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Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Avik Karak, Somnath Mukhopadhay
A 22 year-old lady with multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was on Kanamycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Pyrazinamide and Moxifloxacin since more than two months. She presented with muscle cramps and carpopedal spasm. Investigation revealed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. She also had hypomagnesemia, hypochloremia and hypocalciuria. Serum urea and creatinine levels were normal. Patient was treated with intravenous and oral potassium chloride. Kanamycin was stopped. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia improved gradually over one month...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Kandasamy Eniyan, Anuradha Kumar, Geetha Vani Rayasam, Andrej Perdih, Urmi Bajpai
The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) consists of peptidoglycan, arabinogalactan and mycolic acids. The cytoplasmic steps in the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway, catalyzed by the Mur (A-F) enzymes, involve the synthesis of UDP-n-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, a key precursor molecule required for the formation of the peptidoglycan monomeric building blocks. Mur enzymes are indispensable for cell integrity and their lack of counterparts in eukaryotes suggests them to be promising Mtb drug targets...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
Chelliah Bharkavi, Sundaravel Vivek Kumar, Mohamed Ashraf Ali, Hasnah Osman, Shanmugam Muthusubramanian, Subbu Perumal
A facile stereoselective synthesis of novel dispiro indeno pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole-thiochroman hybrids has been achieved by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides, generated in situ from ninhydrin and sarcosine/thiaproline, on a series of 3-benzylidenethiochroman-4-ones. The synthesised compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial, anticancer and AchE inhibition activities. Compound 4l (IC50 1.07μM) has been found to exhibit the most potent antimycobacterial activity compared to cycloserine (12 times), pyrimethamine (37 times) and ethambutol (IC50 <1...
September 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
J Liepert
Randomized controlled trials with a variety of drugs have been performed for approximately 20 years in order to support functional restitution of motor deficits after a stroke. Nowadays, serotonin reuptake inhibitors show the highest level of evidence due to the largest number of positive studies and L‑dopa also seems to be effective; however, much fewer studies have been conducted. In the majority of trials amphetamines provided no additional benefits and D‑cycloserine cannot be recommended either. Future therapeutic approaches, e...
October 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Saara Mikkonen, Johan Jacksén, Johan Roeraade, Wolfgang Thormann, Åsa Emmer
A novel method for preconcentration and purification of the Alzheimer's disease related amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in 75 nL microchannels combined with their analysis by micropillar-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. A semiopen chip-based setup, consisting of open microchannels covered by a lid of a liquid fluorocarbon, was used. IEF was performed in a mixture of four small and chemically well-defined amphoteric carriers, glutamic acid, aspartyl-histidine (Asp-His), cycloserine (cSer), and arginine, which provided a stepwise pH gradient tailored for focusing of the C-terminal Aβ peptides with a pI of 5...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Hannah Schoch, Arati S Kreibich, Sarah L Ferri, Rachel S White, Dominique Bohorquez, Anamika Banerjee, Russell G Port, Holly C Dow, Lucero Cordero, Ashley A Pallathra, Hyong Kim, Hongzhe Li, Warren B Bilker, Shinji Hirano, Robert T Schultz, Karin Borgmann-Winter, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Dirk Feldmeyer, Gregory C Carlson, Ted Abel, Edward S Brodkin
BACKGROUND: Behavioral symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been attributed to abnormal neuronal connectivity, but the molecular bases of these behavioral and brain phenotypes are largely unknown. Human genetic studies have implicated PCDH10, a member of the δ2 subfamily of nonclustered protocadherin genes, in ASD. PCDH10 expression is enriched in the basolateral amygdala, a brain region implicated in the social deficits of ASD. Previous reports indicate that Pcdh10 plays a role in axon outgrowth and glutamatergic synapse elimination, but its roles in social behaviors and amygdala neuronal connectivity are unknown...
June 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Vanesa Ortiz, Víctor Alejandro Molina, Irene Delia Martijena
The pharmacological blockade of memory reconsolidation has been suggested as a potential treatment to the attenuation of maladaptive memories associated to psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. To interfere with the process of fear memory reconsolidation using a manipulation safer than pharmacological interventions, here we examined whether a positive reinforcing stimulus (non-alcoholic beer, NB) post-memory retrieval can decrease the fear response in ethanol withdrawn (ETOH) animals. We first evaluated the potential interfering effect of NB on memory reconsolidation in non-ethanol dependent (control, CON) rats...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jen-Chieh Lee, Yuan-Pin Hung, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Critical patients are susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), which cause significant morbidity and mortality in the hospital. In Taiwan, the epidemiology of CDI in intensive care units (ICUs) is not well understood. This study was aimed to describe the incidence and the characteristics of CDI in the ICUs of a medical center in southern Taiwan. Adult patients with diarrhea but without colostomy/colectomy or laxative use were enrolled. Stool samples were collected with or without 5 ml alcohol and were plated on cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar...
