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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546756/new-developments-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-squamous-cell-lung-cancer-focus-on-afatinib
#1
REVIEW
Vera Hirsh
Until recently, few treatment options existed for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung, especially in the second-line setting following platinum-based chemotherapy. Accordingly, outcomes in this subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were generally poor. In this context, the recent availability of the checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, the anti-VEGFR2 antibody ramucirumab (combined with docetaxel), and the ErbB-family blocker afatinib for the treatment of relapsed/refractory SqCC of the lung represent major advances...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545532/cytotoxicity-of-the-methanol-extracts-of-elephantopus-mollis-kalanchoe-crenata-and-4-other-cameroonian-medicinal-plants-towards-human-carcinoma-cells
#2
Victor Kuete, Fabrice W Fokou, Oğuzhan Karaosmanoğlu, Veronique P Beng, Hülya Sivas
BACKGROUND: Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. METHODS: In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated...
May 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543074/wwc3-regulates-the-wnt-and-hippo-pathways-via-dvls-and-lats1-to-suppress-lung-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis
#3
Qiang Han, Xuyong Lin, Xiupeng Zhang, Guiyang Jiang, Yong Zhang, Yuan Miao, Xuezhu Rong, Xiaoying Zheng, Yong Han, Xu Han, Jingjing Wu, Joachim Kremerskothen, Enhua Wang
The scaffolding protein WWC (WW and C2-domain containing) family is known to regulate cell proliferation and organ size via the Hippo signalling pathway. However, the expression level of WWC3 in human tumours and the mechanisms underlying its role in cellular signal transduction have not yet been reported. Herein, we explored the potential roles of WWC3 in lung cancer cells and the corresponding molecular mechanisms. We found low WWC3 expression in both lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer specimens, which was associated with low differentiation, advanced p-TNM stage, positive lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542283/shared-susceptibility-loci-at-2q33-region-for-lung-and-esophageal-cancers-in-high-incidence-areas-of-esophageal-cancer-in-northern-china
#4
Xue Ke Zhao, Yi Min Mao, Hui Meng, Xin Song, Shou Jia Hu, Shuang Lv, Rang Cheng, Tang Juan Zhang, Xue Na Han, Jing Li Ren, Yi Jun Qi, Li Dong Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542165/subtypes-of-native-american-ancestry-and-leading-causes-of-death-mapuche-ancestry-specific-associations-with-gallbladder-cancer-risk-in-chile
#5
Justo Lorenzo Bermejo, Felix Boekstegers, Rosa González Silos, Katherine Marcelain, Pablo Baez Benavides, Carol Barahona Ponce, Bettina Müller, Catterina Ferreccio, Jill Koshiol, Christine Fischer, Barbara Peil, Janet Sinsheimer, Macarena Fuentes Guajardo, Olga Barajas, Rolando Gonzalez-Jose, Gabriel Bedoya, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Carla Gallo, Andres Ruiz Linares, Francisco Rothhammer
Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539467/b7-h3-expression-in-nsclc-and-its-association-with-b7-h4-pd-l1-and-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#6
Mehmet Altan, Vasiliki Pelekanou, Kurt A Schalper, Maria I Toki, Patricia Gaule, Konstantinos N Syrigos, Roy S Herbst, David L Rimm
Background and Purpose: <p>The immune checkpoint PD-1 and its receptor B7-H1 (PD-L1) are successful therapeutic targets in cancer but less is known about other B7 family members.  Here, we determined the expression level of B7-H3 protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluated its association with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), PD-L1, B7-H4 and major clinico-pathological characteristics is in 3 NSCLC cohorts.</p> <p>Experimental design:</p> <p>We used multiplexed automated quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) to assess the levels of B7-H3, PD-L1, B7-H4 and TILs in 634 NSCLC cases with validated antibodies...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536364/hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-cancer-focus-on-hif-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#7
REVIEW
Laura D'Ignazio, Michael Batie, Sonia Rocha
Cancer is often characterised by the presence of hypoxia and inflammation. Paramount to the mechanisms controlling cellular responses under such stress stimuli, are the transcription factor families of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) and Nuclear Factor of κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Although, a detailed understating of how these transcription factors respond to their cognate stimulus is well established, it is now appreciated that HIF and NF-κB undergo extensive crosstalk, in particular in pathological situations such as cancer...
