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Tongue Anatomy

Barbara Buffoli, Marco Ferrari, Francesco Belotti, Davide Lancini, Marco Angelo Cocchi, Mauro Labanca, Manfred Tschabitscher, Rita Rezzani, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella
Additional extrinsic muscles of the tongue are reported in literature and one of them is the myloglossus muscle (MGM). Since MGM is nowadays considered as anatomical variant, the aim of this study is to clarify some open questions by evaluating and describing the myloglossal anatomy (including both MGM and its ligamentous counterpart) during human cadaver dissections. Twenty-one regions (including masticator space, sublingual space and adjacent areas) were dissected and the presence and appearance of myloglossus were considered, together with its proximal and distal insertions, vascularisation and innervation...
September 26, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Clemens Heiser, Erica Thaler, Maurits Boon, Ryan J Soose, B Tucker Woodson
Selective upper airway stimulation has been established as an additional treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Essential for the treatment is the precise placement of the cuff electrode for select branches of the hypoglossal nerve, which innervate the protrusors and stiffeners of the tongue. A direct approach to the distal hypoglossal nerve has been established to achieve this goal. For surgeons, detailed knowledge of this anatomy is vital. Another decisive step is the placement of the sensing lead between the intercostal muscles...
September 2016: Laryngoscope
Kurt Nikander, Dirk von Hollen, El Hassane Larhrib
INTRODUCTION: The mouth, the pharynx and the larynx are potential sites of aerosol deposition in the upper airway during inhalation of aerosolized drugs. The right angle bend of the lumen at the back of the mouth, the position of the tongue, the variable size and shape of the lumen in the pharynx and the larynx, and the breathing pattern could increase aerosol deposition in the upper airway and decrease lung deposition. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the anatomy of the upper airway from the oral cavity to the glottis and the impact of mandibular protrusion and incisal opening on the size of the upper airway are highlighted...
August 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Edward Gillis, Charles Rampersaud, Emmanuelle Pease, Paul Buscemi
BACKGROUND: In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occlusion of the upper airway by soft tissue causes intermittent hypoxemia and can have serious sequelae. A novel implantable medical device for OSA is composed of a linear silicone elastic element held in an extended state by a bioabsorbable external sheath. The implant is delivered to the tongue base or soft palate via a minimally invasive approach. Normal tissue healing anchors the device at the attachment points before the bioabsorbable material dissolves and the elastic element contracts to stabilize the surrounding tissue...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Thomas H Fraser, Artem M Prokofiev
Xeniamia atrithorax is a diminutive new genus and new species. The following combination of melanophore patterns is unique among known apogonids: a large cluster of melanophores in the skin anterior to the insertion of the pelvic-fin base, then extending forward along the sides of the isthmus; posterior portion of the oral chamber is black with melanophores extending below the gill apparatus forward along the base of the oral chamber thence along the basibranchials ending posterior to and below the level of the tongue; a line of large melanophores extends along the inner side of the ceratohyals; black to blackish stomach; and the anterior portion of the intestine is mostly pale with few black spots becoming more densely spotted with melanophores past the first bend and black from the second intestinal turn to the anus...
2016: Zootaxa
Raquel P Hirata, Fabiola Schorr, Fabiane Kayamori, Henrique Takachi Moriya, Salvatore Romano, Giuseppe Insalaco, Eloisa M Gebrim, Luis Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Pedro R Genta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is a growing interest to develop a simple method to characterize the mechanisms leading to upper airway collapse in order to guide treatment options in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Critical closing pressure (Pcrit) during sleep is able to predict the anatomical component of OSA. However, Pcrit is a laborious method that is only used for research purposes. The application of negative expiratory pressure (NEP) is a simple method to assess upper airway collapsibility that can be easily performed during wakefulness...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Anshuman J Das, Tulio A Valdez, Jose Arbouin Vargas, Punyapat Saksupapchon, Pushyami Rachapudi, Zhifei Ge, Julio C Estrada, Ramesh Raskar
Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering...
April 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Sabri T Shuker
With the progress of multidisciplinary vascular anomaly treatment, the use of radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy and medical treatments, the corticosteroid, sclerotherapy, and many more, the role of surgery has been refined. Surgical treatment has historically been the mainstay of treatment and will maintain.A miniature tourniquet technique applied to the tongue was successfully utilized in reducing bleeding to a minimum during surgical resection of a massive cavernous hemangioma involving the tongue and lower lip without any postoperative complications...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sam Van Wassenbergh, Egon Heiss
A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zehra İpek Arslan, Canan Turna, Nevin Esra Gümüş, Kamil Toker, Mine Solak
OBJECTIVE: Glidescope and Airtraq were designed for facilitating intubation and for teaching regarding the airway anatomy. We aimed to evaluate their efficacy in normal airway, tongue oedema and face-to-face orotracheal intubation models when used by novice personnel. METHODS: After the local human research ethics committee approval, 36 medical students who were in the beginning of their third year were enrolled in this study. After watching a video regarding intubation using one of these devices, the students intubated a paediatric manikin with a Glidescope or Airtraq via the normal airway, tongue oedema and face-to-face approach...
