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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434098/changes-to-taxonomy-and-the-international-code-of-virus-classification-and-nomenclature-ratified-by-the-international-committee-on-taxonomy-of-viruses-2017
#1
Michael J Adams, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Andrew M Q King, Balázs Harrach, Robert L Harrison, Nick J Knowles, Andrew M Kropinski, Mart Krupovic, Jens H Kuhn, Arcady R Mushegian, Max Nibert, Sead Sabanadzovic, Hélène Sanfaçon, Stuart G Siddell, Peter Simmonds, Arvind Varsani, Francisco Murilo Zerbini, Alexander E Gorbalenya, Andrew J Davison
This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in March 2017.
April 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#2
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433965/national-health-policy-2017-a-cautious-welcome
#3
T Sundararaman
On March 15, 2017 the union cabinet approved the new National Health Policy. The next day a 28-page policy text and an accompanying 13-page situational analysis were placed in Parliament and in the public domain. To have, at all times, a health policy in place that shows a road map on how a nation would show "progressive realization" of health as a basic human right is an obligation under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This is an international treaty adopted in 1976, to which India became a signatory in 1979, and this was one of the catalysts for the adoption of the first National Health Policy in 1 983...
April 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433942/synthesis-and-characterization-of-poly-propylene-imine-dendrimer-grafted-gold-nanoparticles-as-nanocarriers-of-doxorubicin
#4
Marzieh Golshan, Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi, Mina Mirshekarpour, Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani, Maryam Mohammadi
The aim of current work is synthesis 4th-generation-poly(propylene imine) (PPI)-dendrimer modified gold nanoparticles (Au-G4A) as nanocarriers for doxorubicin (DOX) and studying in vitro drug release kinetics from nanocarriers into different media. Accordingly, AuNPs were synthesized by reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) aqueous solution with trisodium citrate and modified with cysteamine to obtain amine-functionalized (Au-NH2) nanoparticles. Au-NH2 nanoparticles were used as multifunctional cores and participated in Michael addition of acrylonitrile and reduction process by lithium aluminum hydride (LAH) to synthesize Au-G4A nanoparticles...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433811/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-salmonid-alphavirus-using-taqman-real-time-pcr
#5
Wen Shi, Aochen Song, Shuai Gao, Yuting Wang, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Tong Ren, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection has led to the spread of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) to salmonids in several countries in Europe, resulting in tremendous economic losses to the fish farming industry. Recently, with increases in the fish import trade, many countries in which SAV has been unreported, such as China, may be seriously threatened by these diseases. It is therefore necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, a rapid and sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR method was established and assessed for this purpose...
April 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433777/design-and-expeditious-synthesis-of-organosilanes-as-potent-antivirals-targeting-multidrug-resistant-influenza-a-viruses
#6
Yanmei Hu, Yuanxiang Wang, Fang Li, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang
The efficacy of current influenza vaccines and small molecule antiviral drugs is curtailed by the emerging of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses. As resistance to the only FDA-approved oral influenza antiviral, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), continues to rise, there is a clear need to develop the next-generation of antiviral drugs. Since more than 95% of current circulating influenza A viruses carry the S31N mutation in their M2 genes, the AM2-S31N mutant proton channel represents an attractive target for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433641/analysis-of-complications-of-pelvic-mesh-excision-surgery-using-the-clavien-dindo-classification-system
#7
Goran Rac, Alyssa Greiman, Andrew Rabley, T J Tipton, Leah R Chiles, Drew A Freilich, Ross Rames, Lindsey Cox, Michelle Koski, Eric S Rovner
PURPOSE: To describe and categorize complications in patients undergoing vaginal mesh excision surgery using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 277 patients who underwent vaginal mesh extraction between 2007 and 2015 at a single institution was conducted with Institutional Review Board approval. Surgical complications were stratified using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Complications were noted to be either peri-operative (prior to discharge) or post-operative (within 90 days)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433515/understanding-clinical-development-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapies
#8
Sofieke de Wilde, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Maarten Laurens Zandvliet, Pauline Meij
BACKGROUND AIMS: In the past decade, many clinical trials with gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) have been performed. Increased interest in the development of these drug products by various stakeholders has become apparent. Despite this growth in clinical studies, the number of therapies receiving marketing authorization approval (MAA) is lagging behind. To enhance the success rate of GCT development, it is essential to better understand the clinical development of these products...
