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Cycloserine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315008/clostridium-perfringens-contamination-in-retail-meat-and-meat-based-products-in-bursa-turkey
#1
Artun Yibar, Ece Cetin, Zafer Ata, Evren Erkose, Mustafa Tayar
This study examined the incidence of Clostridium perfringens in raw, ready-to-cook (RTC), and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and meat-based products (N = 306) collected from restaurants, supermarkets, and butcher shops in Bursa, Turkey. In addition, we investigated the presence of the C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), as well as cpe genes and their source (chromosomal or plasmid borne). In this study, tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) agar for classic culture isolation and API and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were used to identify C...
January 9, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314157/determination-of-cycloserine-in-microdialysis-samples-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-with-benzoyl-chloride-derivatization
#2
Wenjing Zhang, Sihui Wan, Lizhi Chen, Xuebing Wang, Zhuo Wang, Yi Huang
A new method for the analysis of cycloserine (4-amino-3-isoxazolidinone, CYC) in rat microdialysis samples has been developed. This method consists of derivatizing the CYC with benzoyl chloride, which transforms primary amines into highly stable derivatives. An attractive feature of this method was that the derivatization reaction is straightforward and can be completed within 10 min. The formed derivative, in contrast to the non-derivatized analyte, exhibited increased chromatographic retention and decreased matrix effects resulting from the co-elution of other components using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and on-line switching...
January 4, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311073/the-validation-of-cycloserine-efficacy-in-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-beijing-china
#3
Xia Yu, Xiling Zeng, Wenhui Shi, Yanjie Hu, Wenjuan Nie, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang
Cycloserine is recommended by the World Health Organization as a second line drug to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR TB), however its efficacy has never been sufficiently evaluated. To gain some insights into the value of cycloserine (Cs) for MDR TB treatment, in vitro bacteriostatic effect and patient validations were performed prospectively.The in vitro activity of Cs against 104 wild-type M. tuberculosis strains was determined, and serum Cs concentration was measured for 73 MDR TB patients 2 hours after administration...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297422/steady-state-pharmacokinetics-of-cycloserine-in-patients-on-terizidone-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
R Court, L Wiesner, A Stewart, N de Vries, J Harding, G Maartens, T Gumbo, H McIlleron
SETTING: Terizidone/cycloserine (TRD/CS) is included in standard treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in many countries. The steady state pharmacokinetics (PKs) of CS after TRD administration are not known. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We recruited in-patients treated with 250-750 mg oral TRD daily as part of standard treatment regimens for pulmonary MDR-TB in Cape Town, South Africa. Plasma CS assays were performed in samples taken pre-dose and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h post-dose...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258744/stabilizing-specimens-for-routine-ammonia-testing-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#5
Jessica L Gifford, William N T Nguyen, Lawrence de Koning, Isolde Seiden-Long
BACKGROUND: In vitro deamination generates ammonia in freshly collected blood specimens. To prevent this, samples for ammonia testing are usually collected on ice and run rapidly (e.g., within 1h). We developed a method to stabilize specimens for ammonia analysis. METHODS: Following plasma separation, 500μmol/l cycloserine or a combination of 2mmol/l sodium borate with 5mmol/l l-serine were added to sample pools with normal or increased concentrations of ALT and/or GGT to inhibit deamination; and/or residual platelets were removed via centrifugation...
December 16, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250815/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-cessation-of-tobacco-smoking
#6
Nieves Gómez-Coronado, Adam J Walker, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent after one year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, affording a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated...
