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Yuji Itoh, Daniel Petkovsek, Peter K Kaiser, Rishi P Singh, Justis P Ehlers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features and functional outcomes for diabetic macular edema (DME) undergoing treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Institutional review board-approved, retrospective, consecutive case series of eyes receiving intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) for DME. SD-OCT features were evaluated and correlated with functional response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Roberto Hegg, André Mattar, João Nunes de Matos-Neto, José Luiz Pedrini, Sabina Bandeira Aleixo, Roberto Odebrecht Rocha, Renato Peixoto Cramer-Junior, Sylvie van-Eyll-Rocha
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of two filgrastim formulations for controlling chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and to evaluate the non-inferiority of the test drug relative to the originator. METHODS: This phase III non-inferiority study had a randomized, multicenter, and open-label design. The patients were randomized at a ratio of 1:1 with a follow-up period of 6 weeks for each patient. In both study arms, filgrastim was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg body weight...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Aline Iannone, Antonio Pedro de Mello Cruz, Joaquim Pereira Brasil-Neto, Raphael Boechat-Barros
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been investigated as a possible adjuvant treatment for many neuropsychiatric disorders, and has already been approved for the treatment of drug-resistant depression in the United States and in Brazil, among other countries. Although its use in other neuropsychiatric disorders is still largely experimental, many physicians have been using it as an off-label add-on therapy for various disorders. More recently, another technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has also become available as a much cheaper and portable alternative to TMS, although its mechanisms of action are different from those of TMS...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Flavia Petrini, Ida Di Giacinto, Rita Cataldo, Clelia Esposito, Vittorio Pavoni, Paolo Donato, Antonella Trolio, Guido Merli, Massimiliano Sorbello, Paolo Pelosi
Proper management of obese patients requires a team vision and appropriate behaviors by all health care providers in hospital. Specialist competencies are fundamental, as are specific clinical pathways and good clinical practices designed to deal with patients whose body mass index is ≥30 kg/m2. Standards of care for bariatric and non-bariatric surgery and for the critical care management of this population exist but are not well defined nor clearly followed in every hospital. Thus every anesthesiologist is likely to deal with this challenging population...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Andrew Scrima, Meghan G Lubner, Scott King, Gregory Kennedy, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To compare performance of junior (JR)/senior (SR) abdominal radiologists using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict surgical intervention, bowel resection, and presence of bowel ischemia in patients with suspected small-bowel obstruction (SBO). METHODS: Retrospective, institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, blinded, independent review of MDCT studies for suspected SBO in 179 adults (mean age, 55...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Takanori Masuda, Takeshi Nakaura, Yoshinori Funama, Toru Higaki, Masao Kiguchi, Naoyuki Imada, Tomoyasu Sato, Kazuo Awai
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. METHODS: This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Justin C Chia, P Régine Mydlarski
PURPOSE: Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the binding of IgE to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI) on the surface of mast cells and basophils. Omalizumab has been approved for use in asthma, and new reports show promise in a variety of dermatologic diseases. Herein, we review the literature on omalizumab in dermatology and discuss the safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action for this emerging therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMED, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched for the period January 1, 1990, to September 1, 2016...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Rebba C Boswell-Casteel, Franklin A Hays
Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are polytopic integral membrane proteins that mediate the transport of nucleosides, nucleobases, and therapeutic analogs. The best-characterized ENTs are the human transporters hENT1 and hENT2. However, non-mammalian eukaryotic ENTs have also been studied (e.g., yeast, parasitic protozoa). ENTs are major pharmaceutical targets responsible for modulating the efficacy of more than 30 approved drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms and chemical determinants of ENT-mediated substrate recognition, binding, inhibition, and transport are poorly understood...
October 19, 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Richard J Lin, Catherine S Diefenbach
Hodgkin lymphoma is a unique disease entity characterized by a low number of neoplastic tumor cells surrounded by an inflammatory microenvironment composed of dysfunctional immune cells. Recent molecular and genetic studies have revealed that upregulation of the immune checkpoint pathway programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 is a key oncogenic driver of Hodgkin lymphoma. Corroborating these mechanistic studies, early-phase clinical trials using the checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab in treatment regimens for relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma have demonstrated impressive response rates, a promising durability of response, and a favorable side-effect profile...
October 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Michael D Jibson, Lisa S Seyfried
OBJECTIVE: The publication of DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013 was accompanied by the release of a series of APA-approved "essential guides" to aid clinicians and trainees in its use and the transition from DSM-IV. Several of these were explicitly designated as study guides, but all serve educational as well as clinical functions. To assist trainees and educators in their selection of appropriate materials for study and teaching, several of these books were reviewed from the perspective of psychiatry education...
