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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806302/surgery-for-primary-hyperparathyroidism-adherence-to-consensus-guidelines-in-an-academic-health-system
#1
Eric J Kuo, Mostafa A Al-Alusi, Lin Du, Albert Shieh, Masha J Livhits, Angela M Leung, Michael W Yeh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which consensus guidelines for surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are followed within an academic health system. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that adherence to consensus guidelines in community practice is low. METHODS: Adults with biochemically confirmed PHPT who received primary care within an academic health system were identified from 2005 to 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of parathyroidectomy (PTx)...
August 11, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792940/differences-in-words-used-to-describe-racial-and-gender-groups-in-medical-student-performance-evaluations
#2
David A Ross, Dowin Boatright, Marcella Nunez-Smith, Ayana Jordan, Adam Chekroud, Edward Z Moore
PURPOSE: The transition from medical school to residency is a critical step in the careers of physicians. Because of the standardized application process-wherein schools submit summative Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPE's)-it also represents a unique opportunity to assess the possible prevalence of racial and gender disparities, as shown elsewhere in medicine. METHOD: The authors conducted textual analysis of MSPE's from 6,000 US students applying to 16 residency programs at a single institution in 2014-15...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791583/using-geospatial-analysis-and-emergency-claims-data-to-improve-minority-health-surveillance
#3
David C Lee, Stella S Yi, Jessica K Athens, Andrew J Vinson, Stephen P Wall, Joseph E Ravenell
Traditional methods of health surveillance often under-represent racial and ethnic minorities. Our objective was to use geospatial analysis and emergency claims data to estimate local chronic disease prevalence separately for specific racial and ethnic groups. We also performed a regression analysis to identify associations between median household income and local disease prevalence among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White adults in New York City. The study population included individuals who visited an emergency department at least once from 2009 to 2013...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790998/modified-lipid-extraction-methods-for-deep-subsurface-shale
#4
Rawlings N Akondi, Ryan V Trexler, Susan M Pfiffner, Paula J Mouser, Shikha Sharma
Growing interest in the utilization of black shales for hydrocarbon development and environmental applications has spurred investigations of microbial functional diversity in the deep subsurface shale ecosystem. Lipid biomarker analyses including phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and diglyceride fatty acids (DGFAs) represent sensitive tools for estimating biomass and characterizing the diversity of microbial communities. However, complex shale matrix properties create immense challenges for microbial lipid extraction procedures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#5
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783817/associations-between-midlife-vascular-risk-factors-and-25-year-incident-dementia-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-cohort
#6
Rebecca F Gottesman, Marilyn S Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Laura H Coker, Josef Coresh, Sonia M Davis, Jennifer A Deal, Guy M McKhann, Thomas H Mosley, A Richey Sharrett, Andrea L C Schneider, B Gwen Windham, Lisa M Wruck, David S Knopman
Importance: Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive decline. Midlife exposure to these factors may be most important in conferring late-life risk of cognitive impairment. Objectives: To examine Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants in midlife and to explore associations between midlife vascular risk factors and 25-year dementia incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort investigation of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study was conducted from 1987-1989 through 2011-2013...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774581/ethnic-differences-in-bullying-victimization-and-psychological-distress-a-test-of-an-ecological-model
#7
Siyon Rhee, Sei-Young Lee, Sook-Hee Jung
This study examines ethnic differences in the prevalence of bullying victimization by peers as well as the associations between bullying victimization and psychological distress with relevant ecological factors including parental supervision, school support, and community safety. The study utilized the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Adolescents Data, which was collected in the United States using a multi-stage stratified sampling design with a Random Digit-Dial method. The final study sample contained a total of 2367 adolescents, comprised of 48...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771577/a-survey-of-the-mycobiota-associated-with-larvae-of-the-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-reared-for-feed-production