December 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227845/does-d-cycloserine-facilitate-the-effects-of-homework-compliance-on-social-anxiety-symptom-reduction
#7
Andres D Roque, David Rosenfield, Jasper A J Smits, Naomi Simon, Michael W Otto, Luana Marques, Mark H Pollack, Stefan G Hofmann, Alicia E Meuret
BACKGROUND: Prior studies examining the effect of d-cycloserine (DCS) on homework compliance and outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCS facilitates the effects of homework compliance on symptom reduction in a large-scale study for social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: 169 participants with generalized SAD received DCS or pill placebo during 12-session exposure-based group CBT...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208891/inhibition-of-d-ala-d-ala-ligase-through-a-phosphorylated-form-of-the-antibiotic-d-cycloserine
#8
Sarah Batson, Cesira de Chiara, Vita Majce, Adrian J Lloyd, Stanislav Gobec, Dean Rea, Vilmos Fülöp, Christopher W Thoroughgood, Katie J Simmons, Christopher G Dowson, Colin W G Fishwick, Luiz Pedro S de Carvalho, David I Roper
D-cycloserine is an antibiotic which targets sequential bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzymes: alanine racemase and D-alanine:D-alanine ligase. By a combination of structural, chemical and mechanistic studies here we show that the inhibition of D-alanine:D-alanine ligase by the antibiotic D-cycloserine proceeds via a distinct phosphorylated form of the drug. This mechanistic insight reveals a bimodal mechanism of action for a single antibiotic on different enzyme targets and has significance for the design of future inhibitor molecules based on this chemical structure...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205552/the-role-of-the-cror-response-regulator-in-resistance-of-enterococcus-faecalis-to-d-cycloserine-is-defined-using-an-inducible-receiver-domain
#9
Cécile Muller, Sébastien Massier, Yoann Le Breton, Alain Rincé
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic multidrug-resistant human pathogen causing severe nosocomial infections. Previous investigations revealed that the CroRS two-component regulatory pathway likely displays a pleiotropic role in E. faecalis, involved in virulence, macrophage survival, oxidative stress response as well as antibiotic resistance. Therefore, CroRS represents an attractive potential new target for antibiotherapy. In this report, we further explored CroRS cellular functions by characterizing the CroR regulon: the "domain swapping" method was applied and a CroR chimera protein was generated by fusing the receiver domain from NisR to the output domain from CroR...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188195/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-two-clonally-related-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing
#10
Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Gilman Kit-Hang Siu, Kingsley King-Gee Tam, Sabrina Wai-Chi To, Rahim Rajwani, Pak-Leung Ho, Samson Sai-Yin Wong, Wei W Zhao, Oliver Chiu-Kit Ma, Wing-Cheong Yam
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a major threat to global TB control. In this study, we focused on two consecutive MDR-TB isolated from the same patient before and after the initiation of anti-TB treatment. To better understand the genomic characteristics of MDR-TB, Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing and comparative genomic analyses was performed to identify mutations that contributed to the stepwise development of drug resistance and growth fitness in MDR-TB under in vivo challenge of anti-TB drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#11
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099938/nyx-2925-is-a-novel-nmda-receptor-specific-spirocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-that-modulates-synaptic-plasticity-processes-associated-with-learning-and-memory
#12
M Amin Khan, David R Houck, Amanda L Gross, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Cassia Cearley, Torsten M Madsen, Roger A Kroes, Patric K Stanton, Jeffrey Burgdorf, Joseph R Moskal
Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are one member of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and have become attractive therapeutic targets for diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neuropathic pain. NYX-2925 ((2S, 3R)-3-hydroxy-2-((R)-5-isobutyryl-1-oxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide) is one member of a spiro--lactam-based chemical platform that mimics some of the dipyrrolidine structural features of rapastinel (formerly GLYX-13: threonine-proline-proline-threonine) and is distinct from known NMDAR agonists or antagonists such as D-cycloserine, ketamine, MK-801, kynurenic acid or ifenprodil...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096270/de-novo-synthesis-of-sphingolipids-is-essential-for-decidualization-in-mice
#13
Nai-Zheng Ding, Qian-Rong Qi, Xiao-Wei Gu, Ru-Juan Zuo, Jie Liu, Zeng-Ming Yang
Sphingolipids play multiple roles in membrane structure, signal transduction, stress responses, neural development and immune reaction. The rate of de novo synthesis pathway of sphingolipids is regulated by two key enzymes, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), and ketoreductase (Kds). Here, we find that the mRNA levels of three subunits of the SPT holoenzyme (Sptlc1, Sptlc2, and Ssspta) are significantly up-regulated in mouse uterine stromal cells during decidualization. The expression of Kds, which reduces 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine to dihydrosphingosine, is co-localized with Sptlc1 in mouse uteri during early pregnancy...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971867/role-of-alanine-racemase-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-d-cycloserine-resistance
#14
Yoshio Nakatani, Helen K Opel-Reading, Matthias Merker, Diana Machado, Sönke Andres, S Siva Kumar, Danesh Moradigaravand, Francesc Coll, João Perdigão, Isabel Portugal, Thomas Schön, Dina Nair, K R Uma Devi, Thomas A Kohl, Patrick Beckert, Taane G Clark, Gugu Maphalala, Derrick Khumalo, Roland Diel, Kadri Klaos, Htin Lin Aung, Gregory M Cook, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, Soumya Swaminathan, Miguel Viveiros, Stefan Niemann, Kurt L Krause, Claudio U Köser
Screening of more than 1,500 drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed evolutionary patterns characteristic of positive selection for three alanine racemase (Alr) mutations. We investigated these mutations using molecular modeling, in vitro MIC testing, as well as direct measurements of enzymatic activity, which demonstrated that these mutations likely confer resistance to D-cycloserine.
