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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340125/the-association-of-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-identity-facets-with-smoking-dependence-motives
#1
Nathan Grant Smith, Kate Winderman, Brooke King, Ezemenari M Obasi, Lorraine R Reitzel
Introduction: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have higher rates of smoking than heterosexual adults. LGB individuals face unique stressors, including challenges associated with having a LGB identity. The extent to which these unique stressors are related to dependence motives in LGB adult smokers, however, has not been previously explored. The current study was conducted to redress these gaps. Methods: Participants (N=52; Mage=42.8; 55.8% Black/African American) were recruited from the local community...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339799/no-longer-invisible-understanding-the-psychosocial-impact-of-skin-color-stratification-in-the-lives-of-african-american-women
#2
J Camille Hall
This article examines how skin color stratification, termed "colorism," affects the psychological well-being of African American women. Previous research has shown that the experience of colorism is pervasive within the black community and that black women have been culturally or personally affected by intraracial discrimination. This article describes a qualitative study that used focus groups to investigate the experiences of black women that were categorized according to their self-ascribed skin tone group...
February 27, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339397/cognitive-status-gray-matter-atrophy-and-lower-orthostatic-blood-pressure-in-older-adults
#3
Celia O'Hare, Rose-Anne Kenny, Howard Aizenstein, Robert Boudreau, Anne Newman, Lenore Launer, Suzanne Satterfield, Kristine Yaffe, Caterina Rosano
BACKGROUND: Associations between orthostatic blood pressure and cognitive status (CS) have been described with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that long-term exposure to lower orthostatic blood pressure is related to having worse CS later in life and that atrophy of regions involved in central regulation of autonomic function mediate these associations. METHODS: Three-to-four measures of orthostatic blood pressure were obtained from 1997-2003 in a longitudinal cohort of aging, and average systolic orthostatic blood pressure response (ASOBPR) was computed as % change in systolic blood pressure from sit-to-stand measured at one minute post stand...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329646/gaps-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-skin-cancer-in-people-of-color
#4
Ajay Kailas
People of color are at significantly higher risk in mortality from skin cancers, such as melanoma, than Caucasians. Around 4,500,000 people of color are affected by skin cancer The five-year survival rates from melanoma are 81.1% for Hispanics, 80.2% for Asians, 72.2% for African- Americans, and 89.6% for Caucasians. For this reason, it is important to ensure the scientific literature reflects the most up to date recommendations and treatment for blacks regarding skin cancer. Therefore the authors conducted a "gap analysis" on the current treatment of skin cancer in people of color...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328192/molecular-insights-on-dissolved-organic-matter-transformation-by-supraglacial-microbial-communities
#5
Runa Antony, Amanda S Willoughby, Amanda M Grannas, Victoria Catanzano, Rachel L Sleighter, Meloth Thamban, Patrick G Hatcher, Shanta Nair
Snow overlays the majority of Antarctica and is an important repository of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM transformations by supraglacial microbes are not well understood. We use ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to elucidate molecular changes in snowpack DOM by in situ microbial processes (up to 55 days) in a coastal Antarctic site. Both autochthonous and allochthonous DOM is highly bio-available and is transformed by resident microbial communities through parallel processes of degradation and synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327541/impacts-from-land-use-pattern-on-spatial-distribution-of-cultivated-soil-heavy-metal-pollution-in-typical-rural-urban-fringe-of-northeast-china
#6
Wenbo Li, Dongyan Wang, Qing Wang, Shuhan Liu, Yuanli Zhu, Wenjun Wu
Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323928/physical-activity-vitamin-d-and-incident-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-in-whites-and-blacks-the-aric-study
#7
Kathleen Chin, Di Zhao, Martin Tibuakuu, Seth S Martin, Chiadi E Ndumele, Roberta Florido, B Gwen Windham, Eliseo Guallar, Pamela L Lutsey, Erin D Michos
Context: Physical activity (PA) is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Both are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but their joint association with ASCVD risk is unknown. Objective: To examine the dose-response between PA and 25(OH)D, and to assess effect modification of 25(OH)D and PA with ASCVD risk. Design: Cross-sectional and prospective study using Poisson and linear regression. Setting: Community-dwelling Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323321/observed-hearing-loss-and-incident-dementia-in-a-multiethnic-cohort
#8
Justin S Golub, José A Luchsinger, Jennifer J Manly, Yaakov Stern, Richard Mayeux, Nicole Schupf
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether observed hearing loss (OHL) is associated with incident dementia in a multiethnic population. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological cohort study. SETTING: Community in northern Manhattan. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a longitudinal study on aging and dementia in an ethnically diverse community (n = 1,881). MEASUREMENTS: OHL was defined when the examiner observed it or according to self-reported hearing aid use...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321981/evaluation-of-the-modified-findrisc-diabetes-score-to-identify-individuals-at-high-risk-for-diabetes-among-middle-aged-white-and-black-aric-study-participants
#9
Manjusha Kulkarni, Randi E Foraker, Ann Marie McNeill, Cynthia Girman, Sherita Hill Golden, Wayne D Rosamond, Bruce Duncan, Maria Ines Schmidt, Jaakko Tuomilehto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a modified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) score for predicting the risk of incident diabetes among white and black middle-aged Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants. Research Design and Methods We assessed 9,754 ARIC cohort participants who were free of diabetes at baseline. Logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate a modified FINDRISC score for predicting incident diabetes after 9 years of follow-up, overall and by race/gender group...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317385/does-perceived-safety-modify-the-effectiveness-of-a-walking-group-intervention-designed-to-promote-physical-activity
#10
Jamila L Kwarteng, Amy J Schulz, Graciela B Mentz, Barbara A Israel, Trina R Shanks, Denise White Perkins
PURPOSE: To examine whether perceived safety modified the effectiveness of the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) intervention in promoting physical activity and reducing central adiposity in predominantly non-Latino black (henceforth black) and Latino communities. DESIGN: Generalized estimation equations were used to assess modifying effects of perceived safety on the route and perceived neighborhood safety on (1) WYHH participation at 8 weeks and 32 weeks, (2) associations between participation and physical activity, and (3) associations between physical activity and central adiposity...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304110/perceptions-of-health-among-black-adults-living-in-a-diverse-urban-community
#11
Dahnika Sachs, Jill N Peltzer, Jerrihlyn L McGee
OBJECTIVE: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's culture of health initiative advocates for making health a shared value. Health cannot be a shared value without an understanding of how health is defined and perceived. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine community members' perceptions of health and influencing factors, including health care services. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Data were collected through a purposive sample of nine focus groups with 52 participants who were primarily Black (94%) and female (65%)...
