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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#1
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099938/nyx-2925-is-a-novel-nmda-receptor-specific-spirocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-that-modulates-synaptic-plasticity-processes-associated-with-learning-and-memory
#2
M Amin Khan, David R Houck, Amanda L Gross, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Cassia Cearley, Torsten M Madsen, Roger A Kroes, Patric K Stanton, Jeffrey Burgdorf, Joseph R Moskal
Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are one member of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and have become attractive therapeutic targets for diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neuropathic pain. NYX-2925 ((2S, 3R)-3-hydroxy-2-((R)-5-isobutyryl-1-oxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide) is one member of a spiro--lactam-based chemical platform that mimics some of the dipyrrolidine structural features of rapastinel (formerly GLYX-13: threonine-proline-proline-threonine) and is distinct from known NMDAR agonists or antagonists such as D-cycloserine, ketamine, MK-801, kynurenic acid or ifenprodil...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096270/de-novo-synthesis-of-sphingolipids-is-essential-for-decidualization-in-mice
#3
Nai-Zheng Ding, Qian-Rong Qi, Xiao-Wei Gu, Ru-Juan Zuo, Jie Liu, Zeng-Ming Yang
Sphingolipids play multiple roles in membrane structure, signal transduction, stress responses, neural development and immune reaction. The rate of de novo synthesis pathway of sphingolipids is regulated by two key enzymes, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), and ketoreductase (Kds). Here, we find that the mRNA levels of three subunits of the SPT holoenzyme (Sptlc1, Sptlc2, and Ssspta) are significantly up-regulated in mouse uterine stromal cells during decidualization. The expression of Kds, which reduces 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine to dihydrosphingosine, is co-localized with Sptlc1 in mouse uteri during early pregnancy...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971867/role-of-alanine-racemase-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-d-cycloserine-resistance
#4
Yoshio Nakatani, Helen K Opel-Reading, Matthias Merker, Diana Machado, Sönke Andres, S Siva Kumar, Danesh Moradigaravand, Francesc Coll, João Perdigão, Isabel Portugal, Thomas Schön, Dina Nair, K R Uma Devi, Thomas A Kohl, Patrick Beckert, Taane G Clark, Gugu Maphalala, Derrick Khumalo, Roland Diel, Kadri Klaos, Htin Lin Aung, Gregory M Cook, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, Soumya Swaminathan, Miguel Viveiros, Stefan Niemann, Kurt L Krause, Claudio U Köser
Screening of more than 1,500 drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed evolutionary patterns characteristic of positive selection for three alanine racemase (Alr) mutations. We investigated these mutations using molecular modeling, in vitro MIC testing, as well as direct measurements of enzymatic activity, which demonstrated that these mutations likely confer resistance to D-cycloserine.
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966486/use-of-culture-and-elisa-based-toxin-assay-for-detecting-clostridium-difficile-a-neglected-pathogen-a-single-center-study-from-a-tertiary-care-setting
#5
Sujata Lall, Gita Nataraj, Preeti Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-bearing anaerobic bacillus increasingly associated with both community- and hospital-acquired colitis and diarrhea. It is the most common identifiable bacterial cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea associated with antibiotic use and one of the most common anaerobic infections. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection includes detection of toxin A/B in stool specimens by direct enzyme immunoassay, culture of pathogen from the stool specimens using a selective agar Cycloserine-Cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), tissue culture assay, and detection of glutamate dehydrogenase an enzyme produced by C...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961957/identification-of-novel-mutations-associated-with-cycloserine-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Jiazhen Chen, Shuo Zhang, Peng Cui, Wanliang Shi, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Objectives: d -Cycloserine is an important second-line drug used to treat MDR- and XDR-TB. However, the mechanisms of resistance to d -cycloserine are not well understood. Here we investigated the molecular basis of d -cycloserine resistance using in vitro -isolated resistant mutants. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was subjected to mutant selection on 7H11 agar plates containing varying concentrations of d -cycloserine. A total of 18 d -cycloserine-resistant mutants were isolated and subjected to WGS...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940479/activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-microglia-the-role-of-ceramide