#8
Ilaria Varotto Boccazzi, Matteo Ottoboni, Elena Martin, Francesco Comandatore, Lisa Vallone, Thomas Spranghers, Mia Eeckhout, Valeria Mereghetti, Luciano Pinotti, Sara Epis
Feed security, feed quality and issues surrounding the safety of raw materials are always of interest to all livestock farmers, feed manufacturers and competent authorities. These concerns are even more important when alternative feed ingredients, new product developments and innovative feeding trends, like insect-meals, are considered. The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is considered a good candidate to be used as feed ingredient for aquaculture and other farm animals, mainly as an alternative protein source...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#9
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770189/racial-disparities-in-emergency-department-utilization-for-dental-oral-health-related-conditions-in-maryland
#10
Natalia I Chalmers
OBJECTIVES: Hospital emergency departments (EDs) are a place where many Americans seek treatment of dental conditions. Racial and ethnic minorities consistently have higher rates of ED utilization than whites for dental conditions. The reasons for these disparities and significant public health concerns are investigated less often. In this paper, we measure trends in racial disparities in ED discharges for dental conditions in Maryland from 2010 to 2013. To understand these disparities, we also describe differences between racial groups in age, gender, income, location, payer, comorbidities, and the availability of dental care...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768650/intake-of-niacin-folate-vitamin-b-6-and-vitamin-b-12-through-young-adulthood-and-cognitive-function-in-midlife-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#11
Bo Qin, Pengcheng Xun, David R Jacobs, Na Zhu, Martha L Daviglus, Jared P Reis, Lyn M Steffen, Linda Van Horn, Stephen Sidney, Ka He
Background: Epidemiologic evidence regarding niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to cognitive function is limited, especially in midlife.Objective: We hypothesize that higher intake of these B vitamins in young adulthood is associated with better cognition later in life.Design: This study comprised a community-based multicenter cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 y in 1985-1986 (year 0, i.e., baseline) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 3136)...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766098/perceived-barriers-and-preferred-components-for-physical-activity-interventions-in-african-american-survivors-of-breast-or-endometrial-cancer-with-type-2-diabetes-the-s-u-c-c-e-s-s-framework
#12
Kristin Z Black, La-Shell Johnson, Carmen D Samuel-Hodge, Lavanya Gupta, Aditi Sundaresan, Wanda K Nicholson
PURPOSE: African-American (AA) female cancer survivors share a disproportionate burden of diabetes compared to their white counterparts. Our objectives were to explore the perspectives of AA survivors with type 2 diabetes on perceived barriers to physical activity (PA) and preferences for a PA intervention and develop a framework for a PA program after cancer treatment. METHODS: Trained interviewers conducted semi-structured interviews with AA survivors of breast or endometrial cancer with diabetes (total n = 20; 16 breast, 4 endometrial)...
August 1, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766093/breastfeeding-and-exposure-to-past-current-and-neighborhood-violence
#13
Margaret L Holland, Kelly Thevenent-Morrison, Mona Mittal, Alice Nelson, Ann M Dozier
Objectives Breastfeeding has short- and long-term health benefits for children and mothers, but US breastfeeding rates are suboptimal. Exposure to violence may contribute to these low rates, which vary by race/ethnicity. We studied: (1) whether patterns of violence exposure differ by race/ethnicity and (2) whether these patterns are associated with breastfeeding outcomes. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data drawn from self-report surveys completed by a convenience sample of low-income postpartum women (n = 760) in upstate New York...
August 1, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763662/effects-of-hexaconazole-application-on-soil-microbes-community-and-nitrogen-transformations-in-paddy-soils
#14
Chao Ju, Jun Xu, Xiaohu Wu, Fengshou Dong, Xingang Liu, Chunyan Tian, Yongquan Zheng
The ecological risks of widely used hexaconazole on soil microbes remain obscure. Thus, a 3-month-long experiment using two typical paddy soils in China (red soil and black soil) was conducted to assess the effects of hexaconazole (0.6 (T1) and 6 (T10) mgkg(-1) soil) on the overall microbial biomass, respiratory activity, bacterial abundance and community structure, and nitrogen transformations. Soil was sampled after 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90days of incubation. The half-lives of the two doses of hexaconazole varied from 122 to 135d in the black soil and from 270 to 845d in the red soil...
