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Tongue Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899547/linear-dimensions-of-normal-upper-airway-structure-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-chinese-han-infants-and-preschool-children
#1
Xiaoli Yi, Linyin Yao, Xinyu Yuan, Yongxiang Wei, Zhenchang Wang
OBJECTIVES: To establish normative data of upper airway structure in Chinese Han infants and preschool children. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 521 Chinese Han infants and preschool children (225 girls, 296 boys) aged from 1 day to 72 months were selected from the children who underwent head MRI at the Capital Institute of Pediatrics Affiliated Children Hospital, Beijing, China. No subjects had sleep-disordered breathing or associated conditions that may have affected the upper airway anatomy...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861702/simulation-of-facial-expressions-using-person-specific-semg-signals-controlling-a-biomechanical-face-model
#2
Merijn Eskes, Alfons J M Balm, Maarten J A van Alphen, Ludi E Smeele, Ian Stavness, Ferdinand van der Heijden
PURPOSE: Functional inoperability in advanced oral cancer is difficult to assess preoperatively. To assess functions of lips and tongue, biomechanical models are required. Apart from adjusting generic models to individual anatomy, muscle activation patterns (MAPs) driving patient-specific functional movements are necessary to predict remaining functional outcome. We aim to evaluate how volunteer-specific MAPs derived from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals control a biomechanical face model...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833198/constructing-a-patient-specific-computer-model-of-the-upper-airway-in-sleep-apnea-patients
#3
Sandeep S Dhaliwal, Seyyed M Hesabgar, Seyyed M H Haddad, Hanif Ladak, Abbas Samani, Brian W Rotenberg
OBJECTIVE: The use of computer simulation to develop a high-fidelity model has been proposed as a novel and cost-effective alternative to help guide therapeutic intervention in sleep apnea surgery. We describe a computer model based on patient-specific anatomy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects wherein the percentage and sites of upper airway collapse are compared to findings on drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). STUDY DESIGN: Basic science computer model generation...
August 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738371/robotic-obstructive-sleep-apnea-surgery
#4
Song Tar Toh, Pon Poh Hsu
Since the first report of the use of the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in transoral robotic tongue base reduction for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was published in 2010, this surgical tool and technique has been used worldwide for the resection of tongue base tissue in the multilevel surgical treatment of OSA. The combined knowledge of the published literature on its use has enlightened sleep surgeons worldwide on this new yet evolving surgical tool. Here we will discuss the use of the da Vinci robotic system in the treatment of OSA, the pertinent surgical anatomy for a safe surgical procedure, the primary and secondary outcomes to expect in the multilevel and primary use of this technology in treating the tongue base, the predictors for success or failure, and the complications associated with this technique...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607842/relating-form-to-function-in-the-hummingbird-feeding-apparatus
#5
Alejandro Rico-Guevara
A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores). Hummingbirds are the oldest and most diverse clade of nectarivorous vertebrates, being a perfect subject to study tongue specializations. Their tongue functions to intraorally transport arthropods through their long bills and enables them to exploit the nectarivorous niche by collecting small amounts of liquid, therefore it is of vital importance to study its anatomy and structure at various scales...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577371/prevalence-of-torus-mandibularis-in-young-healthy-dentate-adults
#6
Koji Morita, Hiroki Tsuka, Tomoaki Shintani, Mitsuyoshi Yoshida, Hidemi Kurihara, Kazuhiro Tsuga
PURPOSE: There have been only a few reports on the prevalence of torus mandibularis (TM) in young adult patients, and TM can have various adverse effects on oral and occlusal states in middle-age patients. This study was designed to determine the association between TM status and oral and occlusal states in young healthy dentate adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study; the sample population included students at Hiroshima University (Hiroshima, Japan) who participated for practical education...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547793/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-normal-and-abnormal-swallowing-in-oropharyngeal-dysphagia
#7
REVIEW
A Sasegbon, S Hamdy
BACKGROUND: Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus...
May 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526655/digital-morphometrics-a-new-upper-airway-phenotyping-paradigm-in-osa
#8
Richard J Schwab, Sarah E Leinwand, Cary B Bearn, Greg Maislin, Ramya Bhat Rao, Adithya Nagaraja, Stephen Wang, Brendan T Keenan
BACKGROUND: OSA is associated with changes in pharyngeal anatomy. The goal of this study was to objectively and reproducibly quantify pharyngeal anatomy by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use digital morphometrics to quantify intraoral risk factors for OSA. METHODS: Digital photographs were obtained by using an intraoral laser ruler and digital camera in 318 control subjects (mean AHI, 4...
