri-, or monoglycine), while PBP2a can only cross-link peptidoglycan strands bearing a complete pentaglycine branch...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690040/bioactivity-of-ceftazidime-and-fluconazole-included-in-polymethyl-methacrylate-bone-cement-for-use-in-arthroplasty
#10
J Martínez-Moreno, V Merino, A Nácher, J L Rodrigo, Blanca B Bonet Yuste, M Merino-Sanjuán
BACKGROUND: The microorganisms that most frequently cause prosthetic joint infection are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic bacillus. Studies have documented the efficacy of mixing antibiotics with polymethyl methacrylate, but that of antifungal drugs has not received much attention. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize the elution profile and bioactivity of ceftazidime and fluconazole when incorporated into bone cement in proportions intended for prophylaxis and treatment of bone infections...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681813/is-there-a-need-to-revise-the-antibiotic-concentration-in-clinical-and-laboratory-standards-institute-recommended-oxacillin-screen-agar
#11
Niveditha Nagasundaram, Sujatha Sistla
INTRODUCTION: In routine diagnostic microbiology laboratories, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommends the use of cefoxitin disc, in addition to oxacillin screen agar (OSA) of 6 μg/ml for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), whereas minimum inhibitory concentration values of oxacillin for S. aureus are ≤2 μg/ml (susceptible) and ≥4 μg/ml (resistant). Hence, the study was carried out to evaluate the ability of screen agar with lower concentrations of oxacillin to identify the isolates of MRSA and to compare this with cefoxitin disc diffusion (CDD)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675870/urea-derived-graphitic-carbon-nitride-u-g-c3n4-films-with-highly-enhanced-antimicrobial-and-sporicidal-activity
#12
John H Thurston, Necia M Hunter, Lacey J Wayment, Kenneth A Cornell
In this manuscript, we describe the fabrication of photoactive biocidal or sporicidal films from urea-derived graphitic carbon nitride (u-g-C3N4). Co-deposited films of u-g-C3N4 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (IC50=14.1±0.2mJ) or Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant IC50=33.5±0.2mJ, methicillin sensitive IC50=42.7±0.5mJ) demonstrated significantly enhanced bactericidal behavior upon administration of visible radiation (400nm≤λ≤426nm). In all cases, complete eradication of the microbial sample was realized upon administration of 100mJ of visible radiation, while no antimicrobial activity was observed for non-irradiated samples...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673701/synergistic-effect-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-on-antibacterial-activity-of-cefuroxime-and-chloramphenicol-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Elaine Wang Ling Chan, Zong Yang Yee, Iswara Raja, Jeremy Kean Yi Yap
OBJECTIVES: Currently, only a few antibiotics are available to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). One alternative approach includes adjuvants to antibiotic therapy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are non-antibiotic drugs reported to exhibit antibacterial activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between NSAIDs with selected antibiotics (cefuroxime and chloramphenicol) against strains of S. aureus. METHODS: The antibacterial activity of four NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid) were tested against ten pathogenic bacterial strains using the microdilution broth method...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667056/endogenous-endophthalmitis-and-osteomyelitis-associated-with-interleukin-17-inhibitor-treatment-for-psoriasis-in-a-patient-with-diabetes
#14
Christine E Martinez, John B Allen, Frederick H Davidorf, Colleen M Cebulla
A 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and plaque psoriasis presented to the emergency room with 3 days of progressive right eye pain and decreased vision. After extensive workup and multidisciplinary team effort, the patient was diagnosed with and treated for unilateral endogenous methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis, bacteraemia and osteomyelitis of the foot. The patient had been started on the interleukin 17 (IL-17) inhibitor secukinumab for his treatment-resistant plaque psoriasis 4 weeks prior to presentation...
June 29, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666415/soluble-factors-from-biofilm-of-candida-albicans-and-staphylococcus-aureus-promote-cell-death-and-inflammatory-response
#15
Kassia de Carvalho Dias, Paula Aboud Barbugli, Fernanda de Patto, Virginia Barreto Lordello, Letícia de Aquino Penteado, Alexandra Ivo Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Vergani
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of soluble factors from biofilm of single- and mixed-species Candida albicans (C. albicans) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) cultures after 36 h in culture on keratinocytes (NOK-si and HaCaT) and macrophages (J774A.1). Soluble factors from biofilms of C. albicans and MSSA were collected and incubated with keratinocytes and macrophages, which were subsequently evaluated by cell viability assays (MTT)...
June 30, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663774/infection-prophylaxis-for-breast-implant-surgery-could-we-do-better
#16
Julia R Henderson, Sandhir Kandola, Susan P Hignett, Rebecca L Teasdale, Ashley R Topps, Mandana Pennick, Meiju Hwang, Nicola Barnes, Cliona C Kirwan
Objective: Infective complications following breast implant surgery may result in implant removal. This causes patient distress and is costly to treat. A range of precautions is undertaken at the time of surgery to reduce infection, with varying levels of supporting evidence. This study aimed to determine how frequently and consistently infection prevention precautions are used during breast implant surgery. Methods: Multicenter observational study of surgical practice with real-time data collection during breast implant surgery...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662601/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-of-patient-flow-in-a-general-hospital-incorporating-infection-control-policy-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre
#17
Erica S Shenoy, Hang Lee, Erin E Ryan, Taige Hou, Rochelle P Walensky, Winston Ware, David C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients are assigned to available staffed beds based on patient acuity and services required. In hospitals with double-occupancy rooms, patients must be additionally matched by gender. Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) must be bedded in single-occupancy rooms or cohorted with other patients with similar MRSA/VRE flags. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation (DES) model of patient flow through an acute care hospital...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659889/rapid-phenotypic-detection-of-microbial-resistance-in-gram-positive-bacteria-by-a-real-time-laser-scattering-method
#18
Evgeny A Idelevich, Matthias Hoy, Dennis Görlich, Dennis Knaack, Barbara Grünastel, Georg Peters, Matthias Borowski, Karsten Becker
We developed a methodology for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) based on the BacterioScan(TM)216R laser scattering technology, using methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistance in enterococci as exemplar for important resistance phenotypes. Fifty methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and 50 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus, as well as 50 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 50 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) isolates were used for the study. Optimal test conditions were derived by investigating the effects of inoculum size, medium, incubation temperature and broth filtration...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656173/heparin-mimics-extracellular-dna-in-binding-to-cell-surface-localized-proteins-and-promoting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#19
Surabhi Mishra, Alexander R Horswill
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650945/treatment-approach-for-infection-of-healed-fractures-after-internal-fixation
#20
Joshua M Lawrenz, Salvatore J Frangiamore, Ajinkya A Rane, W Alex Cantrell, Heather A Vallier
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of a treatment approach for patients with infection and colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Level one trauma center. PATIENTS: Twenty patients were treated for wound infection with colonized implants after open reduction and internal fixation. INTERVENTION: Surgical debridement, removal of implants and a short post-operative oral antibiotic course...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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