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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231560/the-expanding-role-of-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Juan Martin-Liberal, María Ochoa de Olza, Cinta Hierro, Alena Gros, Jordi Rodon, Josep Tabernero
The use of agents able to modulate the immune system to induce or potentiate its anti-tumour activity is not a new strategy in oncology. However, the development of new agents such as immune checkpoint inhibitors has achieved unprecedented efficacy results in a wide variety of tumours, dramatically changing the landscape of cancer treatment in recent years. Ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab are now standard of care options in several malignancies and new indications are being approved on a regular basis in different tumours...
February 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230974/femtogram-resolution-of-iron-content-on-a-per-cell-basis-ex-vivo-storage-of-human-red-blood-cells-leads-to-loss-of-hemoglobin
#2
Jeffrey J Chalmers, Xiaoxia Jin, Andre Francis Palmer, Peter Amaya, Mark H Yazer, Lee R Moore, Kyoung-Joo Park, X Jeff Pan, Maciej Zborowski
The magnetic characteristics of hemoglobin (Hb) changes with the binding of dioxygen (O2) to the heme prosthetic groups of the globin chains: from paramagnetic ferrous Hb to diamagnetic ferrous oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) with reversibly bound O2, or paramagnetic ferric methemoglobin (metHb). When multiplied over the number of Hb molecules in a red blood cell (RBC), the effect is detectable through motion analysis of RBCs in a high magnetic field and gradient. This motion is referred to as magnetophoretic mobility which can be conveniently expressed as a fraction of the cell sedimentation coefficient...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230973/unique-opto-electronic-structure-and-photo-reduction-properties-of-sulfur-doped-lead-chromates-explaining-their-instability-in-paintings
#3
Vanousheh Rahemi, Nasrin Sarmadian, Willemien Anaf, Koen Janssens, Dirk Lamoen, Bart Partoens, Karolien De Wael
Chrome yellow refers to a group of synthetic inorganic pigments that became popular as an artist's material from the second quarter of the 19th century. The color of the pigment, in which the chromate ion acts as a chromophore, is related to its chemical composition (PbCr1-xSxO4, with 0≤x≤0.8) and crystalline structure (monoclinic/orthorhombic). Their shades range from the yellow-orange to the paler yellow tones with increasing sulfate amount. These pigments show remarkable signs of degradation after limited time periods...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230969/anatase-101-like-structural-model-revealed-for-metastable-rutile-tio2-011-surface
#4
Meiling Xu, Sen Shao, Bo Gao, Jian Lv, Quan Li, Yanchao Wang, Hui Wang, Lijun Zhang, Yanming Ma
Titanium dioxide has been widely used as efficient transition metal oxide photocatalyst. However, its photocatalytic activity is limited to ultraviolet spectrum range due to the deficient large bandgap beyond 3 eV. Efforts towards to reduce the bandgap for achieving a broader spectrum range of light absorption are attempted with a success on the experimental synthesis of dopant-free metastable surface structure of rutile-type TiO2 (011) 21. This new surface phase possesses a much reduced bandgap of ~2.1 eV, showing a great potential for an excellent photocatalyst covering a wide range of visible light...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230783/acute-toxicities-of-the-saxitoxin-congeners-gonyautoxin-5-gonyautoxin-6-decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2-3-decarbamoyl-neosaxitoxin-c-1-2-and-c-3-4-to-mice-by-various-routes-of-administration
#5
Andrew I Selwood, Craig Waugh, David T Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, John Reeve, Jim Sim, Rex Munday
Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230773/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-tumor-expression-is-associated-with-a-better-prognosis-and-diabetic-disease-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#6
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Federica Rao, Valentina Peluso, Rossella De Cecio, Michela Piezzo, Gabriella Landi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230717/imaging-performance-of-a-handheld-ultrasound-system-with-real-time-computer-aided-detection-of-lumbar-spine-anatomy-a-feasibility-study
#7
Mohamed Tiouririne, Adam J Dixon, F William Mauldin, David Scalzo, Arun Krishnaraj
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging performance of a handheld ultrasound system and the accuracy of an automated lumbar spine computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm in the spines of human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Virginia. The authors designed a handheld ultrasound system with enhanced bone image quality and fully automated CAD of lumbar spine anatomy...