May 9, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535153/high-energy-particle-beam-and-gamma-radiation-exposure-familial-relatedness-and-cancer-in-mice
#8
Pavel Chernyavskiy, Elijah F Edmondson, Michael M Weil, Mark P Little
BACKGROUND: Some highly penetrant familial cancer syndromes exhibit elevated leukaemia risk, and there is evidence for familial clustering of lung cancer and other common cancers. Lung cancer and leukaemia are strongly radiogenic, but there are few indications that high-energy beam irradiation is markedly more effective than lower-energy radiation. METHODS: We used a Cox model with familially structured random effects to assess 16 mortality end points in a group of 1850 mice in 47 families maintained in a circular-breeding scheme, exposed to accelerated Si or Fe ions (0...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534947/research-and-progress-on-clc%C3%A2-2-review
#9
Hongwei Wang, Minghui Xu, Qingjie Kong, Peng Sun, Fengyun Yan, Wenying Tian, Xin Wang
Chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is one of the nine mammalian members of the ClC family. The present review discusses the molecular properties of ClC‑2, including CLCN2, ClC‑2 promoter and the structural properties of ClC‑2 protein; physiological properties; functional properties, including the regulation of cell volume. The effects of ClC‑2 on the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, nervous and optical systems are also discussed, in addition to the mechanisms involved in the regulation of ClC‑2. The review then discusses the diseases associated with ClC‑2, including degeneration of the retina, Sjögren's syndrome, age‑related cataracts, degeneration of the testes, azoospermia, lung cancer, constipation, repair of impaired intestinal mucosa barrier, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, leukoencephalopathy, epilepsy and diabetes mellitus...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532411/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-2-knock-in-mice-show-increased-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-response-to-cisplatin-treatment
#10
Jeewon Kim, Che-Hong Chen, Jieying Yang, Daria Mochly-Rosen
BACKGROUND: The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme family metabolizes and detoxifies both exogenous and endogenous aldehydes. Since chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, generate cytotoxic aldehydes and oxidative stress, and chemoresistant cancer cells express high levels of ALDH enzymes, we hypothesized that different ALDH expression within cells may show different chemosensitivity. ALDH2 has the lowest Km for acetaldehyde among ALDH isozymes and detoxifies acetaldehydes in addition to other reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-nonenal, malondialdehyde and acrolein produced from lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529457/deguelin-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-mice
#11
Zhang Bao, Pei Zhang, Yinan Yao, Guohua Lu, Zhongkai Tong, Bing Yan, Lingfang Tu, Guangdie Yang, Jianying Zhou
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling, resulting in a substantial economic burden on both patients and society. Deguelin, a constituent of the Leguminosae family, exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in cancer mice models via inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and the NF-κB pathway. We demonstrated that deguelin effectively reduced OVA-induced inflammatory cell recruitment, decreased lung tissue inflammation and mucus production, suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness, and inhibited serum immunoglobulin and Th2 cytokine levels in a dose-dependent manner in asthmatic mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525368/indirubin-improves-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-functions-in-lipopolysaccharide-challenged-mice
#12
Tianjie Qi, Haitao Li, Shuai Li
Indirubin, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation from the Muricidae family, has been reported to exhibit abroad anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities and mediate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of indirubin on LPS-induced acute lung injury and the potential mechanism in mice. The results showed that LPS treatment caused oxidative stress and inflammation in mice. Indirubin alleviated LPS-caused oxidative stress and inflammation via reducing MDA abundance and IL-1β and TNF-α expressions in mice...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521455/kdm3a-promotes-inhibitory-cytokines-secretion-by-participating-in-tlr4-regulation-of-foxp3-transcription-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#13
Yinan Li, Wei Yang, Bin Wu, Yaqing Liu, Dongbei Li, Yantong Guo, Haiying Fu, Yi Li
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition receptors, a member of the Toll-like receptor family and it serves a role in innate and acquired immunity. It has previously been reported that TLR4 was overexpressed in a variety of tumor tissues and cells, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and ovarian cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, the TLR4 signaling pathway may be activated in order to upregulate forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) expression in regulatory T cells (Tregs), and thus enhance the immunosuppressive function of Tregs...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521440/t-box-3-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Yueming Wu, Jiang Feng, Weiwei Hu, Yawei Zhang
