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Tongue Anatomy

Xiaotian Wu, Joseph A Paydarfar, Ryan J Halter
For a variety of head and neck cancers, specifically those of the oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx, minimally invasive trans-oral approaches have been developed to reduce perioperative and long-term morbidity. However, in trans-oral surgical approaches anatomical deformation due to instrumentation, specifically placement of laryngoscopes and retractors, present a significant challenge for surgeons relying on preoperative imaging to resect tumors to negative margins. Quantifying the deformation due to instrumentation is needed in order to develop predictive models of operative deformation...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jeong-Hyun Kang, Joohon Sung, Yun-Mi Song, Young-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Inherited traits of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have link to the heritability of the airway anatomy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of present study was to investigate heritability of the airway anatomy by comparing skeletal and soft tissue features of Korean monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). METHODS: In total, 72 participants (mean age, 41.5 ± 5.9 years; 40 males, 32 females) including 48 MZ (24 pairs) and 24 DZ (12 pairs) with same sex were participated...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Giuditta Mannelli, Francesco Arcuri, Tommaso Agostini, Marco Innocenti, Mirco Raffaini, Giuseppe Spinelli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reconstruction of tongue cancer defects is challenging due to the complex anatomy and physiology of the tongue. Here, we classify patterns of tongue tissue loss and describe a treatment algorithm for achieving good functional and oncologic outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 50 tongue squamous-cell carcinomas surgically treated between January 2010-June 2015. Cancer resection and tongue reconstruction were stratified according to the missing anatomical subunits...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
T Harnroongroj, S Jiamamornrat, T Tharmviboonsri
BACKGROUND: Minimal invasive surgery of calcaneal fracture provided satisfactory outcomes. In tongue type calcaneal fracture, percutaneous screw usually purchases in anterior inferior calcaneal cortex. However, there was no detail about the cortex of anterior inferior calcaneus so the surface anatomy and cortical thickness of this area were studied. METHODS: 88 calcaneus from embalmed cadavers were enrolled. Anterior part of the inferior cortex was identified. Surface anatomy was examined...
December 24, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Farhoud Faraji, Ericka S Padilla, Dana Blitz, Meghan B Wenderoth, Ray G Blanco, Satomi Kawamoto, Sheila Sheth, Ulrike M Hamper, Carole Fakhry
OBJECTIVE: To examine reader performance in evaluating oropharyngeal anatomy on ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasound images of the oropharynx comprising normal and malignant anatomic variants were organized into slideshows. Slideshows were administered to 6 readers blinded to participant tumor status and with varying experience reading oropharyngeal sonograms. A training slideshow oriented readers to images of the oropharynx with and without malignant lesions...
February 2018: Oral Oncology
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Christina Bal, Marian Christoph Neidert, Oliver Bozinov
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: A direct transcondylar approach to treat symptomatic arachnoid cysts of the hypoglossal canal has not yet been described in the literature. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Here, we present a skull base approach in 2 female patients (68 and 38 yr) with progressive dysphagia, dysarthria, half-sided weakness, and atrophy of the tongue due to an arachnoid cyst of the hypoglossal canal. After patient informed consent, both patients were successfully operated on without complications using a transcondylar approach, and their symptoms improved 3 mo after surgery; in both patients, resection of the cyst was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Elizabeth A Hall, Ibrahim Showaihi, Frances S Shofer, Nova L Panebianco, Anthony J Dean
BACKGROUND: Recognition of the difficult airway is a critical element of emergency practice. Mallampati score and body mass index (BMI) are not always predictive and they may be unavailable in critically ill patients. Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images that are rapidly obtainable, mobile, and non-invasive. Studies have shown correlation of ultrasound measurements with difficult laryngoscopy; however, none have been performed in the Emergency Department (ED) using a consistent scanning protocol...
January 18, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
M Moulin, C A Righini, P F Castellanos, I Atallah
The main advantage of endoscopic laser surgery for laryngeal cancer is to allow tumour resection, while limiting functional sequelae, thereby improving the postoperative course. In this type of surgery, the epiglottis is often partially resected, leaving a raw zone without any reconstruction. The surgical technique described here involves endoscopic reconstruction of the epiglottis after partial resection. The sectioned edge of the epiglottis is sutured to the base of the tongue to create a neoepiglottis and to reconstruct the vallecula, thus resembling preoperative anatomy, allowing improvement of postoperative swallowing...
January 12, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andrea Rau, Andreas Kolk
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, perforator flaps have become popular for defect cover in the head and neck because they increase the choice of reconstructive possibilities and can lead to minimal donor site morbidity. In particular, the lower leg is considered a suitable option, as it provides thin and pliable skin for intraoral lining. Having gained experience with 131 flaps raised from four different donor sites at the lower leg, the aim of this paper is to evaluate success rates and patient satisfaction, but also difficulties and pitfalls during flap transfer...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Vinidh Paleri, Hannah Fox, Sarah Coward, Maniram Ragbir, Andrew McQueen, Omar Ahmed, David Meikle, Daniel Saleh, James O'Hara, Max Robinson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: IDEAL (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term Follow-up) 2a framework. RESULTS: Of 26 patients assessed for TORS, 21 underwent the procedure, 5 underwent open resection (4 due to unsuitable anatomy/tumor extent and 1 on the basis of patient choice). Three patients underwent intraoperative ultrasound-assisted robotic resection, and 3 received robotic-assisted free flap inset...
