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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670781/host-cytoskeleton-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-assembly-and-budding
#1
Shadi Shahriari, James Gordon, Reena Ghildyal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available that effectively target RSV infections, proving a significant challenge in regards to prevention and treatment. An in-depth understanding of the host-virus interactions that underlie assembly and budding would inform new targets for antiviral development.Current research suggests that the polymerised form of actin, the filamentous or F-actin, plays a role in RSV assembly and budding...
September 26, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464695/a-proteomic-based-workflow-using-purified-respiratory-syncytial-virus-particles-to-identify-cellular-factors-as-drug-targets
#2
Tra Nguyen Huong, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue
The identification of cellular factors that play a role in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication is an alternative strategy in the identification of druggable cellular protein that are essential for RSV replication. In this regard experimental strategies that are able to screen relevant proteins from the vast array of proteins in the cellular milieu will facilitate the identification of potential drug targets. In this chapter we describe a procedure where RSV particles are purified from cells that are permissive for RSV infection, and the protein composition of the purified virus particles characterized using a proteomics-based strategy...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004689/actin-and-clathrin-dependent-mechanisms-regulate-interferon-gamma-release-after-stimulation-of-human-immune-cells-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
Jop Jans, Hicham elMoussaoui, Ronald de Groot, Marien I de Jonge, Gerben Ferwerda
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause recurrent and severe respiratory tract infections. Cytoskeletal proteins are often involved during viral infections, either for cell entry or the initiation of the immune response. The importance of actin and clathrin dynamics for cell entry and the initiation of the cellular immune response against RSV in human immune cells is not known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of actin and clathrin on cell entry of RSV and the subsequent effect on T cell activation and interferon gamma release in human immune cells...
2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909955/effect-of-co-culturing-human-primary-basic-fibroblasts-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-16-hbe-cells
#4
J-H Wang, L-H Sun, S-K Huang, A-H Chen
This study investigated the effects induced by co-culturing human primary basic fibroblasts (HPBFs) with 16-human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in particular the transformation of HPBFs into myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. HPBFs were co-cultured with 16-HBE cells infected with RSV and quantitatively analyzed. We constructed models of HPBFs co-cultured with 16-HBE cells that were either uninfected (control group) or infected with RSV (experimental group)...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25556234/new-host-factors-important-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-replication-revealed-by-a-novel-microfluidics-screen-for-interactors-of-matrix-m-protein
#5
Sarit Kipper, Samar Hamad, Leon Caly, Dorit Avrahami, Eran Bacharach, David A Jans, Doron Gerber, Monika Bajorek
Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and elderly worldwide, there is no licensed RSV vaccine or effective drug treatment available. The RSV Matrix protein plays key roles in virus life cycle, being found in the nucleus early in infection in a transcriptional inhibitory role, and later localizing in viral inclusion bodies before coordinating viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. In this study, we used a novel, high throughput microfluidics platform and custom human open reading frame library to identify novel host cell binding partners of RSV matrix...
March 2015: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25379375/fungal-colonization-with-pneumocystis-correlates-to-increasing-chloride-channel-accessory-1-hclca1-suggesting-a-pathway-for-up-regulation-of-airway-mucus-responses-in-infant-lungs
#6
Francisco J Pérez, Carolina A Ponce, Diego A Rojas, Pablo A Iturra, Rebeca I Bustamante, Myriam Gallo, Karime Hananias, Sergio L Vargas
Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis is associated with increased airway mucus in infants during their primary Pneumocystis infection, and to severity of COPD in adults. The pathogenic mechanisms are under investigation. Interestingly, increased levels of hCLCA1 - a member of the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins that drives mucus hypersecretion - have been associated with increased mucus production in patients diagnosed with COPD and in immunocompetent rodents with Pneumocystis infection...
2014: Results in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24777856/dngr-1-is-dispensable-for-cd8-t-cell-priming-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#7
Lydia R Durant, Catherine Pereira, Aime Boakye, Spyridon Makris, Fahima Kausar, Michelle Goritzka, Cecilia Johansson
During respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection CD8(+) T cells both assist in viral clearance and contribute to immunopathology. CD8(+) T cells recognize viral peptides presented by dendritic cells (DCs), which can directly present viral antigens when infected or, alternatively, "cross-present" antigens after endocytosis of dead or dying infected cells. Mouse CD8α(+) and CD103(+) DCs excel at cross-presentation, in part because they express the receptor DNGR-1 that detects dead cells by binding to exposed F-actin and routes internalized cell debris into the cross-presentation pathway...
August 2014: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24603118/resveratrol-inhibits-phenotypic-switching-of-neointimal-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-after-balloon-injury-through-blockade-of-notch-pathway
#8
Jing Zhang, Jing Chen, Changwu Xu, Jian Yang, Qing Guo, Qi Hu, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an initial role in neointimal hyperplasia, the main cause of many occlusive vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of resveratrol (RSV) on the phenotypic transformation of VSMCs and to investigate its mechanism of action. METHODS: Cultured VSMCs isolated from rat thoracic aorta were prepared with serum starvation for 72 hours followed by RSV treatment (50-200 μmol/L) and 10% serum stimulation...