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966486/use-of-culture-and-elisa-based-toxin-assay-for-detecting-clostridium-difficile-a-neglected-pathogen-a-single-center-study-from-a-tertiary-care-setting
#15
Sujata Lall, Gita Nataraj, Preeti Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-bearing anaerobic bacillus increasingly associated with both community- and hospital-acquired colitis and diarrhea. It is the most common identifiable bacterial cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea associated with antibiotic use and one of the most common anaerobic infections. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection includes detection of toxin A/B in stool specimens by direct enzyme immunoassay, culture of pathogen from the stool specimens using a selective agar Cycloserine-Cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), tissue culture assay, and detection of glutamate dehydrogenase an enzyme produced by C...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961957/identification-of-novel-mutations-associated-with-cycloserine-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Jiazhen Chen, Shuo Zhang, Peng Cui, Wanliang Shi, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Objectives: d -Cycloserine is an important second-line drug used to treat MDR- and XDR-TB. However, the mechanisms of resistance to d -cycloserine are not well understood. Here we investigated the molecular basis of d -cycloserine resistance using in vitro -isolated resistant mutants. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was subjected to mutant selection on 7H11 agar plates containing varying concentrations of d -cycloserine. A total of 18 d -cycloserine-resistant mutants were isolated and subjected to WGS...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940479/activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-microglia-the-role-of-ceramide
#17
Hannah Scheiblich, Anna Schlütter, Douglas T Golenbock, Eicke Latz, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Michael T Heneka
Inflammation within the CNS is a major component of many neurodegenerative diseases. A characteristic feature is the generation of microglia-derived factors that play an essential role in the immune response. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by activated microglia, able to exacerbate injury at elevated levels. In the presence of caspase-1, pro-IL-1β is cleaved to the mature cytokine following NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. Growing evidence suggests that ceramide plays a critical role in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, however, the relationship between ceramide and inflammasome activation in microglia remains unknown...
December 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915357/a-yigp-mutant-strain-is-a-small-colony-variant-of-e-coli-and-shows-pleiotropic-antibiotic-resistance
#18
Hui Xia, Qiongwei Tang, Jie Song, Jiang Ye, Haizhen Wu, Huizhan Zhang
Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant than the wild type to some antibiotics and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past 2 decades, especially Staphylococcus aureus SCVs. However, fewer studies on Escherichia coli SCVs exist, so we studied an E. coli SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the yigP locus...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843863/administration-of-riluzole-to-the-basolateral-amygdala-facilitates-fear-extinction-in-rats
#19
Azusa Sugiyama, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
A general understanding exists that inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) impairs fear extinction in rodents. Surprisingly, we recently found that systemic administration of riluzole, which has been shown to inhibit the glutamatergic system, facilitates extinction learning in rats with a preconditioned contextual fear response. However, the mechanisms underlying this paradoxical effect of riluzole remain unclear. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the BLA to examine the effects of intra-BLA administration of riluzole...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820746/no-effects-of-d-cycloserine-enhancement-in-exposure-with-response-prevention-therapy-in-panic-disorder-with-agoraphobia-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Mieke Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, Puck Duits, Marleen M Rijkeboer, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Harold J van Megen, Nienke C Vulink, Damiaan A Denys, Marcel A van den Hout, Anton J van Balkom, Danielle C Cath
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the effectiveness of adding 125 mg of DCS to exposure therapy (before or directly after the first 6 treatment sessions) in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and (2) the effectiveness of DCS augmentation preceding exposure relative to DCS augmentation directly postexposure...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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