December 15, 2017: Head & Neck
Zhaojun Zhu, Benedikt Hofauer, Clemens Heiser
The following report presents a case of two late embedded hypoglossus branches during implantation of an upper airway stimulation device that caused a mixed activation of the tongue when included in the stimulation cuff. In the end, correct cuff placement could be achieved by careful examination of the hypoglossal nerve anatomy, precise nerve dissection, tongue motion analysis and intraoperative nerve monitoring.
November 15, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Francesco Abbate, Maria Cristina Guerrera, Mauro Cavallaro, Giuseppe Montalbano, Antonino Germanà, Maria Levanti
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. 1758) is a predatory and migratory fish. Its characteristic feature is a flat and sharp upper jaw forming a "sword". The adaptation of vertebrates, including fish, to their environment is strictly related to the capacity of feeding and is carried out by often severe modifications of the anatomy of the buccal cavity, especially of the tongue. The aim of this study is, using light and scanning electron microscopy and considering that no data are so far available about the morphology of the tongue in this species, to analyse the anatomical characteristics of the tongue, especially its dorsal surface...
December 2017: Tissue & Cell
Wei Wei, Woo June Choi, Ruikang K Wang
We report the development of optical coherence tomography- (OCT) based angiography (OCTA) to image blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in human oral cavity in vivo with a field of view at 10 mm × 10 mm. Three-dimensional (3D) structural and vascular images of labial mucosa tissue are obtained at a single 3D acquisition. Pathologic mucosal sites with mouth ulcers are examined using the OCT tomograms and angiograms, upon which to monitor the lesion healing process over a period of 2 weeks. Quantitative metrics of the capillary loop density within the lamina propria layer are evaluated, providing statistically significant difference between healthy and diseased conditions over time...
October 16, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Courtney E Wilson, Thomas E Finger, Sue C Kinnamon
Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
Clemens Heiser, Andreas Knopf, Benedikt Hofauer
BACKGROUND: Selective upper airway stimulation (UAS) has shown effectiveness in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The terminating branches of the hypoglossal nerve show a wide complexity, requiring careful discernment of a functional breakpoint between branches for inclusion and exclusion from the stimulation cuff electrode. The purpose of this study was to describe and categorize the topographic phenotypes of these branches. METHODS: Thirty patients who received an implant with selective UAS from July 2015 to June 2016 were included...
December 2017: Head & Neck
Xiaoli Yi, Linyin Yao, Xinyu Yuan, Yongxiang Wei, Zhenchang Wang
OBJECTIVES: To establish normative data of upper airway structure in Chinese Han infants and preschool children. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 521 Chinese Han infants and preschool children (225 girls, 296 boys) aged from 1 day to 72 months were selected from the children who underwent head MRI at the Capital Institute of Pediatrics Affiliated Children Hospital, Beijing, China. No subjects had sleep-disordered breathing or associated conditions that may have affected the upper airway anatomy...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
Merijn Eskes, Alfons J M Balm, Maarten J A van Alphen, Ludi E Smeele, Ian Stavness, Ferdinand van der Heijden
PURPOSE: Functional inoperability in advanced oral cancer is difficult to assess preoperatively. To assess functions of lips and tongue, biomechanical models are required. Apart from adjusting generic models to individual anatomy, muscle activation patterns (MAPs) driving patient-specific functional movements are necessary to predict remaining functional outcome. We aim to evaluate how volunteer-specific MAPs derived from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals control a biomechanical face model...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Sandeep S Dhaliwal, Seyyed M Hesabgar, Seyyed M H Haddad, Hanif Ladak, Abbas Samani, Brian W Rotenberg
OBJECTIVE: The use of computer simulation to develop a high-fidelity model has been proposed as a novel and cost-effective alternative to help guide therapeutic intervention in sleep apnea surgery. We describe a computer model based on patient-specific anatomy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects wherein the percentage and sites of upper airway collapse are compared to findings on drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). STUDY DESIGN: Basic science computer model generation...
August 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
Song Tar Toh, Pon Poh Hsu
Since the first report of the use of the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in transoral robotic tongue base reduction for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was published in 2010, this surgical tool and technique has been used worldwide for the resection of tongue base tissue in the multilevel surgical treatment of OSA. The combined knowledge of the published literature on its use has enlightened sleep surgeons worldwide on this new yet evolving surgical tool. Here we will discuss the use of the da Vinci robotic system in the treatment of OSA, the pertinent surgical anatomy for a safe surgical procedure, the primary and secondary outcomes to expect in the multilevel and primary use of this technology in treating the tongue base, the predictors for success or failure, and the complications associated with this technique...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
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