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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159309/hiv-testing-in-urban-transgender-individuals-a-descriptive-study
#1
Adrian Juarez-Cuellar, Yu-Ping Chang
HIV testing is considered the initial component of HIV eradication strategies. This study aimed to describe HIV testing in urban, transgender individuals in western New York. The study uses HIV testing intake data from a sample of self-identified transgender males and females volunteering for an HIV test at a community-based healthcare organization. Transgender individuals with some characteristics were found to have more HIV tests including female gender, black, HIV status (positive), a history of incarceration, sex worker, housing situation, and self-referral...
2017: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158390/additive-effects-of-climate-and-fisheries-drive-ongoing-declines-in-multiple-albatross-species
#2
Deborah Pardo, Jaume Forcada, Andrew G Wood, Geoff N Tuck, Louise Ireland, Roger Pradel, John P Croxall, Richard A Phillips
Environmental and anthropogenic factors often drive population declines in top predators, but how their influences may combine remains unclear. Albatrosses are particularly threatened. They breed in fast-changing environments, and their extensive foraging ranges expose them to incidental mortality (bycatch) in multiple fisheries. The albatross community at South Georgia includes globally important populations of three species that have declined by 40-60% over the last 35 years. We used three steps to deeply understand the drivers of such dramatic changes: (i) describe fundamental demographic rates using multievent models, (ii) determine demographic drivers of population growth using matrix models, and (iii) identify environmental and anthropogenic drivers using ANOVAs...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157323/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Charlesnika T Evans, Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Makoto M Jones, Stephen P Burns, Linda Poggensee, Swetha Ramanathan, Sherri L LaVela, Nasia Safdar, Katie J Suda
OBJECTIVE Infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGNOs) have been increasing every year. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of MDRGNOs and factors associated with MDRGNOs in patients with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data from 142 VA facilities were evaluated for 19,642 patients with SCI/D. Multivariable cluster-adjusted models were fit to identify factors associated with MDRGNO...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156250/fear-family-and-the-placing-of-emotion-black-women-s-responses-to-a-breast-cancer-awareness-intervention
#4
Tim Brown, Isabel Dyck, Beth Greenhough, Menah Raven-Ellison, Melanie Dembinsky, Mark Ornstein, Stephen W Duffy
This paper is based upon findings from the qualitative element of a mixed-methods study on the response of Black women aged 25-50 to a public health intervention related to breast cancer. The focus groups were conducted in the London Borough of Hackney, UK between 2013 and 2016, and were part of an evaluation of the effectiveness of a breast awareness DVD. While the content of the DVD was generally well-received by the participants, the focus group discussions revealed a complex and, at times, contradictory response to the women's construction as an 'at risk' community...
November 17, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155956/associations-between-parental-ses-and-children-s-health-related-quality-of-life-the-role-of-objective-and-subjective-social-status
#5
Kay W Kim, Jan L Wallander, Melissa Peskin, Paula Cuccaro, Marc N Elliott, Mark A Schuster
Objective: We examined (1) the relationship that parental objective social status (OSS) and subjective social status (SSS) have with children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL), (2) whether SSS mediates the association between OSS and HRQOL, and (3) whether these associations differ among Black, Latino, and White children. Method: Data came from 4,824 Black, Latino, and White 5th graders in the Healthy PassagesTM study. OSS was measured as parent educational attainment and net equivalent household income...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152608/galectin-3-and-venous-thromboembolism-incidence-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#6
Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Susan R Heckbert, David Aguilar, Paul N Jensen, Christie M Ballantyne, Saonli Basu, Ron C Hoogeveen, Christopher deFilippi, Mary Cushman, Aaron R Folsom
Background: The inflammatory biomarker galectin-3 contributes to pathologic conditions such as heart failure and stimulates murine thrombogenesis. Its association with venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been sparsely studied. Objectives: To assess the prospective association of plasma galectin-3 and the LGALS3 rs4644 SNP with VTE incidence. Methods: We measured plasma galectin-3 in 9,916 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort in 1996 - 1998 and identified VTEs through 2013...
October 2017: Res Pract Thromb Haemost
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150730/racial-differences-in-symptom-management-experiences-during-breast-cancer-treatment
#7
Cleo A Samuel, Jennifer Schaal, Linda Robertson, Jemeia Kollie, Stephanie Baker, Kristin Black, Olive Mbah, Crystal Dixon, Katrina Ellis, Eugenia Eng, Fatima Guerrab, Nora Jones, Amanda Kotey, Claire Morse, Jessica Taylor, Vickie Whitt, Samuel Cykert
PURPOSE: Racial disparities in cancer treatment-related symptom burden are well documented and linked to worse treatment outcomes. Yet, little is known about racial differences in patients' treatment-related symptom management experiences. Such understanding can help identify modifiable drivers of symptom burden inequities. As part of the Cancer Health Accountability for Managing Pain and Symptoms (CHAMPS) study, we examined racial differences in symptom management experiences among Black and White breast cancer survivors (BCS)...