T-box 3 (Tbx3), a member of the T-box transcription factor family, serves a crucial role in embryonic development and cancer progression. Previous studies have demonstrated the clinical significance of Tbx3 in numerous types of cancer. However, the expression level and pathological function of Tbx3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first evidence demonstrating the clinicopathological significance of Tbx3 in NSCLC. Tbx3 was revealed to be overexpressed in NSCLC cell lines and tissues obtained from patients with NSCLC by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521156/2-oxo-3-4-dihydropyrimido-4-5-d-pyrimidinyl-derivatives-as-new-irreversible-pan-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-fgfr-inhibitors
#15
Xueqiang Li, Christopher P Guise, Rana Taghipouran, Yuliana Yosaatmadja, Amir Ashoorzadeh, Woo-Kyong Paik, Christopher J Squire, Shuang Jiang, Jinfeng Luo, Yong Xu, Zheng-Chao Tu, Xiaoyun Lu, Xiaomei Ren, Adam V Patterson, Jeff B Smaill, Ke Ding
A series of 2-oxo-3, 4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]-pyrimidinyl derivatives were designed and synthesized as new irreversible inhibitors of the FGFR family. One of the most promising compounds 2l potently inhibited FGFR1/2/3 with IC50 values of 1.06, 0.84 and 5.38 nM, respectively, whereas its potency against FGFR4 was diminished by an order of magnitude. Compound 2l strongly suppresses the proliferation of FGFR1-amplified H520 non-small cell lung cancer cells, FGFR2-amplified SUM52 breast cancer cells and FGFR3-amplified SW780 bladder cancer cells with low nanomolar IC50 values, but was significantly less potent against four FGFR-negative cancer cell lines, with low micromolar IC50 values...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518146/acyl-coa-thioesterase-7-is-involved-in-cell-cycle-progression-via-regulation-of-pkc%C3%AE-p53-p21-signaling-pathway
#16
Seung Hee Jung, Hyung Chul Lee, Hyun Jung Hwang, Hyun A Park, Young-Ah Moon, Bong Cho Kim, Hyeong Min Lee, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yong-Nyun Kim, Byung Lan Lee, Jae Cheol Lee, Young-Gyu Ko, Heon Joo Park, Jae-Seon Lee
Acyl-CoA thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) is a major isoform of the ACOT family that catalyzes hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids and CoA-SH. However, canonical and non-canonical functions of ACOT7 remain to be discovered. In this study, for the first time, ACOT7 was shown to be responsive to genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR) and the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin in time- and dose-dependent manners. ACOT7 knockdown induced cytostasis via activation of the p53-p21 signaling pathway without a DNA damage response...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#17
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515040/a-systematic-review-of-overlapping-microrna-patterns-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
REVIEW
Gianluca Bagnato, William Neal Roberts, Jesse Roman, Sebastiano Gangemi
Lung fibrosis can be observed in systemic sclerosis and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, two disorders where lung involvement carries a poor prognosis. Although much has been learned about the pathogenesis of these conditions, interventions capable of reversing or, at the very least, halting disease progression are not available. Recent studies point to the potential role of micro messenger RNAs (microRNAs) in cancer and tissue fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNA sequences (20-23 nucleotides) that are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved and encoded in the genome...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512015/the-association-between-mir-34-dysregulation-and-distant-metastases-formation-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#19
Iben Daugaard, Alice Knudsen, Tina E Kjeldsen, Henrik Hager, Lise Lotte Hansen
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst human cancers and the majority of deaths can be attributed to metastatic spread. The miR-34 family includes three tumor suppressive miRs: miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c. miR-34 downregulation is a frequent observation in human malignancies and is often attributed to hypermethylation of the miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoters. Here, the potential association between aberrant miR-34 expression and promoter methylation and distant metastases formation in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is investigated...
May 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503645/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-an-innovation-in-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-and-management-of-patients-with-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer Dine, RuthAnn Gordon, Yelena Shames, Mary Kate Kasler, Margaret Barton-Burke
Cancer survival rates are generally increasing in the United States. These trends have been partially attributed to improvement in therapeutic strategies. Cancer immunotherapy is an example of one of the newer strategies used to fight cancer, which primes or activates the immune system to produce antitumor effects. The first half of this review paper concisely describes the cell mechanisms that control antitumor immunity and the major immunotherapeutic strategies developed to target these mechanisms. The second half of the review discusses in greater depth immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently demonstrated tremendous promise for the treatment of diverse solid tumor types, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and others...
April 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
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