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Rural Australia

Eleanor J Parker, Helen Mills, A John Spencer, Gloria C Mejia, Kaye F Roberts-Thomson, Lisa M Jamieson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the impact of oral health conditions among a convenience sample of Indigenous Australian adults and compare findings with nationally representative data. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Indigenous Oral Health Literacy Project (IOHLP) based in South Australia. Nationally representative data were obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH). The impact of oral disease was measured using the shortened form of the oral health impact profile, OHIP-14...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Kim Robyn Kennedy, Assoc Prof Kirsten Auret
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia is a life-threatening complication of chemotherapy. The widely dispersed population of Australia creates challenges for rural patients in accessing healthcare services. Cancer treatment is particularly burdensome with patients being forced to relocate to the city for treatment, or to endure long and repeated journeys to the city. This study aimed to assess the safety of chemotherapy in a rural centre with a General Physician-led model, by analysing febrile neutropenia in Albany Hospital, a regional cancer centre in Western Australia...
October 18, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Gisselle Gallego, Angela Dew, Michelle Lincoln, Anita Bundy, Rebecca Jean Chedid, Kim Bulkeley, Jennie Brentnall, Craig Veitch
In Australia and around the world, people with disability and their carers living in rural areas face additional challenges compared to their urban-dwelling counterparts. This cross-sectional study explored current access to therapy services for people with disability living in western New South Wales as reported by their primary carers. Data were collected using an online and paper survey distributed to carers, from December 2012 until June 2013. Information was sought about the carers, the person they care for, access to physiotherapy, speech pathology, occupational therapy and psychology services...
October 17, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
M Amber Sajjad, Kara L Holloway, Mark A Kotowicz, Patricia M Livingston, Mustafa Khasraw, Sharon Hakkennes, Trisha L Dunning, Susan Brumby, Richard S Page, Daryl Pedler, Alasdair Sutherland, Svetha Venkatesh, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
Background: An increasing burden of chronic disease and associated health service delivery is expected due to the ageing Australian population. Injuries also affect health and wellbeing and have a long-term impact on health service utilisation. There is a lack of comprehensive data on disease and injury in rural and regional areas of Australia. The aim of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study is to compile data from various sources to better describe the patterns of chronic disease and injury across western Victoria...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Natalie K Bradford, Liam J Caffery, Anthony C Smith
INTRODUCTION: With the escalating costs of health care, issues with recruitment and retention of health practitioners in rural areas, and poor economies of scale, the question of delivering people to services or services to people is a dilemma for health authorities around the world. People living in rural areas have poorer health outcomes compared to their urban counterparts, and the problem of how to provide health care and deliver services in rural locations is an ongoing challenge...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Fidelis G Jaravani, Peter D Massey, Jenni Judd, Jason Allan, Natalie Allan
A crucial objective of the Australian Government's Closing the Gap program is to improve Aboriginal health, and to achieve morbidity and mortality rates similar to those for non-Indigenous Australians. Reducing public health risks due to drinking water of unknown quality will help to close the gap. Factors such as hardness, taste, colour and odour of water may influence perceptions of risk and quality. Increased contact and familiarity with a hazard is associated with individuals becoming desensitised and habituated to its presence, so that their risk judgements may reflect their behavioural experiences...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Stephen Barnett, Sandra C Jones, Sue Bennett, Don Iverson, Laura Robinson
BACKGROUND: Professional isolation is an important factor in low rural health workforce retention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain insights to inform the development of an implementation plan for a virtual community of practice (VCoP) for general practice (GP) training in regional Australia. The study also aimed to assess the applicability of the findings of an existing framework in developing this plan. This included ascertaining the main drivers of usage, or usefulness, of the VCoP for users and establishing the different priorities between user groups...
August 18, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Teresa Iacono, Kellie Stagg, Natalie Pearce, Alana Hulme Chambers
BACKGROUND: Uptake of e-health, the use of information communication technologies (ICT) for health service delivery, in allied health appears to be lagging behind other health care areas, despite offering the potential to address problems with service access by rural and remote Australians. The aim of the study was to conduct a scoping review of studies into the application of or attitudes towards ehealth amongst allied health professionals conducted in Australia. METHODS: Studies meeting inclusion criteria published from January 2004 to June 2015 were reviewed...
October 4, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Carolyn L Deans, Emma L Little
CONTEXT: This article explores the relevance of the body of military psychology knowledge to the management and support of those living and working in rural/remote industries and locations, particularly within Australia. ISSUES: For those who live and work in rural/remote settings, there are social, occupational, health and environmental challenges. Some of these are shared with families and individuals who are associated with military life. The published literature on the shared attributes between military and rural/remote work environments rarely makes a direct link...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Jennifer L Marino, Lucy N Lewis, Deborah Bateson, Martha Hickey, S Rachel Skinner
BACKGROUND: Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. DISCUSSION: Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage...
