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Tongue Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784581/how-to-make-a-tongue-cellular-and-molecular-regulation-of-muscle-and-connective-tissue-formation-during-mammalian-tongue-development
#1
REVIEW
Martyn T Cobourne, Sachiko Iseki, Anahid A Birjandi, Hadeel Adel Al-Lami, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Guilherme M Xavier, Karen J Liu
The vertebrate tongue is a complex muscular organ situated in the oral cavity and involved in multiple functions including mastication, taste sensation, articulation and the maintenance of oral health. Although the gross embryological contributions to tongue formation have been known for many years, it is only relatively recently that the molecular pathways regulating these processes have begun to be discovered. In particular, there is now evidence that the Hedgehog, TGF-Beta, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways all play an important role in mediating appropriate signaling interactions between the epithelial, cranial neural crest and mesodermal cell populations that are required to form the tongue...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781570/effect-of-motor-based-speech-intervention-on-articulatory-placement-in-the-treatment-of-a-posterior-nasal-fricative-a-preliminary-mri-study-on-a-single-subject
#2
Kazlin N Mason, Eshan Pua, Jamie L Perry
BACKGROUND: Posterior nasal fricatives are a learned compensatory articulation error and commonly substituted for oral fricatives. Treatment of such articulation errors requires the modification or teaching of skilled movements. A motor-based approach is designed to teach the complex motor skill movement sequences required in the production of sounds. Although motor learning research is well established, little has been done to determine how the approach changes the underlying physiology of articulatory movements...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737577/gross-morphology-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-the-bagrus-bayad-forskal-1775-oropharyngeal-cavity-with-emphasis-to-teeth-food-adaptation
#3
Mohamed A M Alsafy, Naglaa F Bassuoni, Basma G Hanafy
Bagrus Bayad (Forskal, 1775) is a bottom feeder fish feeds on different food items. Its oral cavity anatomy has many types of teeth adapted to the capacity and varieties of feeding. The aim of the present study was to use the gross anatomy and scanning electron microscopy to identify the anatomical characteristic, especially of the teeth and taste buds distributed on the roof and floor of the oropharyngeal cavity. The results clarified that Bagrus Bayad has two types of teeth; curved pointed and blunt teeth of different sizes...
May 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675685/laplace-based-modeling-of-fiber-orientation-in-the-tongue
#4
Arnold D Gomez, Nahla Elsaid, Maureen L Stone, Jiachen Zhuo, Jerry L Prince
Mechanical modeling of tongue deformation plays a significant role in the study of breathing, swallowing, and speech production. In the absence of internal joints, fiber orientations determine the direction of sarcomeric contraction and have great influence over real and simulated tissue motion. However, subject-specific experimental observations of fiber distribution are difficult to obtain; thus, models of fiber distribution are generally used in mechanical simulations. This paper describes modeling of fiber distribution using solutions of Laplace equations and compares the effectiveness of this approach against tractography from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging...
April 19, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674733/the-use-of-dental-implants-cast-bars-and-sleeve-overdentures-in-oral-cancer-patients
#5
R Ali, A Al-Khayatt, C Barclay
Surgical resection of an oral tumour (and the associated free flap reconstruction) can significantly alter the oral anatomy. The lack of sulcus depth, alveolar ridge, presence of a mobile flap and limited tongue movement can make it impossible for patients to control a removable prosthesis. To help this cohort of patients, dental implants can be invaluable. The Oral Rehabilitation Team at Central Manchester University Dental Hospital have used dental implants to rehabilitate oral cancer patients for over thirty years...
April 27, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620937/defining-tip-frenulum-length-for-ankyloglossia-and-its-impact-on-breastfeeding-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Ryan D Walker, Susan Messing, Casey Rosen-Carole, Margo McKenna Benoit
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal lingual frenulum anatomy in newborns and to evaluate tip-frenulum distance as an objective diagnostic tool for identifying newborns at risk for anterior and posterior tongue tie and breastfeeding difficulty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distance from the tongue tip to the insertion of the lingual frenulum was measured in a group of 100 healthy newborns to establish normative data. The presence of a visible or palpable cord was noted...
