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Jon M Houck, Jennifer K Manuel, Theresa B Moyers
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of a causal chain in motivational interviewing (MI) involving counselor MI-consistent skills, client change language, and outcomes. MI was a key component of the combined behavioral intervention in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study. Participants in COMBINE were treatment-seeking and medication-seeking, and were required to maintain a period of abstinence before enrollment. Counselors were closely monitored and were temporarily removed from the study for remediation and supervision if their performance fell below threshold...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Andrew Leung Luk, Adrian Fai To Yau
Background: Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Signe S Risom, Johanne Lind, Pamela J McCabe, Selina Kikkenborg Berg
Purpose: The CopenHeartRFA trial was designed and conducted to explore the effects of rehabilitation on patients treated with ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). It included a cardiac rehabilitation program consisting of physical exercise and psychoeducational consultations over 6 months. As part of the evaluation of the CopenHeartRFA trial, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The intervention was delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Aim: This study aimed to understand the experience of patients treated for AF with ablation who participated in the CopenHeartRFA cardiac rehabilitation program...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Prabha S Chandra, Soumya Parameshwaran, Veena A Satyanarayana, Meiya Varghese, Lauren Liberti, Mona Duggal, Pushpendra Singh, Sangchoon Jeon, Nancy R Reynolds
This qualitative study assessed psychosocial concerns that rural women with HIV who had multiple psychosocial vulnerabilities were able to express and communicate during a mobile phone intervention delivered by nurses. The study is part of a pilot randomised controlled trial of an mHealth self-care intervention by nurses for women living with HIV in rural India. For the trial, 60 women were randomised to receive the mHealth intervention. All calls were recorded and call logs were maintained. Call logs of 59 women based on 1186 calls were scanned for psychosocial themes...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Fabrizio Pancaldi, Marco Sebastiani, Giulia Cassone, Fabrizio Luppi, Stefania Cerri, Giovanni Della Casa, Andreina Manfredi
The diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis is fundamental to improving their survival rate. In particular, the average survival time of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis with pulmonary implications is approximately 3 years. The gold standard for confirming the diagnosis of this disease is computer tomography. However, it is very difficult to raise diagnosis suspicion because the symptoms of the disease are extremely common in elderly people. The detection of the so-called velcro crackle in lung sounds can effectively raise the suspicion of an interstitial disease and speed up diagnosis...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Wynne Callon, Mary Catherine Beach, Anne R Links, Carly Wasserman, Emily F Boss
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a comprehensive, descriptive framework to measure shared decision making (SDM) in clinical encounters. METHODS: We combined a top-down (theoretical) approach with a bottom-up approach based on audio-recorded dialogue to identify all communication processes related to decision making. We coded 55 pediatric otolaryngology visits using the framework and report interrater reliability. RESULTS: We identified 14 clinician behaviors and 5 patient behaviors that have not been previously described, and developed a new SDM framework that is descriptive (what does happen) rather than normative (what should happen)...
March 11, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Andrew S Kern-Goldberger, Amanda J Hessels, Lisa Saiman, Lynne M Quittell
BACKGROUND: Recruiting both pediatric and adult participants for clinical trials in CF is currently of paramount importance as numerous new therapies are being developed. However, recruitment is challenging as parents of children with CF and adults with CF cite safety concerns as a principal barrier to enrollment. In conjunction with the CF Foundation (CFF) Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), a pilot brochure was developed to inform patients and parents of the multiple levels of safety monitoring; the CFF simultaneously created an infographic representing the safety monitoring process...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Aileen V Ireland, Jennifer Finnegan-John, Gill Hubbard, Karen Scanlon, Richard G Kyle
Walking is widely accepted as a safe and effective method of promoting rehabilitation and a return to physical activity after a cancer diagnosis. Little research has considered the therapeutic qualities of landscape in relation to understanding women's recovery from breast cancer, and no study has considered the supportive and therapeutic benefits that walking groups might contribute to their wellbeing. Through a study of a volunteer-led walking group intervention for women living with and beyond breast cancer (Best Foot Forward) we address this gap...
March 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
R M Gracia Gozalo, J M Ferrer Tarrés, A Ayora Ayora, M Alonso Herrero, A Amutio Kareaga, R Ferrer Roca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a mindfulness training program on the levels of burnout, mindfulness, empathy and self-compassion among healthcare professionals in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with an intrasubject pre-post intervention design was carried out. SETTING: Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 32 subjects (physicians, nurses and nursing assistants) participated in the study...
