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Samuel Frei, Sylvia Ortmann, Michael Kreuzer, Jean-Michel Hatt, Marcus Clauss
Although it is well-known that retrograde transport of urine fills the caeca of birds with fluid and small particles, the function of avian caeca is still not fully understood. We measured mean retention times (MRT) of solute (cobalt-EDTA, Co), small particle (<2mm, chromium-mordanted fibre, Cr) and large particle (8mm, cerium-marked fibre, Ce) markers in geese (Anser anser) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) fed alfalfa pellets ad libitum. Intake did not differ between species. Turkeys had longer MRT for all markers (Co: 10...
December 3, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
M Martínez, B Zurro, A Baciero, D Jiménez-Rey, V Tribaldos, M Malo, M T Crespo, D Muñoz
A systematic study of scintillation materials was undertaken to improve the time resolution of the fast ion diagnostic currently installed at TJ-II stellarator. It was found that YAP:Ce (formula YAlO3:Ce, Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite doped with Cerium) ionoluminescence offers better sensitivity and time response compared to the standard detector material, SrGa2S4:Eu (TG-Green), currently used in TJ-II. A comparison between both materials was carried out by irradiating them with H(+) ions of up to 40 keV using a dedicated laboratory setup...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Aradhana Pindwal, Smita Patnaik, William C Everett, Arkady Ellern, Theresa L Windus, Aaron D Sadow
The homoleptic organocerium complex Ce{C(SiHMe2 )3 }3 (1) reacts with B(C6 F5 )3 to produce the zwitterionic bis(alkyl) hydridoborato Ce{C(SiHMe2 )3 }2 HB(C6 F5 )3 (2). NMR and IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography indicate that each alkyl ligand contains two bridging Ce↼H-Si interactions in both 1 and 2. Compound 2 serves as a precatalyst for the hydrosilylation of acrylates to give α-silyl esters at room temperature with a turnover number of 2200.
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Walter A Rabanal-León, Juliana A Murillo-López, Ramiro Arratia-Pérez
In this contribution, a computational study of equatorial bound tetranuclear macrocycle (butylene linked) [LnZn(HOM(Bu))](3+) (Ln = La(3+), Ce(3+)) complexes was carried out. Here, the electronic structure, bonding interaction and excitation energies were studied within the relativistic density functional theory framework. From the electronic structure analysis, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) were strongly localized in the d-orbitals of the Zn centers and the f-orbitals of the lanthanide ions. Besides, the inner MOs were found to exhibit a π-character from the organic part of the macrocyclic chain...
November 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Madhabi M Bhanjadeo, Ashok K Nayak, Umakanta Subudhi
DNA adopts different conformation not only because of novel base pairs but also while interacting with inorganic or organic compounds. Self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) structures or DNA origami that change conformation in response to environmental cues hold great promises in sensing and actuation at the nanoscale. Recently, the B-Z transition in DNA is being explored to design various nanomechanical devices. In this communication we have demonstrated that Cerium chloride binds to the phosphate backbone of self-assembled bDNA structure and induce B-to-Z transition at physiological concentration...
November 25, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xinyan Yang, Zhongqi Hao, Meng Shen, Rongxing Yi, Jiaming Li, Huiwu Yu, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng, Yongfeng Lu
Determination of rare earth elements (REEs) plays an important role in the extraction process. In this work, surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SENLIBS) was introduced to detect REEs (lanthanum, cerium,praseodymium,and neodymium elements) in an aqueous solution. The emission lines of La II 394.91nm, Ce II 418.66nm, Pr II 422.29nm, and Nd II 406.10nm were selected for quantitative analysis by drying the analytical samples on a Zn metal substrate surface and optimizing the experimental parameters...
January 15, 2017: Talanta
Hyo-Won Song, Na-Young Kim, Ji-Eun Park, Jae-Hyeon Ko, Robert J Hickey, Yong-Hyun Kim, So-Jung Park
Here, we report the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles through the introduction of rare-earth metals. The addition of gadolinium oleate in the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles induced sphere-to-cube shape changes of nanoparticles and generated iron oxide nanocubes coated with gadolinium. Based on experimental investigations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we attribute the shape change to the facet-selective binding of undecomposed gadolinium oleates. While many previous studies on the shape-controlled syntheses of nanoparticles rely on the stabilization of specific crystal facets by anionic surfactants or their decomposition products, this study shows that the interaction between growing transition metal oxide nanoparticles and rare-earth metal complexes can be used as a robust new mechanism for shape-controlled syntheses...