2016: PloS One
Mallikarjuna Shetty, Anukonda Moti Venkata Raja Narendra, Krishna Prasad Adiraju, Nageshwar Rao Modugu
INTRODUCTION: Aplastic Anaemia (AA) is a syndrome characterized by peripheral pancytopenia with hypo-cellular marrow. Acquired idiopathic AA is the most common variety, probably of an autoimmune aetiology. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice but cost is the limiting factor. Antithymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine-A is an alternative to BMT. Cyclosporine alone has been tried as a single agent in resource poor setting. AIM: The study was conducted with the aim to observe the treatment response in aplastic anaemia to Cycloserine-A...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Luye Qin, Wenhua Liu, Kaijie Ma, Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Kei Cho, Zhen Yan
The human dopamine D4 receptor (hD4R) variants with long tandem repeats in the third intracellular loop have been strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk taking behaviors. To understand the potential molecular mechanism underlying the connection, we have investigated the synaptic function of human D4R polymorphism by virally expressing the ADHD-linked 7-repeat allele, hD4.7, or its normal counterpart, hD4.4, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of D4R knockout mice. We found that hD4R bound to the SH3 domain of PSD-95 in a state-dependent manner...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Chawangwa Modongo, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Beki T Magazi, Shashikant Srivastava, Nicola M Zetola, Scott M Williams, Giorgio Sirugo, Tawanda Gumbo
Aminoglycosides such as amikacin continue to be part of the backbone of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We measured amikacin concentrations in 28 MDR-TB patients in Botswana receiving amikacin therapy together with oral levofloxacin, ethionamide, cycloserine, and pyrazinamide and calculated areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24). The patients were followed monthly for sputum culture conversion based on liquid cultures. The median duration of amikacin therapy was 184 (range, 28 to 866) days, at a median dose of 17...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hyunah Kim, Eun Sook Bang, Seung-Kwan Lim, Jae Myeong Lee
OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome caused by antituberculosis (TB) drugs, which progressed to acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) after moxifloxacin treatment. CASE SUMMARY: A 25-year-old female was hospitalized for dyspnea and dizziness. She had a history of TB and experienced rifampin-induced skin rash. She was treated for TB with moxifloxacin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Megan Olden, Katarzyna Wyka, Judith Cukor, Melissa Peskin, Margaret Altemus, Francis S Lee, Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, Terry Rabinowitz, JoAnn Difede
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious condition, with certain occupations at increased risk due to greater trauma exposure. These same individuals face multiple barriers to care. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of conducting a research trial with exposure therapy delivered via videoconferencing. Eleven adults working in occupations at risk with PTSD enrolled and seven completed 12 to 15 sessions. Individuals were randomized to receive the cognitive enhancer D-cycloserine or placebo, and participants provided saliva samples for genetic analysis...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jan Günthner, Jacqueline Scholl, Elisa Favaron, Catherine J Harmer, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Andrea Reinecke
RATIONALE: There has recently been increasing interest in pharmacological manipulations that could potentially enhance exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders. One such medication is the partial NMDA agonist d-cycloserine. It has been suggested that d-cycloserine enhances cognitive behaviour therapy by making learning faster. While animal studies have supported this view of the drug accelerating learning, evidence in human studies has been mixed. We therefore designed an experiment to measure the effects of d-cycloserine on human motor learning...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Rami Yaka, Dalia Shabashov, Esther Shohami, Anat Biegon
Cognitive deficits, especially memory loss, are common following many types of brain insults which are associated with neuroinflammation, although the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. The present study aimed to characterize the long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments in a mouse model of neuroinflammation in the absence of other insults and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of D-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a co-agonist of the NMDA receptor that ameliorates cognitive deficits in models of TBI and stroke...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Pablo Javier Espejo, Vanesa Ortiz, Irene Delia Martijena, Victor Alejandro Molina
Consolidated memories can enter into a labile state after reactivation followed by a restabilization process defined as reconsolidation. This process can be interfered with Midazolam (MDZ), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor. The present study has evaluated the influence of prior stress on MDZ's interfering effect. We also assessed the influence of both systemic and intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the NMDA receptors, on the MDZ effect in previously stressed rats...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Kyunghoon Lee, Sun Hee Jun, Minje Han, Sang Hoon Song, Jong Sun Park, Jae Ho Lee, Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song
As dried blood spots (DBSs) have various advantages over conventional venous blood sampling, some assays for detection of one or two anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in DBSs have been developed. However, there are no assays currently available for the simultaneous measurement of three or more anti-TB drugs in DBSs. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiplex method for detecting nine anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, and linezolid in DBSs by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
September 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Eric A Storch, Sabine Wilhelm, Susan Sprich, Aude Henin, Jamie Micco, Brent J Small, Joseph McGuire, P Jane Mutch, Adam B Lewin, Tanya K Murphy, Daniel A Geller
IMPORTANCE: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is effective, but many patients remain symptomatic after intervention. d-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in the amygdala, has been associated with enhanced CBT outcome for OCD among adults but requires evaluation among youth. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative efficacy of weight-adjusted d-cycloserine (25 or 50 mg) vs placebo augmentation of CBT for youth with OCD and to assess if concomitant antidepressant medication moderated effects...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
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