#7
Hannah Scheiblich, Anna Schlütter, Douglas T Golenbock, Eicke Latz, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Michael T Heneka
Inflammation within the CNS is a major component of many neurodegenerative diseases. A characteristic feature is the generation of microglia-derived factors that play an essential role in the immune response. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by activated microglia, able to exacerbate injury at elevated levels. In the presence of caspase-1, pro-IL-1β is cleaved to the mature cytokine following NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Growing evidence suggests that ceramide plays a critical role in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, however, the relationship between ceramide and inflammasome activation in microglia remains unknown...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915357/a-yigp-mutant-strain-is-a-small-colony-variant-of-e-coli-and-shows-pleiotropic-antibiotic-resistance
#8
Hui Xia, Qiongwei Tang, Jie Song, Jiang Ye, Haizhen Wu, Huizhan Zhang
Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant than the wild type to some antibiotics and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past 2 decades, especially Staphylococcus aureus SCVs. However, fewer studies on Escherichia coli SCVs exist, so we studied an E. coli SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the yigP locus...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843863/administration-of-riluzole-to-the-basolateral-amygdala-facilitates-fear-extinction-in-rats
#9
Azusa Sugiyama, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
A general understanding exists that inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) impairs fear extinction in rodents. Surprisingly, we recently found that systemic administration of riluzole, which has been shown to inhibit the glutamatergic system, facilitates extinction learning in rats with a preconditioned contextual fear response. However, the mechanisms underlying this paradoxical effect of riluzole remain unclear. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the BLA to examine the effects of intra-BLA administration of riluzole...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820746/no-effects-of-d-cycloserine-enhancement-in-exposure-with-response-prevention-therapy-in-panic-disorder-with-agoraphobia-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Mieke Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, Puck Duits, Marleen M Rijkeboer, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Harold J van Megen, Nienke C Vulink, Damiaan A Denys, Marcel A van den Hout, Anton J van Balkom, Danielle C Cath
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the effectiveness of adding 125 mg of DCS to exposure therapy (before or directly after the first 6 treatment sessions) in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and (2) the effectiveness of DCS augmentation preceding exposure relative to DCS augmentation directly postexposure...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813484/d-cycloserine-improves-synaptic-transmission-in-an-animal-mode-of-rett-syndrome
#11
Elisa S Na, Héctor De Jesús-Cortés, Arlene Martinez-Rivera, Zeeba D Kabir, Jieqi Wang, Vijayashree Ramesh, Yasemin Onder, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Lisa M Monteggia, Andrew A Pieper
Rett syndrome (RTT), a leading cause of intellectual disability in girls, is predominantly caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. Disruption of Mecp2 in mice recapitulates major features of RTT, including neurobehavioral abnormalities, which can be reversed by re-expression of normal Mecp2. Thus, there is reason to believe that RTT could be amenable to therapeutic intervention throughout the lifespan of patients after the onset of symptoms. A common feature underlying neuropsychiatric disorders, including RTT, is altered synaptic function in the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#12
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807795/d-cycloserine-facilitates-extinction-learning-and-enhances-extinction-related-brain-activation
#13
Anne Klass, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff, Silke Lissek
Extinction learning is modulated by N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) particularly in prefrontal and hippocampal brain regions. The use of of NMDA agonists in exposure therapy of anxiety disorders has been investigated in various patient groups. Behavioral results showed beneficial effects of pre-learning administration of the partial NMDAR agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) on therapy success. However, the impact of DCS upon non-fear-related contextual extinction, and associated recruitment of extinction-relevant brain regions is as yet unknown...
