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Adeeb H Rahman, Yonit Lavin, Soma Kobayashi, Andrew Leader, Miriam Merad
BACKGROUND: Mass cytometry leverages inductively coupled mass spectrometry to perform high dimensional single cell analyses using antibodies tagged with rare earth isotopes that are considered to be largely absent in biological samples. We have recently noted an unusual exception to this rule while analyzing tissue samples from patients undergoing surgical resection for early stage lung cancer, and here we present a detailed cytometric characterization of cerium in a clinical patient sample...
July 22, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Lulu Wang, Yongchun Zhao, Junying Zhang
Photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive method for Hg-rich flue gas treatment. In the present study, a novel cerium-based TiO2 nanofibers was prepared and selected as the catalyst to remove mercury in flue gas. Accordingly, physical/chemical properties of those nanofibers were clarified. The effects of some important parameters, such as calcination temperature, cerium dopant content and different illumination conditions on the removal of Hg(0) using the photocatalysis process were investigated. In addition, the removal mechanism of Hg(0) over cerium-based TiO2 nanofibers focused on UV irradiation was proposed...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
Olivier Pourret, Johann Tuduri
The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Ehtisham Khan, Mohammad Mansoob Khan, Moo Hwan Cho
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) were fabricated and grown on graphene sheets using a facile, low cost hydrothermal approach and subsequently characterized using different standard characterization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance revealed the changes in surface states, composition, changes in Ce(4+) to Ce(3+) ratio, and other defects. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM revealed that the fabricated CeO2 NPs to be spherical with particle size of ~10-12 nm...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Braeden M Clark, S K Sundaram, Scott T Misture
Compounds with the formulae CaZr1-xCexTi2O7 with x = 0.1-0.5 were synthesized by solid state reaction. Cerium was used as a surrogate for actinide elements. A transition from the 2M polymorph to the 4M polymorph (expanded unit cell due to cation ordering) in zirconolite was observed with increasing cerium content. The presence of both tri- and tetravalent Ce, contrary to formulation, was confirmed using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, suggesting substitution on both Ca and Zr sites. Sintering was carried out via spark plasma sintering, during which the perovskite phase (Ca0...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marco Trifuoggi, Giovanni Pagano, Marco Guida, Anna Palumbo, Antonietta Siciliano, Maria Gravina, Daniel M Lyons, Petra Burić, Maja Levak, Philippe J Thomas, Antonella Giarra, Rahime Oral
The widespread use of rare earth elements (REEs) in a number of technological applications raises unanswered questions related to REE-associated adverse effects. We have previously reported on the multiple impact of some REEs on the early life stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The present investigation was to evaluate REE toxicity to early life stages in two unrelated sea urchin species, Sphaerechinus granularis and Arbacia lixula. The comparative toxicities were tested of seven REEs, namely yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium and gadolinium as chloride salts at concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tomoko Suzuki, Aya Maeda, Masaya Hirose, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, Kazuhiro Toyoda
Ascochyta (Mycosphaerella) blight on cultivated peas is primarily caused by infection through asexual spores (pycnospores) of Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. et Blox.) Vestergren [recently renamed Peyronellaea pinodes (Berk. & A. Bloxam) Aveskamp, Gruyter & Verkley]. Using a model pathosystem involving Medicago truncatula and Mycosphaerella pinodes strain OMP-1, we examined the histology and ultrastructure of early infection events and fungal development including penetration by appressoria, vegetative growth of infection hyphae, and host responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tsegaye Girma Asere, Kim Verbeken, Dejene A Tessema, Fekadu Fufa, Christian V Stevens, Gijs Du Laing
Contamination of drinking water with arsenic causes severe health problems in various world regions. Arsenic exists predominantly as As(III) and As(V) depending on the prevailing redox conditions of the environment. Most of the techniques developed for treating As(V) are not very effective for As(III), which is more toxic and mobile than As(V). In this study, novel cerium-loaded pumice (Ce-Pu) and red scoria (Ce-Rs) adsorbents were developed to remove both As(III) and As(V) ions from water. The Ce-Pu and Ce-Rs adsorbents were characterized using ICP-OES, EDX, and SEM...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniela Schwotzer, Heinrich Ernst, Dirk Schaudien, Heiko Kock, Gerhard Pohlmann, Clemens Dasenbrock, Otto Creutzenberg
BACKGROUND: Nanomaterials like cerium oxide and barium sulfate are frequently processed in industrial and consumer products and exposure of humans and other organisms is likely. Generally less information is given on health effects and toxicity, especially regarding long-term exposure to low nanoparticle doses. Since inhalation is still the major route of uptake the present study focused on pulmonary effects of CeO2NM-212 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/m(3)) and BaSO4NM-220 nanoparticles (50...
July 12, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Gill Norman, Janice Christie, Zhenmi Liu, Maggie J Westby, Jayne M Jefferies, Thomas Hudson, Jacky Edwards, Devi Prasad Mohapatra, Ibrahim A Hassan, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting...
July 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ding Ma
A one-step ligand-free method based on absorption-precipitation process is developed to fabricate Ir/CeO2 nano-catalysts. It is observed that Ir species have strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) with the cerium oxide substrate. Depends on the loading of Ir, the chemical state of iridium could be finely tuned. In CO2 hydrogenation reaction, it was shown that the chemical state of iridium species, induced by SMSI, has a major impact on the reaction selectivity. Ir/Ce catalyst (20% Ir) with relatively large particle size and almost pure metallic iridium species shows high selectivity towards methane...