March 12, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
James P Thompson, Jamie R R Mackenzie, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock, Simon J Raftery, John Wall
In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Juliet Imeson, Robyn Lowe, Mark Onslow, Natalie Munro, Rob Heard, Sue O'Brian, Simone Arnott
This study was driven by the need to understand the mechanisms underlying Lidcombe Program treatment efficacy. The aim of the present study was to extend existing data exploring whether stuttering reductions observed when children successfully treated with the Lidcombe Program are associated with restricted language development. Audio recordings of 10-min parent-child conversations at home were transcribed verbatim for 11 pre-school-age children with various stuttering severities. Language samples from three assessments-pre-treatment, 9 and 18 months after beginning treatment-were analysed using SALT software for lexical diversity, utterance length and sentence complexity...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Rong Ma, Wei Liu, Zhongzhong Qin, Xiaolong Su, Xiaojun Jia, Junxiang Zhang, Jiangrui Gao
Using a nondegenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) process based on a double-Λ scheme in hot cesium vapor, we demonstrate a compact diode-laser-pumped quantum light source for the generation of quantum correlated twin beams with a maximum squeezing of 6.5 dB. The squeezing is observed at a Fourier frequency in the audio band down to 0.7 kHz which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first observation of sub-kilohertz intensity-difference squeezing in an atomic system so far. A phase-matching condition is also investigated in our system, which confirms the spatial-multi-mode characteristics of the FWM process...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
G H Renier Botha, Grant Theron, Rob Warren, Marisa Klopper, Kheertan Dheda, Paul van Helden, Thomas R Niesler
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly diseases. Although several effective diagnosis methods exist, in lower income countries clinics may not be in a position to afford expensive equipment and employ the trained experts needed to interpret results. In these situations, symptoms including cough are commonly used to identify patients for testing. However, self-reported cough has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, which may be improved by digital detection. This study investigates a simple and easily applied method for TB screening based on the automatic analysis of coughing sounds...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Kasun Karunanayaka, Nurafiqah Johari, Surina Hariri, Hanis Camelia, Kevin Stanley Bielawski, Adrian David Cheok
Today's virtual reality (VR) applications such as gaming, multisensory entertainment, remote dining, and online shopping are mainly based on audio, visual, and touch interactions between humans and virtual worlds. Integrating the sense of taste into VR is difficult since humans are dependent on chemical-based taste delivery systems. This paper presents the 'Thermal Taste Machine', a new digital taste actuation technology that can effectively produce and modify thermal taste sensations on the tongue. It modifies the temperature of the surface of the tongue within a short period of time (from 25°C to 40 °C while heating, and from 25°C to 10 °C while cooling)...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Sarthak Ghosh, Lauren Winston, Nishant Panchal, Philippe Kimura-Thollander, Jeff Hotnog, Douglas Cheong, Gabriel Reyes, Gregory D Abowd
The proliferation of high resolution and affordable virtual reality (VR) headsets is quickly making room-scale VR experiences available in our homes. Most VR experiences strive to achieve complete immersion by creating a disconnect from the real world. However, due to the lack of a standardized notification management system and minimal context awareness in VR, an immersed user may face certain situations such as missing an important phone call (digital scenario), tripping over wandering pets (physical scenario), or losing track of time (temporal scenario)...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Dror Ben-Zeev
Although underdeveloped in mental health care, the sub-Saharan country of Ghana is advanced in telecommunications. In this context, innovative mobile health (mHealth) approaches may help to overcome limited infrastructure (lack of clinics, trained professionals, and landlines) and to address significant unmet public mental health needs. The Technology in Mental Health editor reports on travels to Ghana to assess the viability of mHealth for mental health initiatives in the region. He found that stakeholders from all sectors (patients, providers, government officials, and traditional and faith healers) were open to exploring whether mHealth approaches could promote more humane care, reduce human rights violations, and improve the clinical outcomes of those in need...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Isabel Craveiro, Virginia Hortale, Ana Paula Cavalcante de Oliveira, Mario Dal Poz, Gustavo Portela, Gilles Dussault
Background: The production of knowledge on Human Resources for Health (HRH) issues has increased exponentially since 2000 but integration of the research in the policy-making process is often lagging. We looked at how research on HRH contributes or not to inform policy decisions and interventions affecting the health workforce in Portugal and Brazil. Methods: We designed a comparative case study of semi-structured interviews with present and past national decision-makers, policy advisors and researchers...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Golnoosh Ahmadi, Mohsen Shahriari, Mahmood Keyvanara, Shahnaz Kohan
Methods: A qualitative study was used. Midwifery students from three universities in Iran participated. The study used a convenience sample of eighteen students. Data for this study was collected using semi-structured interviews (N=12) and focus groups (N=6). Data were recorded on a digital audio recorder and then transcribed. The qualitative data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Results: Six broad themes emerged from the analysis: Limited opportunities to experience skills, difficulties with course plan gaps, need for creating a supportive clinical environment, learning drives, confusion between different methods, and stress in the clinical setting...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Education
Jean-Paul Noel, Olaf Blanke, Elisa Magosso, Andrea Serino
Interactions between the body and the environment occur within the Peri-Personal Space (PPS), the space immediately surrounding the body. The PPS is encoded by multisensory (audio-tactile, visual-tactile) neurons that possess receptive fields (RFs) anchored on the body and restricted in depth. The extension in depth of PPS neurons' RFs has been documented to change dynamically as a function of the velocity of incoming stimuli, but the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here, by integrating a psychophysical approach with neural network modeling, we propose a mechanistic explanation behind this inherent dynamic property of PPS...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Patti Adank, Helen Nuttall, Harold Bekkering, Gwijde Maegherman
When we observe someone else speaking, we tend to automatically activate the corresponding speech motor patterns. When listening, we therefore covertly imitate the observed speech. Simulation theories of speech perception propose that covert imitation of speech motor patterns supports speech perception. Covert imitation of speech has been studied with interference paradigms, including the stimulus-response compatibility paradigm (SRC). The SRC paradigm measures covert imitation by comparing articulation of a prompt following exposure to a distracter...
March 13, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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