March 17, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302356/correlates-of-county-level-nonviral-sexually-transmitted-infection-hot-spots-in-the-us-application-of-hot-spot-analysis-and-spatial-logistic-regression
#12
Brian A Chang, William S Pearson, Kwame Owusu-Edusei
PURPOSE: We used a combination of hot spot analysis (HSA) and spatial regression to examine county-level hot spot correlates for the most commonly reported nonviral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the 48 contiguous states in the United States (US). METHODS: We obtained reported county-level total case rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis in all counties in the 48 contiguous states from national surveillance data and computed temporally smoothed rates using 2008-2012 data...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301038/shame-dissociation-and-complex-ptsd-symptoms-in-traumatized-psychiatric-and-control-groups-direct-and-indirect-associations-with-relationship-distress
#13
Martin J Dorahy, Mary Corry, Rebecca Black, Laura Matheson, Holly Coles, David Curran, Lenaire Seager, Warwick Middleton, Kevin F W Dyer
OBJECTIVES: Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. This study investigated these variables in traumatized clinical samples and a nonclinical community group...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296889/investigation-of-bacterial-communities-within-the-digestive-organs-of-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-provide-insights-into-holobiont-geographic-clustering
#14
Dominique A Cowart, Lucile Durand, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita, Sophie Arnaud-Haond
Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection) of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296887/migrant-women-s-experiences-meanings-and-ways-of-dealing-with-postnatal-depression-a-meta-ethnographic-study
#15
Virginia Schmied, Emma Black, Norell Naidoo, Hannah G Dahlen, Pranee Liamputtong
AIM: To conduct a meta-ethnographic study of the experiences, meanings and ways of 'dealing with' symptoms or a diagnosis of postnatal depression amongst migrant women living in high income countries. BACKGROUND: Prevalence of postnatal depression is highest amongst women who are migrants. Yet many women do not seek help for their symptoms and health services do not always respond appropriately to migrant women's needs. Studies have reported migrant women's experiences of postnatal depression and it is timely to synthesise findings from these studies to understand how services can be improved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289543/understanding-the-importance-of-medical-student-clerkships-in-poor-health-outcome-regions-served-by-area-health-education-centers-ahecs-in-impoverished-locations-of-southern-united-states
#16
Ashruta Patel
Area Health Education Centers provide health professional students the opportunity to explore the benefits of practicing in a rural and underserved location. The status of health conditions in chronic disease patients residing in impoverished regions of the US provides the chance to understand the factors that are responsible for constant inadequate outcomes in underserved and rural communities. Many limiting barriers to positive health outcomes occur in disproportionate numbers in the Southern Black Belt. Students should consider participating in rural and underserved clerkships, and ultimately a career as a health care provider in a poor health outcome region...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289264/parasite-transmission-in-a-natural-multihost-multiparasite-community
#17
Stuart K J R Auld, Catherine L Searle, Meghan A Duffy
Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia), but this occurred at a much higher rate for the fungus than the bacterium...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289263/fast-killing-parasites-can-be-favoured-in-spatially-structured-populations
#18
Helen C Leggett, Geoff Wild, Stuart A West, Angus Buckling
It is becoming increasingly clear that the evolution of infectious disease is influenced by host population structure. Theory predicts that parasites should be more 'prudent'-less transmissible-in spatially structured host populations. However, here we (i) highlight how low transmission, the phenotype being selected for in this in context, may also be achieved by rapacious host exploitation, if fast host exploitation confers a local, within-host competitive advantage and (ii) test this novel concept in a bacteria-virus system...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289262/uncertain-links-in-host-parasite-networks-lessons-for-parasite-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system
#19
Josephine G Walker, Michaela Plein, Eric R Morgan, Peter A Vesk
For many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. We used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern Africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in Botswana. Bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict the full set of host-parasite interactions from existing data on parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of wild and domestic ungulates given assumptions about the distribution of parasite counts within hosts, while accounting for the relative uncertainty of less sampled species...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289259/who-acquires-infection-from-whom-and-how-disentangling-multi-host-and-multi-mode-transmission-dynamics-in-the-elimination-era
#20
REVIEW
Joanne P Webster, Anna Borlase, James W Rudge
Multi-host infectious agents challenge our abilities to understand, predict and manage disease dynamics. Within this, many infectious agents are also able to use, simultaneously or sequentially, multiple modes of transmission. Furthermore, the relative importance of different host species and modes can itself be dynamic, with potential for switches and shifts in host range and/or transmission mode in response to changing selective pressures, such as those imposed by disease control interventions. The epidemiology of such multi-host, multi-mode infectious agents thereby can involve a multi-faceted community of definitive and intermediate/secondary hosts or vectors, often together with infectious stages in the environment, all of which may represent potential targets, as well as specific challenges, particularly where disease elimination is proposed...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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