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Rural Australia

Louise L Hardy, Louise A Baur, Li Ming Wen, Sarah P Garnett, Seema Mihrshahi
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 10-15 years there has been substantial investment in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to reduce child obesity through interventions in children aged 0-5 years. We report changes in weight and weight-related behaviours of 5-year-old children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2015. SETTING: NSW schools (2010 n=44; 2015 n=41) PARTICIPANTS: Australian children in kindergarten (2010 n=1141 and 2015 n=1150)...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
Lesley Barclay, Andrew Phillips, David Lyle
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of research projects funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council in the period 2000-2014 that aimed specifically to deliver health benefits to Australians living in rural and remote areas and to estimate the proportion of total funding this represented in 2005-2014. DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of publicly available datasets. SETTING: National Health and Medical Research Council Rural and Remote Health Research 2000-2014...
April 6, 2018: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Nicole Bates, Emily Callander, Daniel Lindsay, Kerrianne Watt
BACKGROUND: In Australia, 40% of people diagnosed with cancer will be of working age (25-64 years). A cancer diagnosis may lead to temporary or permanent changes in a person's labour force participation, which has an economic impact on both the individual and the economy. However, little is known about this economic impact of cancer due to lost productivity in Australia. This paper aims to determine the labour force participation characteristics of people with cancer, to estimate the indirect cost due to lost productivity, and to identify any inequality in the distribution of labour force absence in Australia...
April 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Edward Carson, Sifat Sharmin, Andrea B Maier, Johannes J Meij
Background: It remains unclear how indigenous mortality varies between residential areas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on mortality patterns in urban, rural and very remote areas for the adult and infant indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA. Methods: A literature search was performed using major online electronic publication repositories. Studies presenting indigenous mortality or disease incidence/prevalence in urban, rural or very remote areas were included...
March 29, 2018: International Health
Jacqueline Cotton, John Edwards, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Susan Brumby
BACKGROUND: Australian farmers are routinely exposed to a wide variety of agrichemicals, including herbicides and insecticides. Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are widely used for agricultural production, horticulture and animal husbandry practices. Symptoms of OP toxicity are the results of inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which is found in many types of conducting tissue in human bodies such as nerve and muscle, central and peripheral tissues, motor and sensory fibres...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Chinmoy Pal, Shigeru Hirayama, Sangolla Narahari, Manoharan Jeyabharath, Gopinath Prakash, Vimalathithan Kulothungan
OBJECTIVE: Road crashes are increasing every year in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries, which show decreasing trends. One theory may be because of differences in enforcement of laws, vehicle safety, road standards, and many other factors. A detailed review was made of 5 death trends (total number of deaths/100,000 population and percentages of 4-wheeler, pedestrian, motorized 2/3-wheeler, bicyclist) and the underlying patterns in different countries and regions across the world...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Eleanor M Birch, Margaret M Haigh, Siddhartha Baxi, Marilyn Lyford, Shelley Cheetham, Shaouli Shahid, Sandra C Thompson
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine stakeholders' views of how the establishment of the South West Radiation Oncology Service in Bunbury, Western Australia, has affected treatment decision-making, and the extent to which patients are involved in the decision-making process. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were undertaken with 21 service providers involved in the treatment and care of people with cancer, and 17 adults diagnosed with cancer who opted to undergo radiotherapy (RT) treatment at the Service...
March 26, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Hanan Khalil, Sarah Lee
BACKGROUND: Medication related problems have been identified from various sources in the literature. Examples of these include incident reporting by health care professionals, medico-legal and patient complaints and systematic identification of organisational structure. Only a few studies report on the clinicians' perceptions of medication safety in community nursing and the challenges they face within their workplace to implement medication safety initiatives. AIMS: The main objective was to identify the issues surrounding medication error reporting in community nursing ...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Justin Barton, Lydia Scott, Graeme Maguire
OBJECTIVE: To review the work-up and inpatient management of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis exacerbations against best practice guidelines in Kimberley, a remote region of Western Australia, with the ultimate goal of improving treatment in the region. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study and audit of remote adult bronchiectasis hospital admissions between 2011 and 2016. SETTING: Remote hospital inpatients. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two patients and 110 hospital admissions were included...
March 24, 2018: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Olivia Mitchell, Christina Malatzky, Lisa Bourke, Jane Farmer
BACKGROUND: The sickest Australians are often those belonging to non-privileged groups, including Indigenous Australians, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, intersex and queer people, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and people with disabilities and low English literacy. These consumers are not always engaged by, or included within, mainstream health services, particularly in rural Australia where health services are limited in number and tend to be generalist in nature...
March 23, 2018: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Ruth Cuttler, Rachel Evans, Erin McClusky, Lauren Purser, Karen M Klassen, Claire Palermo
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Affordability of a healthy diet is a determinant of nutritional intake and therefore health. This project aimed to measure the cost of healthy foods across a geographically defined region and examine factors related to changing food prices to assist in informing health promotion practice. METHODS: The cost of a healthy food basket was measured using the Victorian Healthy Food Basket tool, in all eligible stores, across five rural local government areas in Western Victoria, Australia in 2014, 2015 and 2016...