April 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433417/mechanistic-insights-into-epigenetic-modulation-of-ethanol-consumption
#9
Igor Ponomarev, Claire E Stelly, Hitoshi Morikawa, Yuri A Blednov, R Dayne Mayfield, R Adron Harris
There is growing evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), can reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in animal models, but molecular and cellular processes underlying this behavioral effect are poorly understood. We used C57BL/6J male mice to investigate the effects of two FDA-approved drugs, decitabine (a DNMT inhibitor) and SAHA (an HDAC inhibitor), on ethanol consumption using two tests: binge-like drinking in the dark (DID) and chronic intermittent every other day (EOD) drinking...
March 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433362/effect-of-preadmission-bowel-preparation-on-outcomes-of-elective-colorectal-procedures-in-young-children
#10
Guillermo J Ares, Irene Helenowski, Catherine J Hunter, Marybeth Madonna, Marleta Reynolds, Timothy Lautz
BACKGROUND: The utility of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) to minimize infectious complications in elective colorectal surgery is contentious. Though data is scarce in children, adult studies suggest a benefit to MBP when administered with oral antibiotics (OAB). METHODS: After IRB approval, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) was queried for young children undergoing elective colon surgery from 2011 to 2014. Patients were divided into: no bowel preparation (Group 1), MBP (Group 2), and MBP plus OAB (Group 3)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433330/bivalent-rlp2086-trumenba%C3%A2-development-of-a-well-characterized-vaccine-through-commercialization
#11
Khurram Sunasara, John Cundy, Sriram Srinivasan, Brad Evans, Weiqiang Sun, Scott Cook, Eric Bortell, John Farley, Daniel Griffin, Michele Bailey Piatchek, Katherine Arch-Douglas
The phrase "Process is the Product" is often applied to biologics, including multicomponent vaccines composed of complex components that evade complete characterization. Vaccine production processes must be defined and locked early in the development cycle to ensure consistent quality of the vaccine throughout scale-up, clinical studies, and commercialization. This approach of front-loading the development work helped facilitate the accelerated approval of the Biologic License Application for the well-characterized vaccine bivalent rLP2086 (Trumenba®, Pfizer Inc) in 2014 under Breakthrough Therapy Designation...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433224/the-importance-of-age-on-short-term-outcomes-associated-with-repair-of-giant-paraesophageal-hernias
#12
Mustapha A El Lakis, Stephen J Kaplan, Michal Hubka, Kamran Mohiuddin, Donald E Low
BACKGROUND: Older patients have an increased incidence of paraesophageal hernia (PEH) and can be denied surgical assessment due to the perception of increased complications and mortality. This study examines the influence of age and comorbidities on early complications and other short-term outcomes of PEH repair. METHODS: From 2000 to 2016, data of surgically treated patients with PEH were prospectively recorded in an Institutional Review Board-approved database...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#13
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432853/an-evidence-based-approach-to-reducing-cardiac-telemetry-alarm-fatigue
#14
Ekta Srinivasa, Jaspreet Mankoo, Charles Kerr
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that between 80% and 99% of alarms in the clinical areas are in actionable alarms (Gross, Dahl, & Nielson). Alarm management is one of the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals (2014) because sentinel events have directly been linked to the devices generating these alarms. PURPOSE: At an acute care facility in Boston, a multidisciplinary team consisting of Nursing, Biomedical Engineers, Patient Safety and Providers was formed to conduct a pilot study on the state of telemetry alarms on a surgical floor...
