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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081169/assessment-of-a-96-well-plate-assay-of-quantitative-drug-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-china
#1
Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Bing Zhao, Susan van den Hof, Frank Cobelens, YanLin Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. METHODS: A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042035/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-the-alanine-racemase-from-streptomyces-coelicolor-a3-2
#2
Raffaella Tassoni, Lizah T van der Aart, Marcellus Ubbink, Gilles P van Wezel, Navraj S Pannu
The conversion of L-alanine (L-Ala) into D-alanine (D-Ala) in bacteria is performed by pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes called alanine racemases. D-Ala is an essential component of the bacterial peptidoglycan and hence required for survival. The Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has at least one alanine racemase encoded by alr. Here, we describe an alr deletion mutant of S. coelicolor which depends on D-Ala for growth and shows increased sensitivity to the antibiotic D-cycloserine (DCS). The crystal structure of the alanine racemase (Alr) was solved with and without the inhibitors DCS or propionate, at 1...
December 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018227/bidirectional-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-contextual-fear-memory-extinction
#3
Chenchen Song, Carl W Stevenson, Francisco S Guimaraes, Jonathan L C Lee
Cannabidiol (CBD) has been established to have both acute and long-lasting effects to reduce fear memory expression. The long-lasting impact might be mediated by an enhancement of memory extinction or an impairment of memory reconsolidation. Here, we directly compared the effects of i.p. injections of cannabidiol (10 mg/kg) with those of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) and partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS; 15 mg/kg) in order to determine the mnemonic basis of long-term fear reduction. We showed that under conditions of strong fear conditioning, CBD reduced contextual fear memory expression both acutely during the extinction session as well as later at a fear retention test...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011331/multi-drug-resistant-female-genital-tuberculosis-a-preliminary-report
#4
J B Sharma, Alka Kriplani, Eshani Sharma, Sangeeta Sharma, Sona Dharmendra, Sunesh Kumar, P Vanamail, S K Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of 6 patients presenting with tubo-ovarian mass or infertility with multi drug resistant (MDR) female genital tuberculosis (FGTB). STUDY DESIGN: It was an observational study in a tertiary referral centre, India on subjects with MDR FGTB on clinical examination and investigations. All patients were given category IV drugs using kanamycin (intramuscular), levofloxacin, pyrazinamide, cycloserine, ethionamide and ethambutol (or para aminosalicylic acid [PAS] for ethambutol resistant cases) for 6 months intensive phase followed by oral levofloxacin, cycloserine, ethionamide and ethambutol (or PAS for ethambutol resistant cases) for 18 months continuation phase...
December 12, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990477/the-effect-of-d-cycloserine-on-social-anxiety-treatment-using-a-behavioral-outcome-measure-and-a-post-session-administration-strategy
#5
Christina M Sheerin, Andrea T Kozak, Andrew C Hale, Bcba, Bangalore K Ramesh, C Richard Spates
BACKGROUND: The drug D-Cycloserine (DCS) has been used as an adjunct to increase the pace of symptom reductions during exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. This procedure has met with mixed results andmany questions remain. Aims: The findings from two investigations are reported here, highlighting important domains for furthering our understanding of DCS effects. METHOD: Study 1 (n = 16) treated social anxiety among a sample of emerging adults, and in addition to self-report utilized a behavioral measure of symptom improvement to evaluate outcomes...
August 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957784/d-cycloserine-enhanced-extinction-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-is-attenuated-in-serotonin-transporter-knockout-rats
#6
Peter Karel, Francesca Calabrese, Marco Riva, Paola Brivio, Bas Van der Veen, Liesbeth Reneman, Michel Verheij, Judith Homberg
d-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA receptor agonist, has been proposed as a cognitive enhancer to facilitate the extinction of drug-related memories. However, it is unknown whether there are individual differences in the efficacy of DCS. Here, we set out to investigate the influence of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype on DCS treatment outcome and the underlying neural mechanism. To that end, we first determined the mRNA levels of several NMDA receptor subunits and observed a reduction in NR1/NR2C receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of 5-HTT(-/-) compared with 5-HTT(+/+) rats...
