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cns tuberculosis ada

Yi-Yi Wang, Bing-di Xie
Central nervous system (CNS) disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is highly devastating. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS tuberculosis (TB). Rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic tests are not available. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain has a very low sensitivity in cases of TBM, the sensitivity rates is of about 10-20%.The detection rate can be improved by taking large volume CSF samples (>6 ml) and prolonged slide examination (30 min). Culture of MTB from the CSF is slow and insufficiently sensitive...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Raviraj, Renoy A Henry, G Ganapathi Rao
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the meninges caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . It is one of the most common infectious diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and a major health problem in developing countries like India. If there is delay in diagnosis and initiation of specific treatment, it causes significant morbidity and mortality. CSF-ADA 10 U/l is the standard cut off value that is used for differentiation between Tuberculous (TBM) and Non-Tuberculous Meningitis (non-TBM)...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Umesh Datta Gupta, Ali Abbas, Raj Pal Singh Kashyap, Pushpa Gupta
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are the most severe forms of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) due to high levels of mortality and neurological morbidity. Limited studies are available on CNS-TB animal-model development, despite the steady rise in cerebral-TB cases in India over the past decade. This study describes the development of a murine model of CNS-TB using a clinical strain (C3) isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CNS-TB patients...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Kamini Gupta, Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar, Archana Ahluwalia, Karan Saggar
BACKGROUND: Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are common and routinely encountered. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroimaging features of the various infections of the CNS so as to differentiate them from tumoral, vascular, and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy. AIMS: Our aim was to analyze the biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in CNS infections. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a longitudinal, prospective study over a period of 1½ years...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Alejandra González-Duarte, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes Osornio
The aim of the article is to describe the principal findings among patients with M.tuberculosis and M. bovis CNS infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious agents that cause death and neurological sequelae around the world. Most of the complications of CNS TB can be attributed to a delay in the diagnosis. Unfortunately, there are no specific diagnostic tools to support an early diagnosis. Other prognostic factors different from delay in treatment have not been identified. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were analyzed retrospectively from the medical files of all the patients admitted with the diagnoses of tuberculosis...
November 29, 2011: Neurology International
Martín Lasso B
Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is always a challenge. We must give importance for duration of clinical manifestations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has own characteristic and it have to be control several times during the treatment. Adenosin deaminase with cut off more than 15 UI/mL and M. tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction in CSF are the most relevant diagnostic tests. Radiologic test gives diagnostic clues but do not confirm the diagnosis. In the future we can structure a score with all these elements to support the clinician in the diagnostic process...
June 2011: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Hermes Ryoiti Higashino, Max Igor Banks Ferreira Lopes, Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc, Angela Naomi Atomiya, Leila Antonangelo, Olavo Munhoz Leite
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe infection of the central nervous system, particularly in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to decrease the high rates of disability and death associated with TBM. The diagnosis is often time and labour intensive; thus, a simple, accurate and rapid diagnostic test is needed. The adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity test is a rapid test that has been used for the diagnosis of the pleural, peritoneal and pericardial forms of tuberculosis. However, the usefulness of ADA in TBM is uncertain...
March 2010: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ayumi Uchibori, Tai Miyazaki, Haruyuki Ariga, Atsuro Chiba
Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) using specific tuberculous antigens is a rapid, specific and sensitive method for the detection of tuberculous infection, and usually done in peripheral blood sample. We examined IGRA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a patient strongly suspected of having tuberculous meningitis. A 53-year old woman had a month history of headache and fever with meningeal sign. Routine systemic bacterial, tuberculous and viral analyses all resulted in negative study except for increase of adenosine deaminase in CSF...
July 2009: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Guy Thwaites, Martin Fisher, Cheryl Hemingway, Geoff Scott, Tom Solomon, John Innes
SUMMARY AND KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: The aim of these guidelines is to describe a practical but evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system tuberculosis in children and adults. We have presented guidance on tuberculous meningitis (TBM), intra-cerebral tuberculoma without meningitis, and tuberculosis affecting the spinal cord. Our key recommendations are as follows: 1. TBM is a medical emergency. Treatment delay is strongly associated with death and empirical anti-tuberculosis therapy should be started promptly in all patients in whom the diagnosis of TBM is suspected...
September 2009: Journal of Infection
Kana Tojo, Masahide Yazaki, Kazuko Machida, Kenji Sano, Kunihiro Yoshida, Shu-ichi Ikeda
We report a 31-year-old man with tuberculous meningitis (TM) mimicking CNS sarcoidosis. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was not detected in CSF, the level of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in CSF was significantly raised. Brain biopsy showed caseous granuloma and a diagnosis of TM was made. The diagnosis of TM is often difficult and brain biopsy should be considered if MTB is not detected in the CSF. Evaluation of CSF ADA level could also strongly contribute to distinguishing TM from other meningitis. In addition to antituberculosis drugs, corticosteroid therapy was effective in our patient but careful reduction of its dosage was required...