August 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799954/effects-of-systemic-glutamatergic-manipulations-on-conditioned-eyeblink-responses-and-hyperarousal-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756809/first-report-in-china-on-the-identification-and-drug-sensitivity-of-mycobacterium-elephantis-isolated-from-the-milk-of-a-cow-with-mastitis
#15
Ling Yun Ji, Dong Lei Xu, Shu Peng Yin, Hai Can Liu, Gui Lian Li, Yi Jiang, Jian Hao Wei, Hao Zeng, Yong Liang Lou, Jian Xin Lyu, Kang Lin Wan
OBJECTIVE: In this study, milk from a cow with mastitis was analyzed to determine the presence of mycobacterial infection. Milk quality and security problems pertaining to the safe consumption of dairy products were also discussed in this study. METHODS: Milk was preprocessed with 4% NaOH. Then, mycobacteria were isolated from the milk sample on L-J medium. The isolate was identified using multiple loci Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and multi-locus sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, sodA, hsp65, and ITS genes...
July 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733898/d-cycloserine-ameliorates-autism-like-deficits-by-removing-glua2-containing-ampa-receptors-in-a-valproic-acid-induced-rat-model
#16
Han-Fang Wu, Po See Chen, Ya-Ting Hsu, Chi-Wei Lee, Tzu-Feng Wang, Yi-Ju Chen, Hui-Ching Lin
Valproic acid (VPA)-exposed rat offspring have demonstrated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and impaired N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. NMDAR partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) has been reported to act as a cognitive enhancer by increasing the NMDAR response to improve autistic-like phenotypes in animals. However, the mechanism of DCS in alleviating the ASD is still unknown. Using combined behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, we found that DCS administration rescued social interaction deficits and anxiety/repetitive-like behaviors observed in VPA-exposed offspring...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705984/draft-genome-sequence-of-eggerthia-catenaformis-strain-mar1-isolated-from-saliva-of-healthy-humans
#17
M Ajijur Rahman, Peter Mullany, Adam P Roberts
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Eggerthia catenaformis MAR1 isolated during a screen for d-cycloserine-resistant bacteria from the saliva of healthy humans. Analysis of the genome reveals that the strain has the potential to be a human pathogen and carries genes related to virulence and antibiotic resistance.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705770/in%C3%A2-vitro-activity-of-aminoglycosides-clofazimine-d-cycloserine-and-dapsone-against-83-mycobacterium-avium-complex-clinical-isolates
#18
Chen-Cheng Huang, Ming-Feng Wu, Hui-Chen Chen, Wei-Chang Huang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Treatment success rates for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) diseases range from 50% to 55% only. To explore effective antimicrobials against either Mycobacteriumintracellulare or M. avium, we determined in vitro activities of five aminoglycosides, clofazimine, dapsone and d-cycloserine compared with primary (clarithromycin) and secondary (moxifloxacin and linezolid) antimycobacterial agents. METHODS: 83 non-duplicate clinical MAC isolates were collected from sputum and identified at the species level by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the 65 kDa hsp and rpoB genes...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701225/association-of-schizophrenia-onset-age-and-white-matter-integrity-with-treatment-effect-of-d-cycloserine-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#19
Kazuo Takiguchi, Akihito Uezato, Michio Itasaka, Hidenori Atsuta, Kenji Narushima, Naoki Yamamoto, Akeo Kurumaji, Makoto Tomita, Kazunari Oshima, Kosaku Shoda, Mai Tamaru, Masahito Nakataki, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Sayuri Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi Ishiwata, Masato Yasuhara, Kunimasa Arima, Tetsuro Ohmori, Toru Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that drugs which promote the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor function by stimulating the glycine modulatory site in the receptor improve negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: We performed a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study involving 41 schizophrenia patients in which D-cycloserine 50 mg/day was added-on, and the influence of the onset age and association with white matter integrity on MR diffusion tensor imaging were investigated for the first time...
July 12, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698044/resistance-to-first-and-second-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-southern-taiwan-implications-for-empirical-treatment
#20
Cheng-Yu Kuo, Wen-Hung Wang, Chung-Hao Huang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis infections cause public health concerns worldwide. Local epidemiologic data about the drug resistance of Mycobacteriumtuberculosis isolate (Mtb) is critical to guide appropriate empirical therapy to cure patients and restrain the spread of tuberculosis. METHODS: Antituberculosis susceptibility testing was performed for 287 Mtbs, including 63 MDR-Mtbs collected in southern Taiwan from 2011 to 2015...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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