April 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542051/quantifying-anatomic-deformations-during-laryngoscopy
#7
Xiaotian Wu, Joseph A Paydarfar, Ryan J Halter
For a variety of head and neck cancers, specifically those of the oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx, minimally invasive trans-oral approaches have been developed to reduce perioperative and long-term morbidity. However, in trans-oral surgical approaches anatomical deformation due to instrumentation, specifically placement of laryngoscopes and retractors, present a significant challenge for surgeons relying on preoperative imaging to resect tumors to negative margins. Quantifying the deformation due to instrumentation is needed in order to develop predictive models of operative deformation...
June 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473197/heritability-of-the-airway-structure-and-head-posture-using-twin-study
#8
J-H Kang, J Sung, Y-M Song, Y-H Kim
Inherited traits of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may have link to the heritability of the airway anatomy. The aim of this study was to investigate heritability of the airway anatomy by comparing skeletal and soft tissue features of Korean monozygotic twins (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). In total, 72 participants (mean age, 41.5 ± 5.9 years; 40 males, 32 females) including 48 MZ (24 pairs) and 24 DZ (12 pairs) with same sex were participated. The craniofacial, craniovertebral, hyoideal and pharyngeal parameters were measured using lateral cephalograms...
May 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432642/classification-of-tongue-cancer-resection-and-treatment-algorithm
#9
Giuditta Mannelli, Francesco Arcuri, Tommaso Agostini, Marco Innocenti, Mirco Raffaini, Giuseppe Spinelli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reconstruction of tongue cancer defects is challenging due to the complex anatomy and physiology of the tongue. Here, we classify patterns of tongue tissue loss and describe a treatment algorithm for achieving good functional and oncologic outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 50 tongue squamous-cell carcinomas surgically treated between January 2010-June 2015. Cancer resection and tongue reconstruction were stratified according to the missing anatomical subunits...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409173/characteristics-of-anterior-inferior-calcaneal-cortex
#10
T Harnroongroj, S Jiamamornrat, T Tharmviboonsri
BACKGROUND: Minimal invasive surgery of calcaneal fracture provided satisfactory outcomes. In tongue type calcaneal fracture, percutaneous screw usually purchases in anterior inferior calcaneal cortex. However, there was no detail about the cortex of anterior inferior calcaneus so the surface anatomy and cortical thickness of this area were studied. METHODS: 88 calcaneus from embalmed cadavers were enrolled. Anterior part of the inferior cortex was identified. Surface anatomy was examined...
December 24, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362115/reader-performance-in-the-ultrasonographic-evaluation-of-oropharyngeal-carcinoma
#11
Farhoud Faraji, Ericka S Padilla, Dana Blitz, Meghan B Wenderoth, Ray G Blanco, Satomi Kawamoto, Sheila Sheth, Ulrike M Hamper, Carole Fakhry
OBJECTIVE: To examine reader performance in evaluating oropharyngeal anatomy on ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasound images of the oropharynx comprising normal and malignant anatomic variants were organized into slideshows. Slideshows were administered to 6 readers blinded to participant tumor status and with varying experience reading oropharyngeal sonograms. A training slideshow oriented readers to images of the oropharynx with and without malignant lesions...
February 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351690/the-transcondylar-approach-to-access-symptomatic-arachnoid-cysts-of-the-hypoglossal-canal
#12
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Christina Bal, Marian Christoph Neidert, Oliver Bozinov
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: A direct transcondylar approach to treat symptomatic arachnoid cysts of the hypoglossal canal has not yet been described in the literature. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Here, we present a skull base approach in 2 female patients (68 and 38 yr) with progressive dysphagia, dysarthria, half-sided weakness, and atrophy of the tongue due to an arachnoid cyst of the hypoglossal canal. After patient informed consent, both patients were successfully operated on without complications using a transcondylar approach, and their symptoms improved 3 mo after surgery; in both patients, resection of the cyst was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349680/ultrasound-evaluation-of-the-airway-in-the-ed-a-feasibility-study
#13
Elizabeth A Hall, Ibrahim Showaihi, Frances S Shofer, Nova L Panebianco, Anthony J Dean
BACKGROUND: Recognition of the difficult airway is a critical element of emergency practice. Mallampati score and body mass index (BMI) are not always predictive and they may be unavailable in critically ill patients. Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images that are rapidly obtainable, mobile, and non-invasive. Studies have shown correlation of ultrasound measurements with difficult laryngoscopy; however, none have been performed in the Emergency Department (ED) using a consistent scanning protocol...
