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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087934/fungal-cell-cycle-a-unicellular-versus-multicellular-comparison
#2
Ilkay Dörter, Michelle Momany
All cells must accurately replicate DNA and partition it to daughter cells. The basic cell cycle machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Most of the mechanisms that control the cell cycle were worked out in fungal cells, taking advantage of their powerful genetics and rapid duplication times. Here we describe the cell cycles of the unicellular budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the multicellular filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We compare and contrast morphological landmarks of G1, S, G2, and M phases, molecular mechanisms that drive cell cycle progression, and checkpoints in these model unicellular and multicellular fungal systems...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087332/exo-mfa-a-13c-metabolic-flux-analysis-to-dissect-tumor-microenvironment-secreted-exosome-contributions-towards-cancer-cell-metabolism
#3
Abhinav Achreja, Hongyun Zhao, Lifeng Yang, Tae Hyun Yun, Juan Marini, Deepak Nagrath
Dissecting the pleiotropic roles of tumor micro-environment (TME) on cancer progression has been brought to the foreground of research on cancer pathology. Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, transport proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, to mediate intercellular communication between TME components and have emerged as candidates for anti-cancer therapy. We previously reported that cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) derived exosomes (CDEs) contain metabolites in their cargo that are utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promote cancer growth...
January 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087252/novel-method-for-evaluation-of-eye-movements-in-patients-with-narcolepsy
#4
Julie A E Christensen, Lykke Kempfner, Helle L Leonthin, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Miki Nikolic, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy causes abnormalities in the control of wake-sleep, non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep, which inlcudes specific eye movements (EMs). In this study, we aim to evaluate EM characteristics in narcolepsy as compared to controls using an automated detector. METHODS: We developed a data-driven method to detect EMs during sleep based on two EOG signals recorded as part of a polysomnography (PSG). The method was optimized using the manually scored hypnograms from 36 control subjects...
December 21, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080027/asymmetric-pentagonal-metal-meshes-for-flexible-transparent-electrodes-and-heaters
#5
Daniel Lordan, Micheal Burke, Mary Manning, Alfonso Martin, Andreas Amann, Dan O' Connell, Richard Murphy, Colin Lyons, Aidan J Quinn
Metal meshes have emerged as an important class of flexible transparent electrodes. We report on the characteristics of a new class of asymmetric meshes, tiled using a recently-discovered family of pentagons. Micron-scale meshes were fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates via optical lithography, metal evaporation (Ti 10 nm, Pt 50 nm) and lift-off. Three different designs were assessed, each with the same tessellation pattern and linewidth (5 µm), but with different sizes of the fundamental pentagonal unit...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078805/three-dimensional-mos2-cnt-rgo-network-composites-for-high-performance-flexible-supercapacitors
#6
Shouzhi Wang, Jiayan Zhu, Yongliang Shao, Weiran Li, Yongzhong Wu, Xiaopeng Hao
Two-dimensional atomically thick materials, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and layered molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) have been potentially investigated as novel energy storage materials because of their distinct physicochemical properties. However, these materials suffer from rapid capacity decay and low rate capability. This study describes a facile binder-free approach to fabricate large-scale 3D network structure MoS2@carbon nanotube (CNT)/RGO composites for application in flexible supercapacitor devices. The as-obtained composites possess a hierarchical porosity and an interconnected framework...
January 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#7
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077333/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-two-juvenile-hormone-esterase-like-carboxylesterase-cdnas-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#8
Yu Xu, Muzi Zhao, Yanfei Deng, Yuanjie Yang, Xuguang Li, Quanping Lu, Jiachun Ge, Jianlin Pan, Zhiqiang Xu
Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain...
