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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#1
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903101/d-cycloserine-an-nmda-glutamate-receptor-glycine-site-partial-agonist-induces-acute-increases-in-brain-glutamate-plus-glutamine-and-gaba-comparable-to-ketamine
#2
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Matthew S Milak, Xiangling Mao, Dikoma C Shungu, J John Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852965/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-d-cycloserine-in-people-with-chronic-back-pain
#3
Thomas J Schnitzer, Souraya Torbey, Kristi Herrmann, Gagan Kaushal, Renita Yeasted, A Vania Apkarian
BACKGROUND: Few effective pharmacological treatment options exist for chronic back pain, the leading cause of disability in the US, and all are associated with significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of D-cycloserine, a partial agonist to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, in the treatment of chronic low back pain. METHODS: A total of 41 participants with chronic back pain who met all inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of D-cycloserine...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837332/effects-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-ligands-on-sensitivity-to-reinforcer-magnitude-and-delayed-reinforcement-in-a-delay-discounting-procedure
#4
Justin R Yates, Benjamin T Gunkel, Katherine K Rogers, Mallory N Hughes, Nicholas A Prior
RATIONALE: The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been recently identified as an important mediator of impulsive choice, as assessed in delay discounting. Although discounting is independently influenced by sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delayed reinforcement, few studies have examined how NMDA receptor ligands differentially affect these parameters. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the effects of various NMDA receptor ligands on sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude and delayed reinforcement in a delay-discounting procedure...
November 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825808/dissociation-in-the-effects-of-stress-and-d1-receptors-activation-on-basolateral-amygdalar-ltp-in-juvenile-and-adult-animals
#5
Rachel Schayek, Mouna Maroun
Post-weaning or juvenility is a critical developmental stage during which neural structures as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala and the neurotransmitter systems undergo major reorganization and thus are susceptible to the effects of environmental factors. Interactions between the mPFC and the amygdala are critical for fear regulation. Changes in plasticity in the projections from the mPFC to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were previously shown following stress and fear. In the present study, we examined possible differences between adult and PW animals in the (1) effects of exposure to stress on BLA- LTP and (2) the possible dependency of mPFC-BLA LTP on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and Dopamine (D) receptors activation...
November 4, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815216/pharmacological-evidence-that-a-failure-to-recruit-nmda-receptors-contributes-to-impaired-fear-extinction-retention-in-adolescent-rats
#6
Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson
Adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction of fear relative to younger and older groups which could be caused by a failure to efficiently recruit NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in adolescence. It is well-established that systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists (e.g., MK801) before extinction training impairs the retention of extinction in adult and juvenile rodents, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for adolescents. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of pharmacologically manipulating the NMDAR on extinction retention in adolescent rats...
November 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771572/d-cycloserine-does-not-enhance-the-effects-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-exposure-among-young-people-with-broad-based-anxiety-disorders
#7
Ronald M Rapee, Michael P Jones, Jennifer L Hudson, Gin S Malhi, Heidi J Lyneham, Sophie C Schneider
Use of the partial NMDA receptor agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) to increase extinction to feared cues among anxious adults has shown mixed, although overall positive effects. Few studies have extended this effect to youth and none have addressed young people with broad-based anxiety such as separation anxiety, social anxiety, or generalised anxiety. In the current trial 51 children and adolescents with diagnosed anxiety disorders, aged 7-14 years received four sessions of graduated, experimenter-led, in vivo exposure to a hierarchy of feared cues relevant to their primary fear...
October 18, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738380/treatment-resistant-depression-with-loss-of-antidepressant-response-rapid-acting-antidepressant-action-of-dextromethorphan-a-possible-treatment-bridging-molecule
#8
Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735167/gitelman-like-syndrome-with-kanamycin-toxicity
#9
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Avik Karak, Somnath Mukhopadhay
A 22 year-old lady with multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was on Kanamycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Pyrazinamide and Moxifloxacin since more than two months. She presented with muscle cramps and carpopedal spasm. Investigation revealed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. She also had hypomagnesemia, hypochloremia and hypocalciuria. Serum urea and creatinine levels were normal. Patient was treated with intravenous and oral potassium chloride. Kanamycin was stopped. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia improved gradually over one month...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734910/development-of-a-one-pot-assay-for-screening-and-identification-of-mur-pathway-inhibitors-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Kandasamy Eniyan, Anuradha Kumar, Geetha Vani Rayasam, Andrej Perdih, Urmi Bajpai
The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) consists of peptidoglycan, arabinogalactan and mycolic acids. The cytoplasmic steps in the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, catalyzed by the Mur (A-F) enzymes, involve the synthesis of UDP-n-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, a key precursor molecule required for the formation of the peptidoglycan monomeric building blocks. Mur enzymes are indispensable for cell integrity and their lack of counterparts in eukaryotes suggests them to be promising Mtb drug targets...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702572/acute-high-intensity-noise-induces-rapid-arc-protein-expression-but-fails-to-rapidly-change-gad-expression-in-amygdala-and-hippocampus-of-rats-effects-of-treatment-with-d-cycloserine
#11
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687968/a-facile-stereoselective-synthesis-of-dispiro-indeno-pyrrolidine-pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman-hybrids-and-evaluation-of-their-antimycobacterial-anticancer-and-ache-inhibitory-activities
#12
Chelliah Bharkavi, Sundaravel Vivek Kumar, Mohamed Ashraf Ali, Hasnah Osman, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian, Subbu Perumal
A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630000/-drugs-for-improvement-of-motor-deficits-after-stroke
#13
J Liepert
Randomized controlled trials with a variety of drugs have been performed for approximately 20 years in order to support functional restitution of motor deficits after a stroke. Nowadays, serotonin reuptake inhibitors show the highest level of evidence due to the largest number of positive studies and L‑dopa also seems to be effective; however, much fewer studies have been conducted. In the majority of trials amphetamines provided no additional benefits and D‑cycloserine cannot be recommended either. Future therapeutic approaches, e...