February 24, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Jose Ramon Saura, Pedro Palos-Sanchez, Miguel Angel Rios Martin
The object of this exploratory study is to identify the positive, neutral and negative environment factors that affect users who visit Spanish hotels in order to help the hotel managers decide how to improve the quality of the services provided. To carry out the research a Sentiment Analysis was initially performed, grouping the sample of tweets ( n = 14459) according to the feelings shown and then a textual analysis was used to identify the key environment factors in these feelings using the qualitative analysis software Nvivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia)...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Simon O Ichumar, Emma E Dahlberg, Ellen B Paynter, Fiona M C Lucey, Miranda R Chester, Lennelle Papertalk, Sandra C Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the school breakfast program (SBP) in two schools with high Aboriginal student populations in rural Western Australia, their contribution to holistic support, nutritional health education and possibilities for improvement. METHODS: The operations and functioning of one regional and one remote SBP were assessed by stakeholder inquiry related to process and challenges, observations and documentary review. An intervention to increase health education, social interaction and learning about nutrition and food origins implemented in one school was assessed...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Ronald Trejo, Karen-Leigh Edward, Wendy Cross
BACKGROUND: secondary prevention programmes help manage risk factors, prevent progression of disease, minimise complications and reduce readmissions to hospitals. Referrals to these programmes are suboptimal even though they improve survival and quality of life. AIM: to explore referral of individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease to secondary prevention programmes. METHODS: a non-experimental descriptive retrospective design was used to analyse 176 patient records from a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Peter D Hibbert, Adam Jaffe, Les White, Christopher T Cowell, Mark F Harris, William B Runciman, Andrew R Hallahan, Gavin Wheaton, Helena M Williams, Elisabeth Murphy, Charlotte J Molloy, Louise K Wiles, Shanthi Ramanathan, Gaston Arnolda, Hsuen P Ting, Tamara D Hooper, Natalie Szabo, John G Wakefield, Clifford F Hughes, Annette Schmiede, Chris Dalton, Sarah Dalton, Joanna Holt, Liam Donaldson, Ed Kelley, Richard Lilford, Peter Lachman, Stephen Muething
Importance: The quality of routine care for children is rarely assessed, and then usually in single settings or for single clinical conditions. Objective: To estimate the quality of health care for children in Australia in inpatient and ambulatory health care settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multistage stratified sample with medical record review to assess adherence with quality indicators extracted from clinical practice guidelines for 17 common, high-burden clinical conditions (noncommunicable [n = 5], mental health [n = 4], acute infection [n = 7], and injury [n = 1]), such as asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tonsillitis, and head injury...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Suman Lahiry, Christopher Levi, Joosup Kim, Dominique A Cadilhac, Andrew Searles
Background: In regional and rural Australia, patients experiencing ischemic stroke do not have equitable access to an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Although thrombolysis with tPA is a clinically proven and cost-effective treatment for eligible stroke patients, there are few economic evaluations on pre-hospital triage interventions to improve access to tPA. Aim: To describe the potential cost-effectiveness of the pre-hospital acute stroke triage (PAST) protocol implemented to provide priority transfer of appropriate patients from smaller hospitals to a primary stroke center (PSC) in regional New South Wales, Australia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Caitriona Monahan, Mathew Coleman
OBJECTIVES: Despite research showing higher use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in rural areas, limited research has examined the epidemiology of ATS-related presentations and admissions to remote regional centres. To determine the epidemiology of ATS-related (a) Emergency Department (ED) presentations and (b) inpatient admissions over a five-year period at the Hedland Health Campus (HHC) in remote Western Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Sanjay Sagar, Seid M Adem, Benjamin Struchen, Sarah P Loughran, Michael E Brunjes, Lisa Arangua, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Rodney J Croft, Michael Jerrett, Joel M Moskowitz, Tony Kuo, Martin Röösli
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify RF-EMF exposure applying a tested protocol of RF-EMF exposure measurements using portable devices with a high sampling rate in different microenvironments of Switzerland, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa, Australia and the United States of America. METHOD: We used portable measurement devices for assessing RF-EMF exposure in 94 outdoor microenvironments and 18 public transport vehicles. The measurements were taken either by walking with a backpack with the devices at the height of the head and a distance of 20-30 cm from the body, or driving a car with the devices mounted on its roof, which was 170-180 cm above the ground...
March 9, 2018: Environment International
Mohammed S Al-Omary, Allan J Davies, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Bruce Bastian, Peter J Fletcher, John Attia, Andrew J Boyle
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a common, costly condition with an increasing burden on Australian health care system resources. Knowledge of the burden of HF on patients and on the health system is important for resource allocation. This study is the first systematic review to estimate the mortality and readmission rates after hospitalisation for HF in the Australian population. METHODS: We searched for studies of HF hospitalisation in Australia published between January 1990 and May 2016, using a systematic search of PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library databases...
February 5, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
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