January 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077003/influence-of-extrinsic-inputs-and-synaptic-gains-on-dynamics-of-wendling-s-neural-mass-model-a-bifurcation-analysis
#9
Shujuan Geng, Weidong Zhou
We analyze the neurodynamics attributed by a model proposed by Wendling and co-workers (2002) [Wendling, F., Bartolomei, F., Bellanger, J.J. & Chauvel, P. (2002) Epileptic fast activity can be explained by a model of impaired GABAergic dendritic inhibition. Eur. J. Neurosci., 15, 1499.] to explain several different types of electroencephalographic activities. We could find three principal types of steady states when the system parameters change slowly: (i) the model produce a constant output when it is under a state of stable equilibrium point with a constant input...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076649/suicide-attempts-in-bipolar-i-patients-impact-of-comorbid-personality-disorders
#10
Severino Bezerra, Amanda Galvão-de-Almeida, Paula Studart, Davi F Martins, André C Caribé, Paulo A Schwingel, Ângela Miranda-Scippa
Objective: To evaluate the association between personality disorders (PDs) and suicide attempts (SAs) in euthymic patients with type I bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: One-hundred twenty patients with type I BD, with and without history of SA, were evaluated during euthymia. The assessment included a clinical and sociodemographic questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders...
January 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075389/control-of-initiation-of-dna-replication-in-bacillus-subtilis-and-escherichia-coli
#11
REVIEW
Katie H Jameson, Anthony J Wilkinson
Initiation of DNA Replication is tightly regulated in all cells since imbalances in chromosomal copy number are deleterious and often lethal. In bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, at the point of cytokinesis, there must be two complete copies of the chromosome to partition into the daughter cells following division at mid-cell during vegetative growth. Under conditions of rapid growth, when the time taken to replicate the chromosome exceeds the doubling time of the cells, there will be multiple initiations per cell cycle and daughter cells will inherit chromosomes that are already undergoing replication...
January 10, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075114/unveiling-the-critical-role-of-polymeric-binders-for-silicon-negative-electrodes-in-lithium-ion-full-cells
#12
Jiagang Xu, Long Zhang, Yikai Wang, Tao Chen, Mohanad Al-Shroofy, Yang-Tse Cheng
Because of its natural abundance and high theoretical specific capacity (3579 mAh g-1, based on Li15Si4), silicon and its composites have been extensively studied as the negative electrode for future high energy density lithium-ion batteries. While the rapid failure due to significant volumetric strain of lithium-silicon reactions makes bulk silicon unsuitable for practical applications, silicon nanoparticles can sustain the large volume changes without fracturing. However, polymeric binders are usually required to maintain the structural integrity of electrodes made of particles...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074231/development-of-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-acquisition-and-analysis-workflow-for-the-quantification-of-shock-wave-lithotripsy-induced-renal-hemorrhagic-injury
#13
Rajash K Handa, Paul R Territo, Philip M Blomgren, Scott A Persohn, Chen Lin, Cynthia D Johnson, Lei Jiang, Bret A Connors, Gary D Hutchins
The current accepted standard for quantifying shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)-induced tissue damage is based on morphometric detection of renal hemorrhage in serial tissue sections from fixed kidneys. This methodology is time and labor intensive and is tissue destructive. We have developed a non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that permits rapid assessment of SWL-induced hemorrhagic lesion volumes in post-mortem kidneys using native tissue contrast to reduce cycle time. Kidneys of anesthetized pigs were targeted with shock waves using the Dornier Compact S lithotripter...