January 18, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338941/epiglottoplasty-technique-in-endoscopic-partial-laryngectomy
#14
M Moulin, C A Righini, P F Castellanos, I Atallah
The main advantage of endoscopic laser surgery for laryngeal cancer is to allow tumour resection, while limiting functional sequelae, thereby improving the postoperative course. In this type of surgery, the epiglottis is often partially resected, leaving a raw zone without any reconstruction. The surgical technique described here involves endoscopic reconstruction of the epiglottis after partial resection. The sectioned edge of the epiglottis is sutured to the base of the tongue to create a neoepiglottis and to reconstruct the vallecula, thus resembling preoperative anatomy, allowing improvement of postoperative swallowing...
January 12, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298295/synchrotron-microtomography-of-a-nothosaurus-marchicus-skull-informs-on-nothosaurian-physiology-and-neurosensory-adaptations-in-early-sauropterygia
#15
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249632/perforator-flaps-from-the-lower-leg-for-intraoral-reconstruction-experience-of-131-flaps
#16
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andrea Rau, Andreas Kolk
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, perforator flaps have become popular for defect cover in the head and neck because they increase the choice of reconstructive possibilities and can lead to minimal donor site morbidity. In particular, the lower leg is considered a suitable option, as it provides thin and pliable skin for intraoral lining. Having gained experience with 131 flaps raised from four different donor sites at the lower leg, the aim of this paper is to evaluate success rates and patient satisfaction, but also difficulties and pitfalls during flap transfer...
February 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244229/transoral-robotic-surgery-for-residual-and-recurrent-oropharyngeal-cancers-exploratory-study-of-surgical-innovation-using-the-ideal-framework-for-early-phase-surgical-studies
#17
Vinidh Paleri, Hannah Fox, Sarah Coward, Maniram Ragbir, Andrew McQueen, Omar Ahmed, David Meikle, Daniel Saleh, James O'Hara, Max Robinson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the management of residual and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: IDEAL (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term Follow-up) 2a framework. RESULTS: Of 26 patients assessed for TORS, 21 underwent the procedure, 5 underwent open resection (4 due to unsuitable anatomy/tumor extent and 1 on the basis of patient choice). Three patients underwent intraoperative ultrasound-assisted robotic resection, and 3 received robotic-assisted free flap inset...
March 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153261/improving-surgical-results-in-complex-nerve-anatomy-during-implantation-of-selective-upper-airway-stimulation
#18
Zhaojun Zhu, Benedikt Hofauer, Clemens Heiser
The following report presents a case of two late embedded hypoglossus branches during implantation of an upper airway stimulation device that caused a mixed activation of the tongue when included in the stimulation cuff. In the end, correct cuff placement could be achieved by careful examination of the hypoglossal nerve anatomy, precise nerve dissection, tongue motion analysis and intraoperative nerve monitoring.
June 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042066/lm-and-sem-study-on-the-swordfish-xiphias-gladius-tongue
#19
Francesco Abbate, Maria Cristina Guerrera, Mauro Cavallaro, Giuseppe Montalbano, Antonino Germanà, Maria Levanti
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. 1758) is a predatory and migratory fish. Its characteristic feature is a flat and sharp upper jaw forming a "sword". The adaptation of vertebrates, including fish, to their environment is strictly related to the capacity of feeding and is carried out by often severe modifications of the anatomy of the buccal cavity, especially of the tongue. The aim of this study is, using light and scanning electron microscopy and considering that no data are so far available about the morphology of the tongue in this species, to analyse the anatomical characteristics of the tongue, especially its dorsal surface...
December 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038969/microvascular-imaging-and-monitoring-of-human-oral-cavity-lesions-in-vivo-by-swept-source-oct-based-angiography
#20
Wei Wei, Woo June Choi, Ruikang K Wang
We report the development of optical coherence tomography- (OCT) based angiography (OCTA) to image blood flow within microcirculatory tissue beds in human oral cavity in vivo with a field of view at 10 mm × 10 mm. Three-dimensional (3D) structural and vascular images of labial mucosa tissue are obtained at a single 3D acquisition. Pathologic mucosal sites with mouth ulcers are examined using the OCT tomograms and angiograms, upon which to monitor the lesion healing process over a period of 2 weeks. Quantitative metrics of the capillary loop density within the lamina propria layer are evaluated, providing statistically significant difference between healthy and diseased conditions over time...
January 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
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