November 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145767/addressing-geographic-confounding-through-spatial-propensity-scores-a-study-of-racial-disparities-in-diabetes
#8
Melanie L Davis, Brian Neelon, Paul J Nietert, Kelly J Hunt, Lane F Burgette, Andrew B Lawson, Leonard E Egede
Motivated by a study exploring differences in glycemic control between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white veterans with type 2 diabetes, we aim to address a type of confounding that arises in spatially referenced observational studies. Specifically, we develop a spatial doubly robust propensity score estimator to reduce bias associated with geographic confounding, which occurs when measured or unmeasured confounding factors vary by geographic location, leading to imbalanced group comparisons. We augment the doubly robust estimator with spatial random effects, which are assigned conditionally autoregressive priors to improve inferences by borrowing information across neighboring geographic regions...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145745/recruitment-of-underrepresented-minority-researchers-into-hiv-prevention-research-the-hiv-prevention-trials-network-hptn-scholars-program
#9
Sten H Vermund, Erica L Hamilton, Sam Griffith, Larissa Jennings, Typhanye V Dyer, Kenneth H Mayer, Darrell P Wheeler
Most US investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the US epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12-18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139534/beyond-the-sea-crepidula-atrasolea-as-a-spiralian-model-system
#10
Jonathan Q Henry, Maryna P Lesoway, Kimberly J Perry, C Cornelia Osborne, Marty Shankland, Deirdre C Lyons
This paper introduces the black-footed slipper snail, Crepidula atrasolea, as a new model for biological studies in the Spiralia. C. atrasolea is a calyptraeid gastropod, and congener of the Atlantic slipper snail, C. fornicata. Like C. fornicata, C. atrasolea shares a sedentary, filter-feeding, protandrous lifestyle, but is preferable as a developmental model because of its short generation time, year-round reproduction, and direct development. In our lab, individuals go from egg to reproductive females in under six months, as compared to an estimated 1-2 years for C...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138051/sarcopenia-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-prevalence-and-impact-on-functional-status
#11
Odessa Addison, Steven J Prior, Rishi Kundi, Monica C Serra, Leslie I Katzel, Andrew W Gardner, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in older men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and to compare to a subset of the group to age, race, sex, and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-PAD control counterparts. We also sought to compare the functional status of those with PAD with and without sarcopenia. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: A Veterans Affairs medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary, community dwelling men age 50+ years with a confirmed diagnosis of PAD (N=108; 44% black; BMI 27...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137143/evaluation-of-a-mass-media-campaign-to-increase-the-awareness-of-the-need-to-reduce-discretionary-salt-use-in-the-south-african-population
#12
Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Krisela Steyn, Carl Lombard, Anniza De Villiers, Karen Charlton, Sabine Frielinghaus, Christelle Crickmore, Vash Mungal-Singh
The South African strategic plan to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes reducing population salt intake to less than 5 g/day. A mass media campaign was undertaken to increase public awareness of the association between high salt intake, blood pressure and CVD, and focused on the reduction of discretionary salt intake. Community based surveys, before and after the campaign, were conducted in a cohort of black women aged 18-55 years. Questions on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding salt use were asked...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134061/the-effect-of-leg-to-body-ratio-on-male-attractiveness-depends-on-the-ecological-validity-of-the-figures
#13
Thomas M M Versluys, William J Skylark
Leg-to-body ratio (LBR) predicts evolutionary fitness, and is therefore expected to influence bodily attractiveness. Previous investigations of LBR attractiveness have used a wide variety of stimuli, including line drawings, silhouettes, and computer-generated images based on anthropometric data. In two studies, community samples of heterosexual women from the USA rated the attractiveness of male figures presented as silhouettes and as detailed computer-generated images with three different skin tones (white, black, and an artificial grey)...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131339/geographic-disparities-in-access-to-nursing-home-services-assessing-fiscal-stress-and-quality-of-care
#14
Young Joo Park, Erika G Martin
OBJECTIVE: We test whether nursing homes serving predominately low-income and racial minority residents (compositional explanation) or located in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of low-income and racial minority residents (contextual explanation) have worse financial outcomes and care quality. DATA SOURCES: Healthcare Cost Report Information System, Nursing Home Compare, Online Survey Certification and Reporting Certification, and American Community Survey...