January 10, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073508/mixotrophic-ability-of-the-phototrophic-dinoflagellates-alexandrium-andersonii-a-affine-and-a-fraterculus
#14
Kyung Ha Lee, Hae Jin Jeong, Ji Eun Kwon, Hee Chang Kang, Ji Hye Kim, Se Hyeon Jang, Jae Yeon Park, Eun Young Yoon, Jae Seong Kim
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. have received much attention due to their harmful effects on diverse marine organisms, including commercially important species. For minimizing loss due to red tides or blooms of Alexandrium spp., it is very important to understand the eco-physiology of each Alexandrium species and to predict its population dynamics. Its trophic mode (i.e., exclusively autotrophic or mixotrophic) is one of the most critical parameters in establishing prediction models. However, among the 35 Alexandrium species so far described, only six Alexandrium species have been revealed to be mixotrophic...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072690/comparison-of-jet-injector-and-insulin-pen-in-controlling-plasma-glucose-and-insulin-concentrations-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#15
Lixin Guo, Xinhua Xiao, Xue Sun, Cuijuan Qi
This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of an insulin jet injector and an insulin pen in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with rapid-acting insulin (regular insulin) and insulin analog (insulin aspart) using the jet injector and the pen in 4 successive test cycles. Postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in blood were measured over time. Areas under curves of glucose and the insulin were calculated, and efficacy of 2 injection methods in treatment of the diabetes was compared...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072420/where-less-may-be-more-how-the-rare-biosphere-pulls-ecosystems-strings
#16
Alexandre Jousset, Christina Bienhold, Antonis Chatzinotas, Laure Gallien, Angélique Gobet, Viola Kurm, Kirsten Küsel, Matthias C Rillig, Damian W Rivett, Joana F Salles, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Noha H Youssef, Xiaowei Zhang, Zhong Wei, W H Gera Hol
Rare species are increasingly recognized as crucial, yet vulnerable components of Earth's ecosystems. This is also true for microbial communities, which are typically composed of a high number of relatively rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that rare species can have an over-proportional role in biogeochemical cycles and may be a hidden driver of microbiome function. In this review, we provide an ecological overview of the rare microbial biosphere, including causes of rarity and the impacts of rare species on ecosystem functioning...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071895/flexible-cuttable-and-self-waterproof-bending-strain-sensors-using-microcracked-gold-nanofilms-paper-substrate
#17
Xinqin Liao, Zheng Zhang, Qijie Liang, Qingliang Liao, Yue Zhang
Rapid advances in functional sensing electronics place tremendous demands on innovation towards creative uses of versatile advanced materials and effective designs of device structures. Here, we first report a feasible and effective fabrication strategy to integrate commercial abrasive papers with microcracked gold (Au) nanofilms to construct cuttable and self-waterproof crack-based resistive bending strain sensors. Via introducing surface microstructures, the sensitivities of the bending strain sensors are greatly enhanced by 27 times than that of the sensors without surface microstructures, putting forward an alternative suggestion for other flexible electronics to improve their performances...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069220/ultrasonic-promoted-rapid-tlp-bonding-of-fine-grained-7034-high-strength-aluminum-alloys
#18
Weibing Guo, Xuesong Leng, Tianmin Luan, Jiuchun Yan, Jingshan He
High strength aluminum alloys are extremely sensitive to the thermal cycle of welding. An ultrasonic-promoted rapid TLP bonding with an interlayer of pure Zn was developed to join fine-grained 7034 aluminum alloys at the temperature of lower 400°C. The oxide film could be successfully removed with the ultrasonic vibration, and the Al-Zn eutectic liquid phase generated once Al and Zn contacted with each other. Longer ultrasonic time can promote the diffusion of Zn into the base metal, which would shorten the holding time to complete isothermal solidification...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068511/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-accelerated-liver-regeneration-after-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#19
Bharat Bhushan, Samikshya Poudel, Michael W Manley, Nairita Roy, Udayan Apte
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. Timely initiation of compensatory liver regeneration after APAP hepatotoxicity is critical for final recovery, but the mechanisms of liver regeneration after APAP-induced ALF have not been extensively explored yet. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that activation of β-catenin signaling after APAP overdose is associated with timely liver regeneration. Herein, we investigated the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in liver regeneration after APAP hepatotoxicity using a pharmacological inhibition strategy in mice...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068329/the-primacy-of-nf1-loss-as-the-driver-of-tumorigenesis-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-plexiform-neurofibromas
#20
A Pemov, H Li, R Patidar, N F Hansen, S Sindiri, S W Hartley, J S Wei, A Elkahloun, S C Chandrasekharappa, J F Boland, S Bass, J C Mullikin, J Khan, B C Widemann, M R Wallace, D R Stewart
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor-predisposition disorder due to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. A virtually pathognomonic finding of NF1 is the plexiform neurofibroma (PN), a benign, likely congenital tumor that arises from bi-allelic inactivation of NF1. PN can undergo transformation to a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma. To better understand the non-NF1 genetic contributions to PN pathogenesis, we performed whole-exome sequencing, RNASeq profiling and genome-wide copy-number determination for 23 low-passage Schwann cell cultures established from surgical PN material with matching germline DNA...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
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