October 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619937/microfluidic-isoelectric-focusing-of-amyloid-beta-peptides-followed-by-micropillar-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#14
Saara Mikkonen, Johan Jacksén, Johan Roeraade, Wolfgang Thormann, Åsa Emmer
A novel method for preconcentration and purification of the Alzheimer's disease related amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in 75 nL microchannels combined with their analysis by micropillar-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. A semiopen chip-based setup, consisting of open microchannels covered by a lid of a liquid fluorocarbon, was used. IEF was performed in a mixture of four small and chemically well-defined amphoteric carriers, glutamic acid, aspartyl-histidine (Asp-His), cycloserine (cSer), and arginine, which provided a stepwise pH gradient tailored for focusing of the C-terminal Aβ peptides with a pI of 5...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567313/sociability-deficits-and-altered-amygdala-circuits-in-mice-lacking-pcdh10-an-autism-associated-gene
#15
Hannah Schoch, Arati S Kreibich, Sarah L Ferri, Rachel S White, Dominique Bohorquez, Anamika Banerjee, Russell G Port, Holly C Dow, Lucero Cordero, Ashley A Pallathra, Hyong Kim, Hongzhe Li, Warren B Bilker, Shinji Hirano, Robert T Schultz, Karin Borgmann-Winter, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Dirk Feldmeyer, Gregory C Carlson, Ted Abel, Edward S Brodkin
BACKGROUND: Behavioral symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been attributed to abnormal neuronal connectivity, but the molecular bases of these behavioral and brain phenotypes are largely unknown. Human genetic studies have implicated PCDH10, a member of the δ2 subfamily of nonclustered protocadherin genes, in ASD. PCDH10 expression is enriched in the basolateral amygdala, a brain region implicated in the social deficits of ASD. Previous reports indicate that Pcdh10 plays a role in axon outgrowth and glutamatergic synapse elimination, but its roles in social behaviors and amygdala neuronal connectivity are unknown...
June 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522017/effect-of-a-positive-reinforcing-stimulus-on-fear-memory-reconsolidation-in-ethanol-withdrawn-rats-influence-of-d-cycloserine
#16
Vanesa Ortiz, Víctor Alejandro Molina, Irene Delia Martijena
The pharmacological blockade of memory reconsolidation has been suggested as a potential treatment to the attenuation of maladaptive memories associated to psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. To interfere with the process of fear memory reconsolidation using a manipulation safer than pharmacological interventions, here we examined whether a positive reinforcing stimulus (non-alcoholic beer, NB) post-memory retrieval can decrease the fear response in ethanol withdrawn (ETOH) animals. We first evaluated the potential interfering effect of NB on memory reconsolidation in non-ethanol dependent (control, CON) rats...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509051/clostridium-difficile-infections-in-medical-intensive-care-units-of-a-medical-center-in-southern-taiwan-variable-seasonality-and-disease-severity
#17
Jen-Chieh Lee, Yuan-Pin Hung, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Critical patients are susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), which cause significant morbidity and mortality in the hospital. In Taiwan, the epidemiology of CDI in intensive care units (ICUs) is not well understood. This study was aimed to describe the incidence and the characteristics of CDI in the ICUs of a medical center in southern Taiwan. Adult patients with diarrhea but without colostomy/colectomy or laxative use were enrolled. Stool samples were collected with or without 5 ml alcohol and were plated on cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504327/study-of-aplastic-anaemia-with-cyclosporine-in-resource-poor-setting
#18
Mallikarjuna Shetty, Anukonda Moti Venkata Raja Narendra, Krishna Prasad Adiraju, Nageshwar Rao Modugu
INTRODUCTION: Aplastic Anaemia (AA) is a syndrome characterized by peripheral pancytopenia with hypo-cellular marrow. Acquired idiopathic AA is the most common variety, probably of an autoimmune aetiology. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice but cost is the limiting factor. Antithymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine-A is an alternative to BMT. Cyclosporine alone has been tried as a single agent in resource poor setting. AIM: The study was conducted with the aim to observe the treatment response in aplastic anaemia to Cycloserine-A...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475724/the-adhd-linked-human-dopamine-d4-receptor-variant-d4-7-induces-over-suppression-of-nmda-receptor-function-in-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Luye Qin, Wenhua Liu, Kaijie Ma, Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Kei Cho, Zhen Yan
The human dopamine D4 receptor (hD4R) variants with long tandem repeats in the third intracellular loop have been strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk taking behaviors. To understand the potential molecular mechanism underlying the connection, we have investigated the synaptic function of human D4R polymorphism by virally expressing the ADHD-linked 7-repeat allele, hD4.7, or its normal counterpart, hD4.4, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of D4R knockout mice. We found that hD4R bound to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 in a state-dependent manner...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458224/artificial-intelligence-and-amikacin-exposures-predictive-of-outcomes-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients
#20
Chawangwa Modongo, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Beki T Magazi, Shashikant Srivastava, Nicola M Zetola, Scott M Williams, Giorgio Sirugo, Tawanda Gumbo
Aminoglycosides such as amikacin continue to be part of the backbone of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We measured amikacin concentrations in 28 MDR-TB patients in Botswana receiving amikacin therapy together with oral levofloxacin, ethionamide, cycloserine, and pyrazinamide and calculated areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24). The patients were followed monthly for sputum culture conversion based on liquid cultures. The median duration of amikacin therapy was 184 (range, 28 to 866) days, at a median dose of 17...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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