November 25, 2016: Nanoscale
R Kopelent, J A van Bokhoven, M Nachtegaal, J Szlachetko, O V Safonova
Oxygen storage materials such as ceria are used in many catalytic applications because they can reversibly bind and release oxygen. Tools are needed to observe and quantify this activity which involves a change in the cerium oxidation state and to understand the involvement of cerium in catalytic processes. To prove that cerium changes its oxidation state in the catalytic cycle the transient rates of Ce(3+) formation and decay should be compared to the overall reaction rate. For such mechanistic studies the time resolution is essential as the quantification of the Ce(3+) species should be faster than the reaction rate...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Attilio Marino, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Daniele De Pasquale, Francesca Ruini, Giada Genchi, Simone Nitti, Valentina Cappello, Mauro Gemmi, Virgilio Mattoli, Gianluca Ciardelli, Gianni Ciofani
BACKGROUND: The design of efficient nerve conduits able to sustain the axonal outgrowth and its guidance towards appropriate targets is of paramount importance in nerve tissue engineering. METHODS: In this work, we propose the preparation of highly aligned nanocomposite fibers of gelatin/cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), prepared by electrospinning. Nanoceria are powerful self-regenerative antioxidant nanomaterials, that behave as strong reactive oxygen species scavengers, and among various beneficial effects, they have been proven to inhibit the cell senescence and to promote the neurite sprouting...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jing-Jing Guo, Anhua Hu, Yilin Chen, Jianfeng Sun, Haoming Tang, Zhiwei Zuo
A general strategy for the cleavage and amination of C-C bonds of cycloalkanols has been achieved through visible-light-induced photoredox catalysis utilizing a cerium(III) chloride complex. This operationally simple methodology has been successfully applied to a wide array of unstrained cyclic alcohols, and represents the first example of catalytic C-C bond cleavage and functionalization of unstrained secondary cycloalkanols.
November 11, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Beverly A Rzigalinski, Charles S Carfagna, Marion Ehrich
Cerium oxide nanoparticles have widespread use in the materials industry, and have recently come into consideration for biomedical use due to their potent regenerative antioxidant properties. Given that the brain is one of the most highly oxidative organs in the body, it is subject to some of the greatest levels of oxidative stress, particularly in neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, cerium oxide nanoparticles are currently being investigated for efficacy in several neurodegenerative disorders and have shown promising levels of neuroprotection...
November 8, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
W M A El Rouby, A A Farghali, A Hamdedein
Cerium (IV) oxide (CeO2), samarium (Sm) and gadolinium (Gd) doped CeO2 nanoparticles were prepared using microwave technique. The effect of microwave irradiation time, microwave power and pH of the starting solution on the structure and crystallite size were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 toward degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was investigated under UV light irradiation...
November 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yan Li, Bin Lin, XiaoFeng Zhang, PengFei Liu
In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Keith C Armstrong, Stephan Hohloch, Trevor D Lohrey, Ryan A Zarkesh, John Arnold, Mitchell R Anstey
The first synthesis of anion capped cerium corrole complexes is reported. Unusual clustering of the lanthanide corrole units has been found and the degree of aggregation can be controlled by the choice of the capping ligand. A polymeric structure 1a, with the general formula [Cor-Ce(THF)-Cp-Na]n (Cor = 5,15-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-10-(4 methoxyphenyl)-corrole, THF = tetrahydrofuran), is formed using sodium cyclopentadienide (NaCp) and a dimeric structure 2a, with the general formula [Cor-Ce-Tp]2, is formed when potassium tris(pyrazolyl)borate (KTp) is used...
November 22, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Cui, Chunye Lin, Jin Ma, Xitao Liu, Yuxiang Zhu
Toxic elements have caused great concern due to their adverse health effects. Biological monitoring is generally considered to be a useful tool to assess human exposure to these elements during risk assessment. To better interpret the biological monitoring data, elemental reference values are critical. The major objectives of this study were to clarify whether first-spot morning urine can serve as a surrogate for 24-h urine and to determine the concentration reference interval of some elements in Chinese children's urine...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Ross J Ellis, Mrinal K Bera, Benjamin Reinhart, Mark R Antonio
Redox-driven ion transfer between phases underpins many biological and technological processes, including industrial separation of ions. Here we investigate the electrochemical transfer of nitrate anions between oil and water phases, driven by the reduction and oxidation of cerium coordination complexes in oil phases. We find that the coordination environment around the cerium cation has a pronounced impact on the overall redox potential, particularly with regard to the number of coordinated nitrate anions...
November 16, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kanakapura Basavaiah, Nagib A S Qarah, Sameer A M Abdulrahman
Two simple methods are described for the determination of ethionamide (ETM) in bulk drug and tablets using cerium (IV) sulphate as the oxidimetric agent. In both methods, the sample solution is treated with a measured excess of cerium (IV) solution in H2SO4 medium, and after a fixed standing time, the residual oxidant is determined either by back titration with standard iron (II) solution to a ferroin end point in titrimetry or by reacting with o-dianisidine followed by measurement of the absorbance of the orange-red coloured product at 470 nm in spectrophotometry...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bin Wang, Lailai Yan, Wenhua Huo, Qun Lu, Zixi Cheng, Jingxu Zhang, Zhiwen Li
Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls)...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marion Jamard, Todd Hoare, Heather Sheardown
While eye drops account for the majority of ophthalmic formulation for drug delivery, their efficiency is limited by rapid pre-corneal loss. In this study, we investigate nanogel suspensions in order to improve the topical ocular therapy by reducing dosage and frequency of administration. We synthesized self-assembling nanogels of 140 nm by grafting side chains of poly(N-tert-butylacrylamide) (PNtBAm) on methylcellulose via cerium ammonium nitrate. Successful grafting of PNtBAm onto methylcellulose (MC) was confirmed by both NMR and ATR...
November 2, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Sanjay Singh
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are known to exhibit enzymelike activity, such as biological catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymelike activities. Catalytically active nanoceria offer several advantages over natural enzymes, such as controlled synthesis at low cost, tunable catalytic activities, as well as high stability against stringent physiological conditions. Exploiting these properties, several biomedical applications, such as biosensing, immunoassay, drug delivery, radiation protection, and tissue engineering, have been maneuvered...
November 2, 2016: Biointerphases
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