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Tongue Anatomy

Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
C Cardenas, A Wong, A Mohamed, J Yang, L Court, A Rao, C Fuller, M Aristophanous
PURPOSE: To develop and test population-based machine learning algorithms for delineating high-dose clinical target volumes (CTVs) in H&N tumors. Automating and standardizing the contouring of CTVs can reduce both physician contouring time and inter-physician variability, which is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in H&N radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-five node-negative patients treated with definitive radiotherapy were selected (6 right base of tongue, 11 left and 9 right tonsil)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Croix C Fossum, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, L Price, Joaquin J Garcia
Understanding the structure and function of the oropharynx is paramount to providing excellent patient care. In clinical oncology, the oropharynx is generally divided into four distinct components: (1) base of tongue, (2) soft palate, (3) palatine tonsillar fossa, and (4) pharyngeal wall. Oropharyngeal mucosa is distinct from other mucosal surfaces in the body since it is comprised of a reticulated epithelium with a discontinuous basement membrane, also known as lymphoepithelium. This review article describes the anatomy, histology, immunology and surgical resection of the oropharynx as it relates to oncologic care...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
Philippe Delaey, Jérôme Duisit, Catherine Behets, Thierry Duprez, Pierre Gianello, Benoît Lengelé
PURPOSE: To determine the ideal implantation site for selective tongue neurostimulation in obstructive sleep apnea, anatomy of the distal branching of the hypoglossal nerve (HGN) was revisited. METHODS: The HGN distal course and intramuscular distribution to the tongue muscles were studied in 17 embalmed and 5 fresh heads (age 60-98, BMI 20-35). Medial branches supplying selectively the genioglossus (GG) muscle were identified. Then, the distinct bundles entering the oblique (GGo) and horizontal (GGh) parts of the GG were located...
November 17, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Barbara Buffoli, Marco Ferrari, Francesco Belotti, Davide Lancini, Marco Angelo Cocchi, Mauro Labanca, Manfred Tschabitscher, Rita Rezzani, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella
Additional extrinsic muscles of the tongue are reported in literature and one of them is the myloglossus muscle (MGM). Since MGM is nowadays considered as anatomical variant, the aim of this study is to clarify some open questions by evaluating and describing the myloglossal anatomy (including both MGM and its ligamentous counterpart) during human cadaver dissections. Twenty-one regions (including masticator space, sublingual space and adjacent areas) were dissected and the presence and appearance of myloglossus were considered, together with its proximal and distal insertions, vascularisation and innervation...
September 26, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Clemens Heiser, Erica Thaler, Maurits Boon, Ryan J Soose, B Tucker Woodson
Selective upper airway stimulation has been established as an additional treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Essential for the treatment is the precise placement of the cuff electrode for select branches of the hypoglossal nerve, which innervate the protrusors and stiffeners of the tongue. A direct approach to the distal hypoglossal nerve has been established to achieve this goal. For surgeons, detailed knowledge of this anatomy is vital. Another decisive step is the placement of the sensing lead between the intercostal muscles...
September 2016: Laryngoscope
Kurt Nikander, Dirk von Hollen, El Hassane Larhrib
INTRODUCTION: The mouth, the pharynx and the larynx are potential sites of aerosol deposition in the upper airway during inhalation of aerosolized drugs. The right angle bend of the lumen at the back of the mouth, the position of the tongue, the variable size and shape of the lumen in the pharynx and the larynx, and the breathing pattern could increase aerosol deposition in the upper airway and decrease lung deposition. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the anatomy of the upper airway from the oral cavity to the glottis and the impact of mandibular protrusion and incisal opening on the size of the upper airway are highlighted...
August 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Edward Gillis, Charles Rampersaud, Emmanuelle Pease, Paul Buscemi
BACKGROUND: In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occlusion of the upper airway by soft tissue causes intermittent hypoxemia and can have serious sequelae. A novel implantable medical device for OSA is composed of a linear silicone elastic element held in an extended state by a bioabsorbable external sheath. The implant is delivered to the tongue base or soft palate via a minimally invasive approach. Normal tissue healing anchors the device at the attachment points before the bioabsorbable material dissolves and the elastic element contracts to stabilize the surrounding tissue...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Thomas H Fraser, Artem M Prokofiev
Xeniamia atrithorax is a diminutive new genus and new species. The following combination of melanophore patterns is unique among known apogonids: a large cluster of melanophores in the skin anterior to the insertion of the pelvic-fin base, then extending forward along the sides of the isthmus; posterior portion of the oral chamber is black with melanophores extending below the gill apparatus forward along the base of the oral chamber thence along the basibranchials ending posterior to and below the level of the tongue; a line of large melanophores extends along the inner side of the ceratohyals; black to blackish stomach; and the anterior portion of the intestine is mostly pale with few black spots becoming more densely spotted with melanophores past the first bend and black from the second intestinal turn to the anus...