2007: Internal Medicine
Makoto Hirotani, Ichiro Yabe, Shinsuke Hamada, Sachiko Tsuji, Seiji Kikuchi, Hidenao Sasaki
A 34-year-old man visited the hospital with chief complaints of headache, fever, and disturbance of consciousness. In view of his clinical condition, the course of the disease, and results of examination, he was diagnosed with viral meningitis and treated accordingly. However, his clinical condition worsened, and MRI revealed abnormal signals in the splenium of the corpus callosum, in the basal ganglia and in the internal capsule, as well as the presence of severe inflammation in the base of the brain. Since he had a high ADA level in the cerebrospinal fluid and was consequently suspected to have tuberculous meningitis, he was placed on antitubercular agents...
2007: Internal Medicine
Raymond A Smego, Dragana Orlovic, Jeanette Wadula
We developed a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for intracranial mass lesions in patients with HIV/AIDS that obviates the need for neurosurgical intervention. The approach is based upon CD4(+) lymphocyte count, serum toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) serology, chest X-ray, routine lumbar puncture studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology, CSF adenosine deaminase or Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction testing, single positron emission-computed tomography (SPECT) scanning for intracranial enhancing lesions, and limited therapeutic trials...
April 2006: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Marjorie P Golden, Holenarasipur R Vikram
In the 1980s, after a steady decline during preceding decades, there was a resurgence in the rate of tuberculosis in the United States that coincided with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Disease patterns since have changed, with a higher incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary disease now found. Extrapulmonary sites of infection commonly include lymph nodes, pleura, and osteoarticular areas, although any organ can be involved. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be elusive, necessitating a high index of suspicion...
November 1, 2005: American Family Physician
G H Malik, A S Al-Harbi, S Al-Mohaya, H Al-Khawajah, M Kechrid, A Osman Al Hassan, K Balbaid, M Sabry Shetia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in dialysis patients and to determine its clinical features and results of short-course (6 months) chemotherapy, mortality and risk factors of mortality. METHODS: The study included 48 TB patients among 330 patients on dialysis of whom 37 were on hemodialysis and 11 were on peritoneal dialysis at Security Forces Hospital in the period from October 1989 to October 2000...
November 2002: Clinical Nephrology
N Kobayashi, E Toyota, M Takahara, A Yoshizawa, N Suzuki, H Kawada, T Suzuki, K Kudo
In spite of recent advances in diagnosis and chemotherapy of tuberculosis, prognosis of tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is still poor. We evaluated clinical characteristics of 14 patients with the CNS tuberculosis (10 male and 4 female, 21 to 71 years of age) who were hospitalized at IMCJ from 1988 to 1997. Twelve patients had tuberculous meningitis (2 of them had also intracranial tuberculoma), 1 had intracranial tuberculoma and 1 had spinal cord tuberculosis. For the acid-fast bacilli, the smears of cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) were all negative but the cultures for M...
August 1998: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
M Baró, L Acevedo, M E Lagos
The aim of this work was to study the usefulness of CSF adenosine deaminase determination in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and determine if the proposed cutoff value of 7.1 i.u./ml had the better sensitivity and specificity. We retrospectively studied 148 patients, 12 with tuberculous meningitis and 136 with other central nervous system diseases. Adenosine deaminase values ranged from 3.6 to 31.2 i.u./ml in patients with tuberculous meningitis and from 0.1 to 312 i.u./ml in controls. The best sensitivity/specificity ratio (83...
March 1996: Revista Médica de Chile
M Y Rohani, Y M Cheong, J M Rani
The diagnostic value of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was studied to evaluate its use in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in the local setting. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 119 patients with meningitis and other conditions with central nervous system symptoms were collected and ADA activity determined by the colorimetric method of Guisti read at 628 nm. The CSF was also subjected to other laboratory examinations so as to provide the aetiological diagnosis. All 14 tuberculous meningitis patients had ADA activity greater than the cut off value of 9...
December 1995: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
S Z Yu, S X Zhao, Y Dai
The adenosine deaminase (ADA), lysozyme (LZM) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were determined in 36 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM), 47 patients with non-tuberculous meningitis (N-T-BM) and 20 patients with non-central nervous system diseases(control group). The results showed that the assessment of serum and CSF ADA and LZM activity may be helpful to the differential diagnosis between TBM and N-TBM.
February 1993: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
T Pettersson, M Klockars, T H Weber, H Somer
We measured the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients with tuberculous meningitis, 38 with viral meningitis, 15 with bacterial meningitis, 5 with malignant lymphoma, 11 with cerebrovascular diseases and 13 with miscellaneous neurological disorders. The highest ADA activities were observed in patients with tuberculous meningitis (median 21.3 U/l, range 20.0-23.0) and lymphoma (13.0 U/l, range 4.0-25.0). The sensitivity of the test for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis was 100% and the specificity 99% when a cut-off value of 20...
1991: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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