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Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Neural discrimination of auditory intensity is one of the fundamental questions in human auditory perception. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated specific neural activations during intensity discrimination tasks. The detailed functional anatomy, however, remains elusive. Most of the existing studies examined the entire auditory cortex as a whole, neglecting the potential functional differentiation within the auditory cortex. Moreover, these previous results based on controlled auditory stimuli might not necessarily extend to the neural mechanism of natural auditory processing...
October 21, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Muhammad Abid Azam, Joel Katz, Vina Mohabir, Paul Ritvo
BACKGROUND: Current research suggests that associations between headache conditions (migraine, tension) and imbalances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are due to stress-related dysregulation in the activity of the parasympathetic-sympathetic branches. Mindfulness meditation has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain-related distress, and in enhancing heart rate variability-a vagal-mediated marker of ANS balance. This study examined HRV during cognitive stress and mindfulness meditation in individuals with migraine and tension headaches...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Michael Copenhaver
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and treatment engagement (TE) have been shown to significantly predict antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but no studies have explored the ways and the extent to which similar outcomes might occur when these factors operate together, particularly for people who use drugs (PWUDs). We sought to discover whether TE moderated the effect of NCI on adherence to ART in HIV-infected individuals. One hundred sixteen HIV-infected, methadone-maintained people who reported HIV risk behaviors were enrolled in the study...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Cremildo João Baptista, Ines Dourado, Sandra Brignol, Tarcísio de Matos Andrade, Francisco Inácio Bastos
BACKGROUND: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Camilla Hardeland, Kjetil Sunde, Helge Ramsdal, Susan R Hebbert, Linda Soilammi, Fredrik Westmark, Fredrik Nordum, Andreas E Hansen, Jon E Steen-Hansen, Theresa M Olasveengen
AIM: Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: Mixed-methods: design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files...
October 18, 2016: Resuscitation
Esteban Alejandro Lopez, Orozimbo Alves Costa, Deborah Viviane Ferrari
Purpose: The purpose of this research note is to describe the development and technical validation of the Mobile Based Assistive Listening System (MoBALS), a free-of-charge smartphone-based remote microphone application. Method: MoBALS Version 1.0 was developed for Android (Version 2.1 or higher) and was coded with Java using Eclipse Indigo with the Android Software Development Kit. A Wi-Fi router with background traffic and 2 affordable smartphones were used for debugging and technical validation comprising, among other things, multicasting capability, data packet loss, and battery consumption...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Kimberly D Neely, Kate Bunton, Brad H Story
Purpose: This study used a computational vocal tract model to investigate the relationship of diphthong duration and vocal tract movement magnitude to measures of the F2 trajectory in CV words. Method: Three words (bough, boy, and buy) were simulated on the basis of an adult female vocal tract model, in which the model parameters were estimated from audio recordings of a female talker. Model parameters were then modified to generate 35 simulations of each word corresponding to 7 different durations and 5 movement magnitude settings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jana Annina Müller, Dorothea Wendt, Birger Kollmeier, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstrap procedure. In order to reduce practical challenges, we first reduced the measurement time by evaluating a smaller measurement set with fewer trials. The results of 16 listeners showed effects comparable to those obtained when testing the original full measurement set on a different collective of listeners...
2016: PloS One
David P Seamans, Boshra F Louka, F David Fortuin, Bhavesh M Patel, John P Sweeney, Louis A Lanza, Patrick A DeValeria, Kim M Ezrre, Harish Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND: The surgical and procedural specialties are continually evolving their methods to include more complex and technically difficult cases. These cases can be longer and incorporate multiple teams in a different model of operating room synergy. Patients are frequently older, with comorbidities adding to the complexity of these cases. Recording of this environment has become more feasible recently with advancement in video and audio capture systems often used in the simulation realm...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Deepa Rao, Yamile Molina, Nina Lambert, Susan E Cohn
PURPOSE: In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. METHODS: We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma...