February 22, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230633/insights-into-cryotherapy-and-joint-bleeding-cryotherapy-and-hemophilia
#8
Roya Ravanbod, Giti Torkaman, Mehdi Hedayati, Mohammad Esmaeil Zandi Nezhad
There is some controversy over the use of cryotherapy. Low temperatures (Temp) could interfere with coagulation and increase the risk of bleeding. We sought to examine the effect of cryotherapy on joint swelling, temperature, friction, and inflammatory condition after experimental hemarthrosis. The left knee of 23 albino rabbits, 10 in heparin Ice, five in citrate Ice, four in heparin control, and four in citrate control were injected intraarticularly with 1 ml of blood. In total, four animals were considered to be in normal control group...
February 21, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230615/the-effect-of-intravenous-acetaminophen-on-postoperative-pain-and-narcotic-consumption-after-vaginal-reconstructive-surgery-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Catrina C Crisp, Madiha Khan, Donna L Lambers, Lauren B Westermann, Donna M Mazloomdoost, Jennifer J Yeung, Steven D Kleeman, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of intravenous acetaminophen versus placebo on postoperative pain, satisfaction with pain control, and narcotic use after vaginal reconstructive surgery. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Women scheduled for reconstructive surgery including vaginal hysterectomy and vaginal vault suspension were enrolled. Subjects received 1000 mg of intravenous acetaminophen or 100 mL placebo every 6 hours for 24 hours...
March 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230458/progression-to-type-2-diabetes-and-its-effect-on-health-care-costs-in-low-income-and-insured-patients-with-prediabetes-a-retrospective-study-using-medicaid-claims-data
#10
Jun Wu, Eileen Ward, Tiffaney Threatt, Z Kevin Lu
BACKGROUND: Prediabetes is a high-risk factor for progression to diabetes. Without lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and moderate physical activity, 15%-30% of people with prediabetes are projected to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years. Progression to diabetes increases the financial burden significantly for patients and health care systems. Populations with low socioeconomic status are associated with a higher risk of diabetes. However, knowledge is limited about the effect of transition to diabetes on future costs incurred in low-income populations...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230456/off-label-prescribing-for-children-with-migraines-in-u-s-ambulatory-care-settings
#11
L Leanne Lai, Leroy Koh, Jane Ai-Chen Ho, Alexander Ting, Augustine Obi
BACKGROUND: Migraines, Which Affect About 10% Of School-Age Children In The United States, Can Significantly Impair Quality Of Life. Despite Potential Disability, Many Children Do Not Receive Treatment Or Prophylaxis, Since Medications Specifically Approved For Children Are Significantly Less Than For Adults. There Is Also Controversy Surrounding The Apparent Widespread Practice Of Prescribing Off-Label Medications For Children With Migraines. However, Little Research Has Been Done To Identify Physician-Prescribing Patterns Of Migraine Medication For Children...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230450/characteristics-and-medication-use-of-psoriasis-patients-who-may-or-may-not-qualify-for-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
William Malatestinic, Beth Nordstrom, Jashin J Wu, Orin Goldblum, Kathleen Solotkin, Chen-Yen Lin, Kristin Kistler, Kathy Fraeman, Joseph Johnston, Lcdr Lesley Hawley, Nicholas Sicignano, Andre Araujo
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials impose exclusion criteria that may limit the generalizability of results. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine the percentage of real-world patients who would qualify for psoriasis randomized controlled trials; (b) ascertain differences between moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients who would be eligible, ineligible, or potentially eligible for clinical trials; and (c) compare their biologic treatment patterns. METHODS: Moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients were identified from the U...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230446/economic-impact-of-treatment-duration-and-persistence-with-basal-insulin-in-previously-insulin-naive-users
#13
Samaneh Kalirai, Ran Duan, Dongju Liu, Beverly L Reed
BACKGROUND: Although insulin is a well-established therapy that is associated with improved clinical outcomes, adherence and persistence with insulin regimens are poor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diabetes-related health care costs and the impact of insulin persistence patterns on these health care costs have been previously studied; however, these aspects of insulin therapy have limited data beyond the first year of use and have not been characterized among patients previously naive to basal insulin...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230269/antigenic-burden-and-serum-igg-concentrations-influence-rituximab-pharmacokinetics-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#14
Bertrand Lioger, Soujanya Ratna Edupuganti, Denis Mulleman, Christophe Passot, Céline Desvignes, Théodora Bejan-Angoulvant, Gilles Thibault, Valérie Gouilleux-Gruart, Julien Mélet, Gilles Paintaud, David Ternant