October 2016: Australian Family Physician
Jonathan Newbury, Tim Kleinig, James Leyden, Hisatomi Arima, Sally Castle, Jennifer Cranefield, Tracey Paterson, Jim Jannes, Maria Crotty, Craig S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Stroke rates in Australia and New Zealand have been declining since 1990 but all studies have been completed in large urban centers. AIM: We report the first Australasian stroke incidence study in a rural population. METHODS: The authors applied the principle of complete ascertainment, used the WHO standard definition of stroke and classified ischemic stroke by the TOAST criteria. Data were collected from five rural centers defined by postcode of residence, over a 2-year period with 12 months of follow up of all cases...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Rebecca R Langdon, Herbert C Biggs, Bevan Rowland
BACKGROUND: Australia's mineral, resource and infrastructure sectors continues to expand as operations in rural and remote locations increasingly rely on fly-in, fly-out or drive-in, drive-out workforces in order to become economically competitive. The issues in effectively managing these workforces are becoming more apparent with reported high amounts of turnover and concerns for safety and performance. The issues presented include a range of physical, mental, psychosocial, safety and community challenges...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Adam Smith, Filippo Gagliardi, Nicholas Robert Pelzer, Jacob Hampton, Anthony Minh Tien Chau, Fiona Stewart, Pietro Mortini, Cristian Gragnaniello
BACKGROUND: Increasing focus has been placed on the use of simulation in neurosurgical and spinal surgical training worldwide, with the establishment of many surgical laboratories dedicated to such purpose. So far, the opportunities for hands-on cadaveric training in the areas of neurosurgery and spine surgery remain limited in Australia, owing to various factors, including the abolition of dissection in many medical schools, high maintenance requirements and widespread geographical distribution of surgical trainees...
December 2015: J Spine Surg
Claire L Nicholls, Fiona Parsonson, Lawrence Ek Gray, Adele Heyer, Steven Donohue, Greg Wiseman, Robert Norton
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant, diffuse haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, with an almost invariably fatal outcome. In Australia and the developed world, PAM remains a rare disease, although it is very likely that large numbers of cases go undetected in developing countries. N. fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution. It is acquired when contaminated fresh water is flushed into the nose and penetrates the central nervous system via the cribriform plate...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Laura Alston, Steven Allender, Karen Peterson, Jane Jacobs, Melanie Nichols
OBJECTIVE: To summarise all available evidence on the differences in burden of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) between metropolitan and rural communities of Australia. METHODS: Systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2014. Search terms were derived from the four major topics: (1) rural; (2) ischaemic heart disease; (3) Australia; and (4) burden of disease. Terms were adapted for six databases and two independent researchers screened results...
August 22, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
David Pierce, Fiona Little, James Bennett-Levy, Anton N Isaacs, Heather Bridgman, Sarah J Lutkin, Timothy A Carey, Kate G Schlicht, Zita P McCabe-Gusta, Elizabeth Martin, Lee A Martinez
CONTEXT: The significant impact of mental ill health in rural and remote Australia has been well documented. Included among innovative approaches undertaken to address this issue has been the Mental Health Academic (MHA) project, established in 2007. Funded by the Australian Government (Department of Health), this project was established as a component of the University Departments of Rural Health (UDRH) program. All 11 UDRHs appointed an MHA. Although widely geographically dispersed, the MHAs have collaborated in various ways...
July 2016: Rural and Remote Health
H Laetitia Hattingh, T Fei Sim, R Parsons, P Czarniak, A Vickery, S Ayadurai
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the uptake of Western Australian (WA) pharmacist vaccination services, the profiles of consumers being vaccinated and the facilitators and challenges experienced by pharmacy staff in the preparation, implementation and delivery of services. DESIGN: Mixed-methods methodology with both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys, pharmacy computer records and immuniser pharmacist interviews. SETTING: Community pharmacies in WA that provided pharmacist vaccination services between March and October 2015...
2016: BMJ Open
Bronwyn Brew, Kerry Inder, Joanne Allen, Matthew Thomas, Brian Kelly
BACKGROUND: Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. METHODS: The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (nā€‰=ā€‰1184 at baseline)...
2016: BMC Public Health
Rafat Hussain, Stuart Wark, Gina Dillon, Peta Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To report on self-reported physical and mental health of informal carers in rural regions of New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based sample (n=222) of carers completed a questionnaire incorporating self-reported measures of health from validated international instruments including Medical Outcomes Study Scale (SF-36), the Centre for Epidemiology-Depression (CES-D) and Kessler-10 (K-10) Psychological Distress Scales, along with information on participant demographics and other key caregiving characteristics such as health condition of care recipient...
September 13, 2016: BMJ Open
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