August 2016: Stigma Health
Geoffrey L Dickens, Catherine Frogley, Fiona Mason, Katina Anagnostakis, Marco M Picchioni
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medicine which can cause significant side-effects. It is often prescribed off-license in severe cases of borderline personality disorder contrary to national treatment guidelines. Little is known about the experiences of those who take clozapine for borderline personality disorder. We explored the lived-experience of women in secure inpatient care who were prescribed clozapine for borderline personality disorder. FINDINGS: Adult females (N = 20) participated in audio-taped semi-structured interviews...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Mary Kathryn Abel, H Charles Li, Frank A Russo, Gottfried Schlaug, Psyche Loui
Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals...
2016: PloS One
Sherry M Bumpus, Christa Kuck, Steven T Heidt, Minnie Bluhm
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a vascular disorder about which little has been known until recently. Patients with FMD may suffer from hypertension, aneurysms, or strokes, as well as symptoms associated with local artery damage. As a result of advances in vascular medicine and growing outcomes registries, we now have a better understanding of the FMD disease process and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the consequences of FMD on patients' day-to-day experiences and mental health status are not well understood...
October 6, 2016: Vascular Medicine
M Shamim Hossain
Smart, interactive healthcare is necessary in the modern age. Several issues, such as accurate diagnosis, low-cost modeling, low-complexity design, seamless transmission, and sufficient storage, should be addressed while developing a complete healthcare framework. In this paper, we propose a patient state recognition system for the healthcare framework. We design the system in such a way that it provides good recognition accuracy, provides low-cost modeling, and is scalable. The system takes two main types of input, video and audio, which are captured in a multi-sensory environment...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Ryan Stables, Graeme Clemens, Holly J Butler, Katherine M Ashton, Andrew Brodbelt, Timothy P Dawson, Leanne M Fullwood, Michael D Jenkinson, Matthew J Baker
Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic probes are of particular interest as they allow for in vivo spectroscopic diagnostics, for tasks such as the identification of tumour margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate a feature-driven approach to the classification of metastatic brain cancer, glioblastoma (GB) and non-cancer from tissue samples, and we provide a real-time feedback method for endoscopic diagnostics using sound...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Sonya Nicholl, Holly Seale, Vicky Sheppeard, Sue Campbell-Lloyd
INTRODUCTION: In response to a significant increase of measles cases and a high percentage of unvaccinated adolescents in New South Wales, Australia, a measles high school catch-up vaccination programme was implemented between August and December 2014. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting school-based supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) and to inform future SIA and routine school-based vaccination programme implementation and service provision. METHODS: Focus group analysis was conducted among public health unit (PHU) staff responsible for implementing the SIA catch-up programme...
July 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Richun Li, Ruiqian Xie, Chong Yang, Melinda Frost
OBJECTIVE: To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. METHODS: Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide...
July 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Aline Kunz, Sabrina Pohlmann, Oliver Heinze, Antje Brandner, Christina Reiß, Martina Kamradt, Joachim Szecsenyi, Dominik Ose
BACKGROUND: The importance of information and communication technology for healthcare is steadily growing. Newly developed tools are addressing different user groups: physicians, other health care professionals, social workers, patients, and family members. Since often many different actors with different expertise and perspectives are involved in the development process it can be a challenge to integrate the user-reported requirements of those heterogeneous user groups. Nevertheless, the understanding and consideration of user requirements is the prerequisite of building a feasible technical solution...
October 18, 2016: JMIR Human Factors
Nancy Bagatell, Dara Chan, Kimberly Karrat Rauch, Deborah Thorpe
BACKGROUND: The transition to adulthood, the gradual change in roles and responsibilities, is identified as a challenging time for adolescents and young adults with physical disabilities, including those with cerebral palsy. Health care, education, employment, independent living, and community engagement have been identified as areas of concern. However, relatively little research has been done to understand the experiences, perceptions, and needs of individuals with cerebral palsy as they transition toward adulthood...
October 3, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
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