November 12, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130405/what-is-the-role-of-community-at-the-end-of-life-for-people-dying-in-advanced-age-a-qualitative-study-with-bereaved-family-carers
#15
Merryn Gott, Janine Wiles, Tess Moeke-Maxwell, Stella Black, Lisa Williams, Ngaire Kerse, Gabriella Trussardi
BACKGROUND: New public health approaches to palliative care prioritise the role of community at end of life. However, little is known about community support for the increasing numbers of people dying in advanced age. AIM: To explore the role of community at end of life for people dying in advanced age from the perspective of their bereaved family caregivers. DESIGN: A constructionist framework underpinned a qualitative research design. Data were analysed using critical thematic analysis...
October 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127102/algorithms-to-guide-ambulance-clinicians-in-the-management-of-emergencies-in-patients-with-implanted-rotary-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#16
REVIEW
Christopher T Bowles, Rachel Hards, Neil Wrightson, Paul Lincoln, Shishir Kore, Laura Marley, Jonathan R Dalzell, Binu Raj, Tracey A Baker, Diane Goodwin, Petra Carroll, Jane Pateman, John J M Black, Paul Kattenhorn, Mark Faulkner, Jayan Parameshwar, Charles Butcher, Mark Mason, Alexander Rosenberg, Ian McGovern, Alexander Weymann, Carl Gwinnutt, Nicholas R Banner, Stephan Schueler, Andre R Simon, David W Pitcher
Advances in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy have resulted in increasing numbers of adult LVAD recipients in the community. However, device failure, stroke, bleeding, LVAD thrombosis and systemic infection can be life-threatening emergencies. Currently, four LVAD systems are implanted in six UK transplant centres, each of which provides device-specific information to local emergency services. This has resulted in inconsistent availability and content of information with the risks of delayed or inappropriate decision-making...
November 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126025/metallurgical-residues-reused-as-filler-after-35years-and-their-natural-weathering-implications-in-a-mountain-area
#17
Leticia Gómez-Nubla, Julene Aramendia, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Juan Manuel Madariaga
The natural weathering of EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) and LF (Ladle Furnace) steel slag was evaluated through changes in the mineralogical and elemental composition. For that purpose, black steel slag and mixture of black and white steel slag were collected from two forest tracks, where they had been used as filler 19 and 35years ago respectively in a protected mountain area. Primary/original and secondary/degradation compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques (Raman Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS))...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125319/perceptions-of-neighborhood-safety-and-depressive-symptoms-among-older-minority-urban-subsidized-housing-residents-the-mediating-effect-of-sense-of-community-belonging
#18
Judith G Gonyea, Alexandra Curley, Kelly Melekis, Yeonjung Lee
OBJECTIVES: Older minority subsidized housing residents represent a population that is particularly vulnerable to depression. Although research suggests that neighborhood characteristics influence older adults' mental health, it has not been explored in this target population. Drawing on social disorganization and social capital theories, this study's aim was to explore if perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with depressive symptoms; and, whether a sense of community belonging has a mediating effect on this potential relationship...
November 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124965/perceived-inequalities-in-care-and-support-for-older-women-from-black-and-minority-ethnic-backgrounds-in-wales-findings-from-a-survey-exploring-dignity-from-service-providers-perspectives
#19
Juping Yu, Roiyah Saltus, Paul Jarvis
OBJECTIVE: As part of a large mixed-method study aimed at capturing understandings of dignity, and care expectations of community dwelling older women from Black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds living in Wales, the aim of this paper is to compare service providers' perceptions of their care and support provided to older people in general, and to older women from BME backgrounds in particular, with a focus on two dignity indicators: care and support needs, and effective communication...
November 10, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124873/exposure-to-predicted-precipitation-patterns-decrease-population-size-and-alter-community-structure-of-cyanobacteria-in-biological-soil-crusts-from-the-chihuahuan-desert
#20
Vanessa Moreira Câmara Fernandes, Náthali Maria Machado de Lima, Daniel Roush, Jennifer Rudgers, Scott L Collins, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
Cyanobacteria typically colonize the surface of arid soils, building biological soil crust (biocrusts) that provide a variety of ecosystem benefits, ranging from fertilization to stabilization against erosion. We investigated how future scenarios in precipitation anticipated for the Northern Chihuahuan Desert affected abundance and composition of biocrust cyanobacteria in two grassland ecosystems. Scenarios included a decrease in precipitation and a delay of monsoon rainfall. After three years, both treatments negatively affected cyanobacteria, although the effects of monsoon delay were milder than those of decreased precipitation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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