July 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758252/lunch-time-food-source-is-associated-with-school-hour-and-school-day-diet-quality-among-canadian-children
#15
C N Tugault-Lafleur, J L Black, S I Barr
BACKGROUND: There is limited research on the dietary behaviours of Canadian children at school, including where students obtain food from during school hours or whether lunch-time food source influences diet quality. METHODS: Nationally representative cross-sectional data from 24-h dietary recalls were analysed from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 4589). Dietary outcomes included school hour and school day dietary intakes and School Healthy Eating Index (S-HEI) scores...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756187/under-implicit-pressure-young-black-and-latina-women-s-perceptions-of-contraceptive-care
#16
Anu Manchikanti Gómez, Mikaela Wapman
OBJECTIVE: To understand the ways in which young women of color experienced pressure from healthcare providers during contraceptive care, including the impact of these encounters on contraceptive decision-making and reproductive autonomy. METHODS: Data were drawn from a qualitative study of contraceptive decision-making, which included 38 young (age 18-24) Latina and Black women recruited using community-based and social media strategies. We analyzed in-depth interview data from a subsample of 27 young women who described experiencing pressure from healthcare providers during contraceptive care...
July 26, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754455/lung-function-and-incident-kidney-disease-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#17
Keiichi Sumida, Lucia Kwak, Morgan E Grams, Kunihiro Yamagata, Naresh M Punjabi, Csaba P Kovesdy, Josef Coresh, Kunihiro Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function is associated with clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about its association with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 14,946 participants aged 45 to 64 years at baseline (1987-1989) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (45.0% men and 25.2% black), with follow-up through 2012...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753466/perceived-barriers-for-cannabis-cessation-relations-to-cannabis-use-problems-withdrawal-symptoms-and-self-efficacy-for-quitting
#18
Michael J Zvolensky, Daniel J Paulus, Lorra Garey, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Julia D Buckner, Andrew H Rogers, R Kathryn McHugh
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the United States. Regular cannabis use appears to be a dynamic, chronic process consisting of multiple quit attempts, periods of reduction, periods of abstinence, and periods of continual use. Cannabis-related processes, including withdrawal, problematic consequences of use, and self-efficacy for quitting each contribute to the cycle of use and, in part, are maintained and reinforced by perceived barriers for cannabis cessation. Yet, no work has examined the association between perceived barriers for cannabis cessation and clinically-relevant processes related to cannabis use...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750080/beliefs-about-hypertension-among-nigerian-immigrants-to-the-united-kingdom-a-qualitative-study
#19
James Tosin Akinlua, Richard Meakin, Nick Freemantle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to elicit beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants in the United Kingdom. BACKGROUND: The distributions of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are not shared equally across ethnic and economic groups in the United Kingdom. Its burden is more clustered among minority ethnic populations and migrant groups including black African Nigerian migrants. Similar patterns have been reported across Europe, Australia, Canada, Nordic countries and the United States of America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749823/rates-of-primary-and-secondary-syphilis-among-white-and-black-non-hispanic-men-who-have-sex-with-men-us-states-2014
#20
Jeremy A Grey, Kyle T Bernstein, Patrick S Sullivan, Sarah E Kidd, Thomas L Gift, Eric W Hall, Abigail Hankin-Wei, Hillard S Weinstock, Eli S Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States experience an approximately 100-fold greater rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis diagnoses compared to men who have sex with women only. As in the general population, racial/ethnic disparities in P&S syphilis diagnosis rates may exist among MSM, but MSM-specific P&S syphilis rates by race/ethnicity are unavailable. We enhanced a published modeling approach to estimate area-level MSM populations by race/ethnicity and provide the first estimates of P&S syphilis among black and white non-Hispanic MSM...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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