April 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Mansoor Aqil, Bilal Delvi, Abdullah Abujamea, Tariq Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Alzahem, Saara Mansoor, Ayman Aaljazaeri
BACKGROUND: Gross morphological differences exist among different brands of pediatric supraglottic devices (SGDs). The aim of this study is to compare the spatial relationship of i-gel® and Ambu® AuraOnce (AO)TM on pediatric airway based on three dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. METHODS: Sixty patients up to 12 years of age were enrolled and assigned in two groups, i-gel® or Ambu® AOTM. After confirmation of proper placement of these SGDs, 3-D MRI scans of head and neck were performed...
June 17, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Sebastian Weckbach, Tugrul Kocak, Heiko Reichel, Friederike Lattig
BACKGROUND: The informed medical consent in surgery requires to some point basic medical knowledge. The treating physicians while explaining the details and risks of the recommended procedure often imply this. We hypothesized, that patients do not have adequate medical understanding to decide about the ongoing therapy and its potential complications based on knowledge jeopardizing the patients' safety. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database using a multiple choice questionnaire with 10 basic questions about anatomy, clinical symptoms and therapies of spinal diseases in our spine clinic at a German university hospital...
2016: Patient Safety in Surgery
Maja Rogić Vidaković, Ana Jerković, Tomislav Jurić, Igor Vujović, Joško Šoda, Nikola Erceg, Andreja Bubić, Marina Zmajević Schönwald, Pantelis Lioumis, Dragan Gabelica, Zoran Đogaš
Transcranial magnetic stimulation studies have so far reported the results of mapping the primary motor cortex (M1) for hand and tongue muscles in stuttering disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for locating the M1 for laryngeal muscle and premotor cortical area in the caudal opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, corresponding to Broca's area in stuttering subjects by applying new methodology for mapping these motor speech areas...
April 29, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Rubén D F Martínez, Matthew C Lamanna, Fernando E Novas, Ryan C Ridgely, Gabriel A Casal, Javier E Martínez, Javier R Vita, Lawrence M Witmer
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla-lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) 'tongue-like' ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with 'strut-like' centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs...
2016: PloS One
Yue Yang, Fang Shi, Xiaoping Chen, Wei Huang, Haitao Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of indirect CT lymphography (CT-LG) combined with nanocarbon tracer suspension staining in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection of rabbit tongue (cancer). METHOD: Eight rabbits were divided into two groups, i. e. normal control group (6 rabbits) and VX2 tongue carcinoma group (2 rabbits). Pre-contrast CT images were taken for all rabbits. The mixture of iohexol and nanocarbon tracer suspension (iohexol 0.25 ml and nanocarbon tracer 0...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Anoop Hegde, Lawrence John Mathias, Arjun Ballal, Vikram Shetty, Ashwin Shetty
INTRODUCTION: Calcaneal fractures have posed a challenge to orthopaedic surgeon for many years. The major problem is to reconstruct the fracture and improve healing of the fracture and also the surrounding tissues. Anatomic restoration of the three-dimensional anatomy of the calcaneum is the goal of surgical management of calcaneal fractures. Over the years, various techniques have been developed to accomplish this goal. AIM: To determine the functional outcome in displaced tongue-type calcaneal fracture treated by percutaneous screw fixation...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Bala Chakravarthy Neelapu, Om Prakash Kharbanda, Harish Kumar Sardana, Rajiv Balachandran, Viren Sardana, Priyanka Kapoor, Abhishek Gupta, Srikanth Vasamsetti
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the common sleep breathing disorders in adults, characterised by frequent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep. Craniofacial disharmony is an important risk factor for OSA. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) study is considered to be the most reliable confirmatory investigation for OSA diagnosis, whereas the precise localization of site of obstruction to the airflow cannot be detected. Identifying the cause of OSA in a particular ethnic population/individual subject helps to understand the etiological factors and effective management of OSA...
January 30, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Timothy R Warise, Steve A Galella
In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible...
2015: International Journal of Orthodontics
E V Kolesnikova, O B Dronova, Il Kagan, A A Tretjakov, E L Kogan
OBJECTIVE: To Improve the diagnosis of duodenal ulcer and preneoplastic changes of gastroduodenal transition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 112 patients with duodenal ulcer, 208 healthy pearsons of three age periods: second period of mature age, elderly and senile age were examined. Video endoscopy equipment company "OLYMPUS" (Japan), morphological methods and the determination of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) were used. RESULTS: The connecting line of gastric and duodenal mucous membrane can be located on the gastric side of the pylorus (13% in normal cases and 22...
2015: Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology
Donna T Geddes, Vanessa S Sakalidis
Ultrasound imaging has been employed as a noninvasive technique to explore the sucking dynamics of the breastfeeding infant over the past 40 years. Recent improvements in the resolution of ultrasound images have allowed a more detailed description of the tongue movements during sucking, identification of oral structures, and measurements of nipple position and tongue motion. Several different scanning planes can be used and each show sucking from a different perspective. Ultrasound techniques and image anatomy are described in detail in this review and provide the basis for implementation in the objective assessment of breastfeeding...
May 2016: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
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