April 22, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432752/incretin-based-glucose-lowering-medications-and-the-risk-for-acute-pancreatitis-and-or-pancreatic-cancer-risk-reassuring-data-from-cardio-vascular-outcome-trials
#15
Michael A Nauck, Juris J Meier, Wolfgang E Schmidt
Incretin-based medications (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] are glucose-lowering drugs approved and introduced after 2006 (1). Although both classes of drugs appeared to be relatively safe based on results from clinical trials and standard animal toxicology studies, epidemiological data (2, 3) and histological findings (4) in genetically modified rodents exposed to such agents have raised concern that pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer may be long-term risks associated with this therapy...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432646/is-there-a-role-for-ivabradine-in-the-contemporary-management-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-in-academic-and-community-heart-failure-clinics-in-canada
#16
Sherryn Roth, Carlos Fernando, Sadia Azeem, Gordon W Moe
INTRODUCTION: In patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction, increased heart rate (HR) is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes. In systolic HF treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine trial (SHIFT), Ivabradine improved survival when added to conventional treatment including β-blockers. However, the extent of benefit in the real world is unclear. We examined the characteristics of patients on guideline-directed therapy and determined who had SHIFT-like characteristics...
April 21, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432645/efficacy-of-lomitapide-in-the-treatment-of-familial-homozygous-hypercholesterolemia-results-of-a-real-world-clinical-experience-in-italy
#17
Laura D'Erasmo, Angelo Baldassare Cefalù, Davide Noto, Antonina Giammanco, Maurizio Averna, Paolo Pintus, Paolo Medde, Giovanni Battista Vigna, Cesare Sirtori, Laura Calabresi, Chiara Pavanello, Marco Bucci, Carlo Sabbà, Patrizia Suppressa, Francesco Natale, Paolo Calabrò, Tiziana Sampietro, Federico Bigazzi, Francesco Sbrana, Katia Bonomo, Fulvio Sileo, Marcello Arca
INTRODUCTION: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare form of inherited dyslipidemia resistant to conventional cholesterol-lowering medications so that lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is usually required. Lomitapide has been approved for the treatment of HoFH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of lomitapide in HoFH patients followed with the usual clinical care. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected in 15 HoFH patients (10 with mutations in the LDLR gene and 5 in the LDLRAP1 gene) treated for at least 6 months with lomitapide in addition to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) in different Lipid Clinics across Italy...
April 21, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432640/osteoporosis-bone-mineral-density-and-ckd-mbd-treatment-considerations
#18
REVIEW
Jordi Bover, Lucía Bailone, Víctor López-Báez, Silvia Benito, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi, Mario Cozzolino
Osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have both independently important potential impact on bone health. A significant number of patients with CKD stages 3a-5D have been shown to have low bone mineral density (BMD), leading to a strikingly elevated risk of fractures (mainly hip fractures) and higher associated morbidity and mortality. Mechanical properties of bone beyond age and menopausal status are additionally affected by intrinsic uremic factors. Therefore, we review in this article not only general concepts of osteoporosis and related consequences, but also the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of low BMD and bone fractures in CKD, beyond increased vascular calcification...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432612/evaluation-of-the-analgesia-nociception-index-ani-in-healthy-awake-volunteers
#19
Rami Issa, Marco Julien, Elizabeth Décary, Olivier Verdonck, Louis-Philippe Fortier, Pierre Drolet, Philippe Richebé
BACKGROUND: Analgesia might be evaluated with simple changes in vital signs, a non-specific and non-sensitive method. Heart rate variability (HRV) correlates with autonomous nervous system activity and can be used to evaluate painful stimuli. Heart rate variability is then transformed into a numeric scale called the analgesia nociception index (ANI), where higher values represent predominant parasympathetic tone, thus low nociception. Under general anesthesia, the ANI decreases following painful stimuli and increases after administration of analgesia, but significant interindividual variability is present...
April 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432468/population-pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-acetaminophen-in-japanese-patients-undergoing-elective-surgery
#20
Tsuyoshi Imaizumi, Shinju Obara, Midori Mogami, Yuzo Iseki, Makiko Hasegawa, Masahiro Murakawa
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous (i.v.) acetaminophen is administered during surgery for postoperative analgesia. However, little information is available on the pharmacokinetics of i.v. acetaminophen in Japanese patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and registered at UMIN-CTR (UMIN000013418). Patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
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