March 2014: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24462457/myosin-1e-is-a-component-of-the-invadosome-core-that-contributes-to-regulation-of-invadosome-dynamics
#9
Jessica L Ouderkirk, Mira Krendel
Myosin 1e (myo1e) is an actin-based motor protein that has been implicated in cell adhesion and migration. We examined the role of myo1e in invadosomes, actin-rich adhesion structures that are important for degradation and invasion of the extracellular matrix. RSV-transformed BHK-21 cells, which readily form invadosomes and invadosome rosettes, were used as the experimental model. Myo1e localization to the actin-rich core of invadosomes required the proline-rich Tail Homology 2 (TH2) domain. During invadosome rosette expansion, we observed myo1e recruitment to newly forming invadosomes via Tail Homology 1 (TH1)-dependent interactions with the plasma membrane, where it preceded actin and paxillin...
April 1, 2014: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24390331/rice-stripe-tenuivirus-nsvc2-glycoproteins-targeted-to-the-golgi-body-by-the-n-terminal-transmembrane-domain-and-adjacent-cytosolic-24-amino-acids-via-the-cop-i-and-cop-ii-dependent-secretion-pathway
#10
Min Yao, Xiaofan Liu, Shuo Li, Yi Xu, Yijun Zhou, Xueping Zhou, Xiaorong Tao
UNLABELLED: The NSvc2 glycoproteins encoded by Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) share many characteristics common to the glycoproteins found among Bunyaviridae. Within this viral family, glycoproteins targeting to the Golgi apparatus play a pivotal role in the maturation of the enveloped spherical particles. RSV particles, however, adopt a long filamentous morphology. Recently, RSV NSvc2 glycoproteins were shown to localize exclusively to the ER in Sf9 insect cells. Here, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal NSvc2 (NSvc2-N) targets to the Golgi apparatus in Nicotiana benthamiana cells, whereas the carboxyl-terminal NSvc2 (NSvc2-C) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
March 2014: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24188202/respiratory-syncytial-virus-induces-leukotriene-c4-synthase-expression-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
Li-hong Sun, Ai-huan Chen, Zi-feng Yang, Jason J Chen, Wen-da Guan, Jie-ling Wu, Sheng Qin, Nan-shan Zhong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) results in acute wheezing in infants and is frequently associated with recurrent wheezing. Although RSV-induced wheezing clinically resembles that of asthma, corticosteroids are not equivalently effective in RSV-associated wheezing. The study sought to determine the mechanisms of RSV-induced wheezing by establishing an in vitro model of RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBEC). METHODS: Leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4 S) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in 16-HBEC was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the relative level of LTC4 S mRNA was expressed as quotient cycle threshold (qCt) based on the threshold cycle number value compared with that of β-actin...
November 2013: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23994498/increased-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-reductase-activity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-mediates-actin-dependent-inter-cellular-virus-transmission
#12
Laxmi Iyer Ravi, Li Liang, Pui San Wong, Gaie Brown, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue
We have examined the role that hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) plays during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) maturation. Imaging analysis indicated that virus-induced changes in F-actin structure correlated with the formation of virus filaments, and that these virus filaments played a direct role in virus cell-to-cell transmission. Treatment with cytochalasin D (CYD) prevented virus filament formation and virus transmission, but this could be reversed by removal of CYD. This observation, together with the presence of F-actin within the virus filaments suggested that newly polymerised F-actin was required for virus transmission...
October 2013: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23964981/characterization-of-the-properties-of-seven-promoters-in-the-motor-cortex-of-rats-and-monkeys-after-lentiviral-vector-mediated-gene-transfer
#13
Masae Yaguchi, Yohei Ohashi, Tadashi Tsubota, Ayana Sato, Kenji W Koyano, Ningqun Wang, Yasushi Miyashita
Lentiviral vectors deliver transgenes efficiently to a wide range of neuronal cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. To drive gene expression, internal promoters are essential; however, the in vivo properties of promoters, such as their cell type specificity and gene expression activity, are not well known, especially in the nonhuman primate brain. Here, the properties of five ubiquitous promoters (murine stem cell virus [MSCV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], CMV early enhancer/chicken β-actin [CAG], human elongation factor-1α [EF-1α], and Rous sarcoma virus [RSV]) and two cell type-specific promoters (rat synapsin I and mouse α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II [CaMKIIα]) in rat and monkey motor cortices in vivo were characterized...
December 2013: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23926335/sustained-protein-kinase-d-activation-mediates-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-airway-barrier-disruption
#14
Fariba Rezaee, Samantha A DeSando, Andrei I Ivanov, Timothy J Chapman, Sara A Knowlden, Lisa A Beck, Steve N Georas
Understanding the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function is a new frontier in asthma and respiratory viral infections. Despite recent progress, little is known about how respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acts at mucosal sites, and very little is known about its ability to influence airway epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied the effect of RSV infection on the airway epithelial barrier using model epithelia. 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cells were grown on Transwell inserts and infected with RSV strain A2...