December 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931146/d-cycloserine-restores-experience-dependent-neuroplasticity-after-tbi-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#7
Naomi Sulit Sta Maria, Maxine Lane Reger, Yan Cai, Mary Anne Tezheart Mercado Baquing, Floyd Buen, Aditya Ponnaluri, David Hovda, Neil G Harris, Christopher C Giza
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children can cause persisting cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and inevitably raises concerns about lost potential in these injured youths. Lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in weanling rats pathologically affects hippocampal NMDAR- and AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission subacutely, within the first post-injury week. FPI to weanling rats has also been shown to impair enriched-environment (EE) induced enhancement of Morris water maze (MWM) learning and memory in adulthood...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#8
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903101/d-cycloserine-an-nmda-glutamate-receptor-glycine-site-partial-agonist-induces-acute-increases-in-brain-glutamate-plus-glutamine-and-gaba-comparable-to-ketamine
#9
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Matthew S Milak, Xiangling Mao, Dikoma C Shungu, J John Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852965/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-d-cycloserine-in-people-with-chronic-back-pain
#10
Thomas J Schnitzer, Souraya Torbey, Kristi Herrmann, Gagan Kaushal, Renita Yeasted, A Vania Apkarian
BACKGROUND: Few effective pharmacological treatment options exist for chronic back pain, the leading cause of disability in the US, and all are associated with significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of D-cycloserine, a partial agonist to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, in the treatment of chronic low back pain. METHODS: A total of 41 participants with chronic back pain who met all inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of D-cycloserine...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837332/effects-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-ligands-on-sensitivity-to-reinforcer-magnitude-and-delayed-reinforcement-in-a-delay-discounting-procedure
#11
Justin R Yates, Benjamin T Gunkel, Katherine K Rogers, Mallory N Hughes, Nicholas A Prior
RATIONALE: The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been recently identified as an important mediator of impulsive choice, as assessed in delay discounting. Although discounting is independently influenced by sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delayed reinforcement, few studies have examined how NMDA receptor ligands differentially affect these parameters. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the effects of various NMDA receptor ligands on sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delayed reinforcement in a delay-discounting procedure...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825808/dissociation-in-the-effects-of-stress-and-d1-receptors-activation-on-basolateral-amygdalar-ltp-in-juvenile-and-adult-animals
#12
Rachel Schayek, Mouna Maroun
Post-weaning or juvenility is a critical developmental stage during which neural structures as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala and the neurotransmitter systems undergo major reorganization and thus are susceptible to the effects of environmental factors. Interactions between the mPFC and the amygdala are critical for fear regulation. Changes in plasticity in the projections from the mPFC to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were previously shown following stress and fear. In the present study, we examined possible differences between adult and PW animals in the (1) effects of exposure to stress on BLA- LTP and (2) the possible dependency of mPFC-BLA LTP on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and Dopamine (D) receptors activation...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815216/pharmacological-evidence-that-a-failure-to-recruit-nmda-receptors-contributes-to-impaired-fear-extinction-retention-in-adolescent-rats
#13
Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson
Adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction of fear relative to younger and older groups which could be caused by a failure to efficiently recruit NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in adolescence. It is well-established that systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists (e.g., MK801) before extinction training impairs the retention of extinction in adult and juvenile rodents, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for adolescents. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of pharmacologically manipulating the NMDAR on extinction retention in adolescent rats...
November 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771572/d-cycloserine-does-not-enhance-the-effects-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-exposure-among-young-people-with-broad-based-anxiety-disorders
#14
Ronald M Rapee, Michael P Jones, Jennifer L Hudson, Gin S Malhi, Heidi J Lyneham, Sophie C Schneider
Use of the partial NMDA receptor agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) to increase extinction to feared cues among anxious adults has shown mixed, although overall positive effects. Few studies have extended this effect to youth and none have addressed young people with broad-based anxiety such as separation anxiety, social anxiety, or generalised anxiety. In the current trial 51 children and adolescents with diagnosed anxiety disorders, aged 7-14 years received four sessions of graduated, experimenter-led, in vivo exposure to a hierarchy of feared cues relevant to their primary fear...
October 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738380/treatment-resistant-depression-with-loss-of-antidepressant-response-rapid-acting-antidepressant-action-of-dextromethorphan-a-possible-treatment-bridging-molecule
#15
Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735167/gitelman-like-syndrome-with-kanamycin-toxicity
#16
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Avik Karak, Somnath Mukhopadhay
A 22 year-old lady with multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was on Kanamycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Pyrazinamide and Moxifloxacin since more than two months. She presented with muscle cramps and carpopedal spasm. Investigation revealed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. She also had hypomagnesemia, hypochloremia and hypocalciuria. Serum urea and creatinine levels were normal. Patient was treated with intravenous and oral potassium chloride. Kanamycin was stopped. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia improved gradually over one month...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734910/development-of-a-one-pot-assay-for-screening-and-identification-of-mur-pathway-inhibitors-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Kandasamy Eniyan, Anuradha Kumar, Geetha Vani Rayasam, Andrej Perdih, Urmi Bajpai
The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) consists of peptidoglycan, arabinogalactan and mycolic acids. The cytoplasmic steps in the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, catalyzed by the Mur (A-F) enzymes, involve the synthesis of UDP-n-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, a key precursor molecule required for the formation of the peptidoglycan monomeric building blocks. Mur enzymes are indispensable for cell integrity and their lack of counterparts in eukaryotes suggests them to be promising Mtb drug targets...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702572/acute-high-intensity-noise-induces-rapid-arc-protein-expression-but-fails-to-rapidly-change-gad-expression-in-amygdala-and-hippocampus-of-rats-effects-of-treatment-with-d-cycloserine
#18
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687968/a-facile-stereoselective-synthesis-of-dispiro-indeno-pyrrolidine-pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman-hybrids-and-evaluation-of-their-antimycobacterial-anticancer-and-ache-inhibitory-activities
#19
Chelliah Bharkavi, Sundaravel Vivek Kumar, Mohamed Ashraf Ali, Hasnah Osman, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian, Subbu Perumal
A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630000/-drugs-for-improvement-of-motor-deficits-after-stroke
#20
J Liepert
Randomized controlled trials with a variety of drugs have been performed for approximately 20 years in order to support functional restitution of motor deficits after a stroke. Nowadays, serotonin reuptake inhibitors show the highest level of evidence due to the largest number of positive studies and L‑dopa also seems to be effective; however, much fewer studies have been conducted. In the majority of trials amphetamines provided no additional benefits and D‑cycloserine cannot be recommended either. Future therapeutic approaches, e...
October 2016: Der Nervenarzt
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