AIMS: Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, which is approved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed at assessing the influence of CD19+ cell counts as target-antigen amount, and of immunoglobulin G (IgG) serum concentrations on rituximab pharmacokinetics in RA patients. METHODS: In a cohort of 64 RA patients who had received repetitive courses of rituximab, the influence of CD19+ cell count, IgG serum concentration, body surface area (BSA), sex, and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) on rituximab pharmacokinetic parameters was assessed using a population pharmacokinetic analysis...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230019/application-of-colon-interposition-among-the-esophageal-cancer-patients-with-partial-gastrectomy
#15
Qiuqiang Chen, Weimin Mao, Huanming Yu, Yixian Liang, Jiane Wang, Guoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Esophageal reconstruction with colon interposition is an alternative solution for the esophageal cancer patients who have partial gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of colon interposition among the esophageal carcinoma patients with partial gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under institutional review board approval, 32 esophageal carcinoma patients with a history of partial gastrectomy were included in this study...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230008/analysis-of-therapeutic-effectiveness-and-prognostic-factor-on-argon-helium-cryoablation-combined-with-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Chen Huang, Weizhao Zhuang, Huigang Feng, Huizhuang Guo, Yukuan Tang, Hanwei Chen, Yi Huang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness on argon-helium cryoablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its influence factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This trial was approved by the Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital Ethics Committee. This was a prospective, single-center study conducted in Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital. After informed consent was obtained, the prospective randomized clinical data of 120 patients with advanced HCC were collected...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229907/expression-and-functional-evaluation-of-biopharmaceuticals-made-in-plant-chloroplasts
#17
REVIEW
Bei Zhang, Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Henry Daniell
After approval of the first plant-made biopharmaceutical by FDA for human use, many protein drugs are now in clinical development. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in expression of heterologous complex/large proteins in chloroplasts of edible plants using codon optimized human or viral genes. Furthermore, advances in quantification enable determination of in-planta drug dosage. Oral delivery of plastid-made biopharmaceuticals (PMB) is affordable because it eliminates prohibitively expensive fermentation, purification processes addressing major challenges of short shelf-life after cold storage...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229846/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-recommendations-in-portugal
#18
Célia Costa, Margarida Gonçalo
Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a complex disorder, of unclear etiology, easily diagnosed although often difficult to treat. It has a significant impact on the patients' quality of life and results in high direct and indirect costs. The diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria is mainly clinical and a limited number of tests is recommended for differential diagnosis and/or for the investigation/exclusion of possible causes. In addition to the complete blood count and C-reactive protein, and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, additional tests must be selected according to clinical criteria...
November 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229593/development-of-laser-structured-liquid-infused-titanium-with-strong-biofilm-repellent-properties
#19
Katharina Doll, Elena Fadeeva, Joern Schaeske, Tobias Ehmke, Andreas Winkel, Alexander Heisterkamp, Boris N Chichkov, Meike Stiesch, Nico S Stumpp
Medical implants are commonly used in modern medicine but still harbor the risk of microbial infections caused by bacterial biofilms. As their retrospective treatment is difficult, there is a need for biomedical materials, which inhibit bacterial colonization from the start without using antibacterial agents, as these can promote resistance development. The promising concept of slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) possesses enormous potential for this purpose. In the present study, this principle was applied to titanium, a common material in implantology, and its biofilm-repellent properties were demonstrated...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229493/issues-with-monitoring-the-safety-of-psychoactive-products-under-a-legal-regulated-market-for-new-psychoactive-substances-legal-highs-in-new-zealand
#20
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins, Karen Witten
INTRODUCTION: New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. AIM: To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically...
February 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
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