October 2013: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23593008/host-cell-entry-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-involves-macropinocytosis-followed-by-proteolytic-activation-of-the-f-protein
#15
Magdalena Anna Krzyzaniak, Michael Thomas Zumstein, Juan Atilio Gerez, Paola Picotti, Ari Helenius
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae that causes severe respiratory tract infections. Reports in the literature have indicated that to infect cells the incoming viruses either fuse their envelope directly with the plasma membrane or exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To study the entry process in human tissue culture cells (HeLa, A549), we used fluorescence microscopy and developed quantitative, FACS-based assays to follow virus binding to cells, endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, membrane fusion, and infection...
2013: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23428596/resveratrol-attenuates-oxidative-stress-induced-by-balloon-injury-in-the-rat-carotid-artery-through-actions-on-the-erk1-2-and-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#16
Jing Zhang, Jing Chen, Jian Yang, Chang-Wu Xu, Peng Pu, Jia-Wang Ding, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis of the neointimal arterial hyperplasia. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of resveratrol (RSV) on the vascular hyperplasia stimulated by oxidative damage. METHODS: Balloon vascular injury was induced in rats that were intraperitonealy exposed to resveratrol (1 mg/kg) on 7 or 14 days after surgical procedure. Animals were euthanized on 7 or 14 days after operation. The blood level of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, arterial morphology as well as expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-6 in carotid wall were measured...
2013: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23233857/role-of-rice-stripe-virus-nsvc4-in-cell-to-cell-movement-and-symptom-development-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#17
Yi Xu, Xueping Zhou
Our previous work has demonstrated that the NSvc4 protein of Rice stripe virus (RSV) functions as a cell-to-cell movement protein. However, the mechanisms whereby RSV traffics through plasmodesmata (PD) are unknown. Here we provide evidence that the NSvc4 moves on the actin filament and endoplasmic reticulum network, but not microtubules, to reach cell wall PD. Disruption of cytoskeleton using different inhibitors altered NSvc4 localization to PD, thus impeding RSV infection of Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analyses and deletion mutagenesis experiment revealed that the N-terminal 125 amino acids (AAs) of the NSvc4 determine PD targeting and that a transmembrane domain spanning AAs 106-125 is critical for PD localization...
2012: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22808269/respiratory-syncytial-virus-assembles-into-structured-filamentous-virion-particles-independently-of-host-cytoskeleton-and-related-proteins
#18
Fyza Y Shaikh, Thomas J Utley, Ryan E Craven, Meredith C Rogers, Lynne A Lapierre, James R Goldenring, James E Crowe
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that assembles into viral filaments at the cell surface. Virus assembly often depends on the ability of a virus to use host proteins to accomplish viral tasks. Since the fusion protein cytoplasmic tail (FCT) is critical for viral filamentous assembly, we hypothesized that host proteins important for viral assembly may be recruited by the FCT. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that filamin A interacted with FCT, and mammalian cell experiments showed it localized to viral filaments but did not affect viral replication...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22768138/resveratrol-treatment-reduces-cardiac-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-and-prevents-morpho-functional-ventricular-remodeling-in-type-1-diabetic-rats
#19
Francesca Delucchi, Roberta Berni, Caterina Frati, Stefano Cavalli, Gallia Graiani, Roberto Sala, Christine Chaponnier, Giulio Gabbiani, Luca Calani, Daniele Del Rio, Leonardo Bocchi, Costanza Lagrasta, Federico Quaini, Donatella Stilli
Emerging evidence suggests that both adult cardiac cell and the cardiac stem/progenitor cell (CSPC) compartments are involved in the patho-physiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We evaluated whether early administration of Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant polyphenolic compound, in addition to improving cardiomyocyte function, exerts a protective role on (i) the progenitor cell pool, and (ii) the myocardial environment and its impact on CSPCs, positively interfering with the onset of DCM phenotype. Adult Wistar rats (n = 128) with streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes were either untreated (D group; n = 54) or subjected to administration of trans-Resveratrol (i...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22318318/a-critical-phenylalanine-residue-in-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-cytoplasmic-tail-mediates-assembly-of-internal-viral-proteins-into-viral-filaments-and-particles
#20
Fyza Y Shaikh, Reagan G Cox, Aaron W Lifland, Anne L Hotard, John V Williams, Martin L Moore, Philip J Santangelo, James E Crowe
UNLABELLED: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family that assembles into filamentous structures at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. These filaments contain viral genomic RNA and structural proteins, including the fusion (F) protein, matrix (M) protein, nucleoprotein (N), and phosphoprotein (P), while excluding F-actin. It is known that the F protein cytoplasmic tail (FCT) is necessary for filament formation, but the mechanism by which the FCT mediates assembly into filaments is not clear...
2012: MBio
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