October 17, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
Leonard A Levin
Glaucoma is both the most common optic neuropathy worldwide and the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the world. The only proven treatment for glaucomatous optic neuropathy is lowering the intraocular pressure, achieved with a variety of pharmacological, laser, and surgical approaches. Over the past 2 decades there has been much basic and clinical research into achieving treatment of the underlying optic nerve damage with neuroprotective approaches. However, none has resulted in regulatory approval based on successful phase 3 studies...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jeganathan Manivannan, Manjunath Prashanth, Venkatesan Saravana Kumar, Manickaraj Shairam, Jayachandran Subburaj
Since there is no precise therapy for treating vascular calcification by directly targeting the vascular wall, we aim to unveil novel drug targets through mining the molecular effect of a high phosphate environment on vascular cells through computational methods. Here, we hypothesize that manipulation of the vascular pathogenic network by small molecule therapeutics predicted from prior knowledge might offer great promise. With this, we intend to understand the publicly available transcriptomic data of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exposed to the high phosphate induced vascular calcification milieu and to re-examine the above published experiments for reasons different from those examined in the previous studies through multilevel systems biological understanding...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Gyuho Song, Yeonho You, Wonjoon Jeong, Junwan Lee, Yongchul Cho, Seungwhan Lee, Seung Ryu, Jinwoong Lee, Seungwhan Kim, Insool Yoo
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to an acute myocardial infarction without cardiogenic shock required higher doses of vasopressors with low targeted temperature management (TTM) after return of spontaneous circulation. METHODS: We included consecutive comatose patients resuscitated from OHCA between January 2011 and December 2013. Patients with return of spontaneous circulation, regional wall motion abnormality on echocardiography, and coronary artery stenosis of ≥70% on percutaneous coronary artery angiography were enrolled...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Katja Knauer
BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005-2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the authorization procedure...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Muhammad W Saif, Melissa Smith, Antonio Maloney
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of the chemotherapy regimens approved for treatment of many malignancies, especially colorectal cancer (CRC). The incidence of cardiotoxicity associated with 5-FU ranges between 1.5% to 18% and is most commonly manifested as anginal symptoms. Cardiomyopathy is very rarely reported with 5-FU and capecitabine. A 35-year-old Caucasian male with T3, N1, M0 rectal cancer after the initial neoadjuvant chemoradiation with 5FU/LV followed by surgical abdominoperineal resection (APR), began mFOLFOX6 in the adjuvant setting...
September 14, 2016: Curēus
Laura C Cappelli, Ami A Shah, Clifton O Bingham
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are newly approved treatments for advanced malignancies that are increasing survival. The mechanism of these drugs, non-specifically activating T cells, also leads to immune-mediated damage of tissue or immune-related adverse events (IRAE). IRAEs with rheumatic phenotypes are increasingly being recognised. Inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, inflammatory myopathy, vasculitis and lupus nephritis have been described as a result of ICIs. Use of ICIs will be expanding in the coming years for several reasons...
2016: RMD Open
Angel R de Lera, A Ganesan
The modern drug discovery process has largely focused its attention in the so-called magic bullets, single chemical entities that exhibit high selectivity and potency for a particular target. This approach was based on the assumption that the deregulation of a protein was causally linked to a disease state, and the pharmacological intervention through inhibition of the deregulated target was able to restore normal cell function. However, the use of cocktails or multicomponent drugs to address several targets simultaneously is also popular to treat multifactorial diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Alexander Reinthaller
Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in normal ovarian physiology as well as in the formation and progression of ovarian cancer. Several well-designed phase II and III trials studied the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents in advanced ovarian cancer. The results of these trials demonstrated significantly prolonged progression-free survival when antiangiogenic agents were used as a maintenance therapy. To date, no effect on overall survival could be ascertained. The most widely studied antiangiogenic agent, bevacizumab - a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor - was effective in all phases of the disease (first-line therapy, platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrence)...
2016: Memo
Clemens Feistritzer, Stefan Schmidt
During the 57(th) annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology 2015 in Orlando, Florida, various aspects in the field of hemostaseology were presented. The Choosing Wisely® campaign pointed out the importance of the critical use of diagnostic tools to rule out pulmonary embolism and questioned the relevance of thrombophilia testing in women undergoing routine infertility evaluation. Furthermore, the approval of idarucizumab, a specific antidote for the reversal of the anticoagulant effects of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, was highlighted...
2016: Memo
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