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481757/vermillion-reconstruction-with-anal-verge-transitional-epithelium-turning-things-upside-down
#9
Benjamin Levi, Joseph A Ricci, Matthias B Donelan
Postburn lip deformities pose a significant set of challenges to reconstructive burn surgeons because of the complex anatomy, diverse functions, and specialized nature of the lip tissues. There has been a paucity of literature on restoration of the vermillion to date. The authors report on two patients who suffered burn injuries resulting in significant lip deformities who underwent a novel method of vermillion reconstruction with a full thickness anal verge skin graft. Both patients tolerated the procedure well without complications...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464688/variability-in-muscle-activation-of-simple-speech-motions-a-biomechanical-modeling-approach
#10
Negar M Harandi, Jonghye Woo, Maureen Stone, Rafeef Abugharbieh, Sidney Fels
Biomechanical models of the oropharynx facilitate the study of speech function by providing information that cannot be directly derived from imaging data, such as internal muscle forces and muscle activation patterns. Such models, when constructed and simulated based on anatomy and motion captured from individual speakers, enable the exploration of inter-subject variability of speech biomechanics. These models also allow one to answer questions, such as whether speakers produce similar sounds using essentially the same motor patterns with subtle differences, or vastly different motor equivalent patterns...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460647/-cannot-ventilate-cannot-intubate-situation-after-penetration-of-the-tongue-root-through-to-the-epipharynx-by-a-surfboard-a-case-report
#11
Yuko Ono, Miha Kunii, Tomohiro Miura, Kazuaki Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Surfing is an increasingly popular activity and surfing-related injuries have increased accordingly. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of penetrating upper airway injuries in surfers. We present a "cannot ventilate, cannot intubate" situation following penetrating neck injury by a surfboard fin. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 29-year-old Japanese man was swept off his board by a large wave and his left mandible, tongue root, and right epipharynx were penetrated by the surfboard fin...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295613/the-clinical-view-for-dissection-of-the-lingual-nerve-with-application-to-minimizing-iatrogenic-injury
#12
Joe Iwanaga
The importance of the position of the lingual nerve in the oral cavity cannot be understated for dentists and oral surgeons. Therefore, the location of the lingual nerve with various positions of the tongue is important. However, most dental and medical students are taught oral cadaveric anatomy where tissues are fixed. Therefore, the focus of this article is to demonstrate how the lingual nerve moves based on tongue movement in fresh tissues and how this is important for dentists and oral surgeons. Clin. Anat...
May 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243697/classification-system-for-lateral-pharyngotomy-systematic-study-of-anatomic-exposure-in-a-human-cadaver-model
#13
Courtney Shires, Aaron Smith, Jenn Lee, John Boughter, Merry Sebelik
INTRODUCTION: Lateral pharyngotomy (LP) is a surgical procedure that allows exposure to tumors of the pharynx and supraglottic larynx. This study was undertaken to: (1) propose a classification system of LP used in exposing various sites of the oropharynx, supraglottis, and hypopharynx. (2) Describe the structures visible with each category of LP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five tissue-fixed human cadavers from our gross anatomy laboratory were dissected in a manner similar to surgical lateral pharyngotomy...
February 27, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215047/pharyngeal-swallowing-pressures-in-the-base-of-tongue-and-hypopharynx-regions-identified-with-three-dimensional-manometry
#14
Sarah P Rosen, Corinne A Jones, Timothy M McCulloch
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to use three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution manometry to identify circumferential pressure patterns generated within the asymmetrical base-of-tongue and hypopharynx regions of the pharynx during deglutition. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: Radial pressures in the regions of interest were evaluated during swallowing events in 12 healthy subjects using 3D high-resolution manometry. RESULTS: Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed asymmetrical pharyngeal clearance pressures in the base-of-tongue and hypopharynx regions during swallowing...
September 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210449/oral-mucosal-lesions-in-a-chilean-elderly-population-a-retrospective-study-with-a-systematic-review-from-thirteen-countries
#15
César Rivera, Daniel Droguett, María-Jesús Arenas-Márquez
BACKGROUND: The oral examination is an essential part of the multidisciplinary medical care in elderly people. Oral mucosal lesions and normal variations of oral anatomy (OMLs) are very common in this people, but few studies have examined the frequency and prevalence of these conditions worldwide and less in Chile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the frequency of OMLs in a Chilean elderly population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was conducted a retrospective study (Talca, Chile)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182639/assessing-the-suitability-of-medial-sural-artery-perforator-flaps-in-tongue-reconstruction-an-outcome-study
#16
Shao-Yu Hung, Charles Yuen Yung Loh, Soo-Ha Kwon, Chia-Hsuan Tsai, Kai-Ping Chang, Huang-Kai Kao
INTRODUCTION: Oncological resection of the tongue can be reconstructed using a multitude of free flaps. The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap has been well described in the literature in terms of its anatomy and harvest. However, functional outcome studies of post-reconstruction tongue defects using the MSAP flap have not been reported. This study represents the largest outcome study of patients with tongue reconstructions using MSAP flaps and a comprehensive review of its use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#17
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050345/functional-mri-vs-navigated-tms-to-optimize-m1-seed-volume-delineation-for-dti-tractography-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-brain-tumours-adjacent-to-the-corticospinal-tract
#18
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047176/su-c-bra-05-delineating-high-dose-clinical-target-volumes-for-head-and-neck-tumors-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#19
C Cardenas, A Wong, A Mohamed, J Yang, L Court, A Rao, C Fuller, M Aristophanous
PURPOSE: To develop and test population-based machine learning algorithms for delineating high-dose clinical target volumes (CTVs) in H&N tumors. Automating and standardizing the contouring of CTVs can reduce both physician contouring time and inter-physician variability, which is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in H&N radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-five node-negative patients treated with definitive radiotherapy were selected (6 right base of tongue, 11 left and 9 right tonsil)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926789/characterization-of-the-oropharynx-anatomy-histology-immunology-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-surgical-resection
#20
REVIEW
Croix C Fossum, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, Daniel L Price, Joaquin J Garcia
Understanding the structure and function of the oropharynx is paramount for providing excellent patient care. In clinical oncology, the oropharynx is generally divided into four distinct components: (i) the base of the tongue; (ii) the soft palate; (iii) the palatine tonsillar fossa; and (iv) the pharyngeal wall. The oropharyngeal mucosa is distinct from other mucosal surfaces in the body, as it is composed of a reticulated epithelium with a discontinuous basement membrane, also known as lymphoepithelium. This review describes the anatomy, histology, immunology and surgical resection of the oropharynx as they relate to oncological care...
June 2017: Histopathology
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