July 27, 2016: Zootaxa
Raquel P Hirata, Fabiola Schorr, Fabiane Kayamori, Henrique Takachi Moriya, Salvatore Romano, Giuseppe Insalaco, Eloisa M Gebrim, Luis Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Pedro R Genta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is a growing interest to develop a simple method to characterize the mechanisms leading to upper airway collapse in order to guide treatment options in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Critical closing pressure (Pcrit) during sleep is able to predict the anatomical component of OSA. However, Pcrit is a laborious method that is only used for research purposes. The application of negative expiratory pressure (NEP) is a simple method to assess upper airway collapsibility that can be easily performed during wakefulness...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Anshuman J Das, Tulio A Valdez, Jose Arbouin Vargas, Punyapat Saksupapchon, Pushyami Rachapudi, Zhifei Ge, Julio C Estrada, Ramesh Raskar
Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering...
April 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Sabri T Shuker
With the progress of multidisciplinary vascular anomaly treatment, the use of radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy and medical treatments, the corticosteroid, sclerotherapy, and many more, the role of surgery has been refined. Surgical treatment has historically been the mainstay of treatment and will maintain.A miniature tourniquet technique applied to the tongue was successfully utilized in reducing bleeding to a minimum during surgical resection of a massive cavernous hemangioma involving the tongue and lower lip without any postoperative complications...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sam Van Wassenbergh, Egon Heiss
A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zehra İpek Arslan, Canan Turna, Nevin Esra Gümüş, Kamil Toker, Mine Solak
OBJECTIVE: Glidescope and Airtraq were designed for facilitating intubation and for teaching regarding the airway anatomy. We aimed to evaluate their efficacy in normal airway, tongue oedema and face-to-face orotracheal intubation models when used by novice personnel. METHODS: After the local human research ethics committee approval, 36 medical students who were in the beginning of their third year were enrolled in this study. After watching a video regarding intubation using one of these devices, the students intubated a paediatric manikin with a Glidescope or Airtraq via the normal airway, tongue oedema and face-to-face approach...
April 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Mansoor Aqil, Bilal Delvi, Abdullah Abujamea, Tariq Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Alzahem, Saara Mansoor, Ayman Aaljazaeri
BACKGROUND: Gross morphological differences exist among different brands of pediatric supraglottic devices (SGDs). The aim of this study is to compare the spatial relationship of i-gel® and Ambu® AuraOnce (AO)TM on pediatric airway based on three dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. METHODS: Sixty patients up to 12 years of age were enrolled and assigned in two groups, i-gel® or Ambu® AOTM. After confirmation of proper placement of these SGDs, 3-D MRI scans of head and neck were performed...
June 17, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Sebastian Weckbach, Tugrul Kocak, Heiko Reichel, Friederike Lattig
BACKGROUND: The informed medical consent in surgery requires to some point basic medical knowledge. The treating physicians while explaining the details and risks of the recommended procedure often imply this. We hypothesized, that patients do not have adequate medical understanding to decide about the ongoing therapy and its potential complications based on knowledge jeopardizing the patients' safety. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database using a multiple choice questionnaire with 10 basic questions about anatomy, clinical symptoms and therapies of spinal diseases in our spine clinic at a German university hospital...
2016: Patient Safety in Surgery
Maja Rogić Vidaković, Ana Jerković, Tomislav Jurić, Igor Vujović, Joško Šoda, Nikola Erceg, Andreja Bubić, Marina Zmajević Schönwald, Pantelis Lioumis, Dragan Gabelica, Zoran Đogaš
Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have so far reported the results of mapping the primary motor cortex (M1) for hand and tongue muscles in stuttering disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for locating the M1 for laryngeal muscle and premotor cortical area in the caudal opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, corresponding to Broca's area in stuttering subjects by applying new methodology for mapping these motor speech areas...
November 2016: Cognitive Processing
Rubén D F Martínez, Matthew C Lamanna, Fernando E Novas, Ryan C Ridgely, Gabriel A Casal, Javier E Martínez, Javier R Vita, Lawrence M Witmer
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla-lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) 'tongue-like' ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with 'strut-like' centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs...
2016: PloS One
Yue Yang, Fang Shi, Xiaoping Chen, Wei Huang, Haitao Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of indirect CT lymphography (CT-LG) combined with nanocarbon tracer suspension staining in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection of rabbit tongue (cancer). METHOD: Eight rabbits were divided into two groups, i. e. normal control group (6 rabbits) and VX2 tongue carcinoma group (2 rabbits). Pre-contrast CT images were taken for all rabbits. The mixture of iohexol and nanocarbon tracer suspension (iohexol 0.25 ml and nanocarbon tracer 0...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
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