July 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
José R O Silva, Dara S Santos, Ubiratan R Santos, Katlin I B Eguiluz, Giancarlo R Salazar-Banda, Jaderson K Schneider, Laiza C Krause, Jorge A López, Maria L Hernández-Macedo
Electrochemical oxidation may be used as treatment to decompose partially or completely organic pollutants (wastewater) from industrial processes such as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used to obtain bio-oil from biomasses, generating a liquid waste rich in organic compounds including aldehydes and phenols, which can be submitted to biological and electrochemical treatments in order to minimize its environmental impact. Thus, electrochemical systems employing dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) have been proposed to enable biodegradation processes in subsurface environments...
June 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Lianbo Ma, Renpeng Chen, Guoyin Zhu, Yi Hu, Yanrong Wang, Tao Chen, Jie Liu, Zhong Jin
For developing lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it is critical to design advanced cathode materials with high sulfur loading/utilization ratios and strong binding interactions with sulfur species to prevent the dissolution of intermediate polysulfides. Here we report an effective sulfur host material prepared by implanting cerium oxide (CeO2) nanocrystals homogeneously into well-designed bimodal micro-mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon (MMNC) nanospheres. With the high conductivity and abundant hierarchical pore structures, MMNC nanospheres can effectively storage and entrap sulfur species...
July 6, 2017: ACS Nano
Sergey I Lopatin, Sergey M Shugurov, Andrej I Panin, Evgenia A Vasil'eva
RATIONALE: The total or relative cross-sections for the ionization of polyatomic molecules by electron ionization are essential data in a wide range of applications. In addition to the total ionization cross-sections, relative ionization cross-sections are sometimes also required. Accurate values of electron ionization cross-sections of high-temperature vapor species are of importance in mass spectrometric investigations. So the need for experimental ionization cross-section data for high-temperature vapor species is vital...
July 5, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Fanny Caputo, Marta Mameli, Andrzej Sienkiewicz, Silvia Licoccia, Francesco Stellacci, Lina Ghibelli, Enrico Traversa
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are novel synthetic antioxidant agents proposed for treating oxidative stress-related diseases. The synthesis of high-quality CNPs for biomedical applications remains a challenging task. A major concern for a safe use of CNPs as pharmacological agents is their tendency to agglomerate. Herein we present a simple direct precipitation approach, exploiting ethylene glycol as synthesis co-factor, to synthesize at room temperature nanocrystalline sub-10 nm CNPs, followed by a surface silanization approach to improve nanoparticle dispersibility in biological fluids...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark R Antonio, Ross J Ellis, Shanna L Estes, Mrinal K Bera
X-ray and electrochemical studies of organic phases obtained by the extraction of tetravalent cerium, Ce(iv), from aqueous nitric acid (3 M) with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane reveal a tetranuclear Ce(iv) structural motif. This finding is consistent with the results of previous liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) studies that implicate the aggregation of (Ce-O-Ce)(6+) dimers into multinuclear Ce(iv)·TBP solvates. The organic solution structures elaborated here for the Ce(iv)-HNO3-20% TBP-n-C12H26 system are correlated with multiscale phenomena-from the atomic level of the cerium coordination environment to the supramolecular scale of solute aggregates-in the organic phases, which are of relevance to the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction) process...
July 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jie Mei, Ting-Feng Yi, Xin-Yuan Li, Yan-Rong Zhu, Ying Xie, Chao-Feng Zhang
A facile strategy was developed to prepare Li5Cr7Ti6O25@CeO2 composites as a high-performance anode material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement results show that the CeO2 coating does not alter the structure of Li5Cr7Ti6O25 but increases the lattice parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that all samples have similar morphologies with a homogeneous particle distribution in the range of 100-500 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) prove that CeO2 layer successfully formed a coating layer on a surface of Li5Cr7Ti6O25 particles and supplied a good conductive connection between the Li5Cr7Ti6O25 particles...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jochen Friedrich, David Schneider, Lorenz Bock, Cäcilia Maichle-Mössmer, Reiner Anwander
Treatment of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) with varying amounts of sodium neopentoxide led to the isolation of crystalline cerium(IV) complexes [Ce(OCH2tBu)2(NO3)2(HOCH2tBu)2], [Ce(OCH2tBu)3(NO3)-(NCCH3)]2, [Ce2(OCH2tBu)7(NO3)]2, and [Ce2(OCH2tBu)9Na-(THF)] featuring Ce(IV)/(OR) ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:3.5, and 1:4.5, respectively. The complexes are light-sensitive and prone to ligand redistribution as evidenced by multicomponent NMR spectra as well as the formation of [{Ce(OCH2tBu)4}2(THF)] and the mixed-valent complex [Ce3(OCH2tBu)9(NO3)2]...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Jaron T Krogel, P R C Kent
Growth in computational resources has lead to the application of real space diffusion quantum Monte Carlo to increasingly heavy elements. Although generally assumed to be small, we find that when using standard techniques, the pseudopotential localization error can be large, on the order of an electron volt for an isolated cerium atom. We formally show that the localization error can be reduced to zero with improvements to the Jastrow factor alone, and we define a metric of Jastrow sensitivity that may be useful in the design of pseudopotentials...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
B Joseph, R Torchio, C Benndorf, T Irifune, T Shinmei, R Pöttgen, A Zerr
Cerium phosphide undergoes a unit-cell volume discontinuity without any structural phase transitions upon application of a high pressure of ∼10 GPa. This phenomenon is attributed to a change in the electronic charge distribution of the cerium in CeP, but to date no direct experimental verification for this hypothesis has been presented. Here, we report a Ce L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy study under pressure, which provides direct compelling evidence of an electronic transition associated with the above-mentioned isostructural volume discontinuity...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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