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Fei Pan, Jian Zhang, Hao-Long Chen, Yen-Hsun Su, Yen-Hao Su, Weng-Sing Hwang
Thermodynamic calculation has been applied to predict the inclusion formation in molten SS400 steel. When the Cerium addition in liquid iron is 70 ppm and the initial Oxygen and Sulphur are both 110 ppm, the formation of oxides containing Cerium would experience the transformation from Ce2O3 to CeO2 and also the formation of sulfides containing Cerium would experience the transformation from CeS to Ce2S3 and then to Ce3S4. Below 2000 K the most thermodynamic stable matter is CeO2 and the less thermodynamic stable inclusion is CeS...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kai Li, Jiangming Yu, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Ideal coatings for orthopedic implants should be able to induce excellent osseointegration with host bone tissue, which requires good osteogenic responses and limited inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, making them attractive for biomedical application. In this study, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated calcium silicate coatings (CS-10Ce and CS-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique, and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
October 20, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Jing-Hui Zhai, Yi Wu, Xiao-Ying Wang, Yue Cao, Kan Xu, Li Xu, Yi Guo
BACKGROUND It is well known that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) have intense antioxidant activity. The antioxidant property of CeNPs are widely used in different areas of research, but little is known about the oxidative damage of Cu2+ associated with Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIAL AND METHODS In our research, the function of CeNPs was tested for its protection of β-cells from the damage of Cu2+ or H2O2. We detected hydroxyl radicals using terephthalic acid assay, hydrogen peroxide using Amplex Ultra Red assay, and cell viability using MTT reduction...
October 18, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Xue Cai, Sudipta Seal, James F McGinnis
PURPOSE: We have shown that cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), with unique characteristics and catalytic activities, are retained in the retina for more than 1 year after a single intravitreal injection and can be potentially used for the treatment of a variety of eye diseases. The objective of this study is to determine whether the retention of nanoceria in the eye causes inflammation or adverse side effects. METHODS: Wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice at P30 were intravitreally injected with several concentrations of nanoceria...
2016: Molecular Vision
Paolo Pirovano, Erik R Farquhar, Marcel Swart, Aidan Richard McDonald
Two metastable NiIII complexes, [NiIII(OAc)(L)] and [NiIII(ONO2)(L)] (L = N,N'-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamidate, OAc = acetate), were prepared, adding to the previously prepared [NiIII(OCO2H)(L)], with the purpose of probing the properties of terminal late-transition metal oxidants. These high-valent oxidants were prepared by the one-electron oxidation of their NiII precursors ([NiII(OAc)(L)]- and [NiII(ONO2)(L)]-) with tris(4-bromophenyl)ammoniumyl hexachloroantimonate. Fascinatingly, the reaction between any [NiII(X)(L)]- and NaOCl/acetic acid (AcOH) or cerium ammonium nitrate ((NH4)2[CeIV(NO3)6], CAN), yielded [NiIII(OAc)(L)] and [NiIII(ONO2)(L)], respectively...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Zachary S Bailey, Eric Nilson, John Bates, Adewole Oyalowo, Kevin S Hockey, Sujith Sajja, Chevon Thorpe, Heidi Rogers, Bryce Dunn, Aaron S Frey, Marc J Billings, Christopher A Sholar, Amy Hermundstad, Challa Kumar, Pamela J VandeVord, Beverly A Rzigalinski
Mild traumatic brain injury results in aberrant free radical generation, which is associated with oxidative stress, secondary injury signaling cascades, mitochondrial dysfunction, and poor functional outcome. Pharmacological targeting of free radicals with antioxidants has been examined as an approach for treatment, but has met with limited success. Conventional antioxidants currently available scavenge a single free radical, before they are destroyed in the process. Here, we report for the first time, that a novel regenerative cerium oxide nanoparticle antioxidant reduces neuronal death and calcium dysregulation after in vitro trauma...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Xiang-Yuan Deng, Jie Cheng, Xiao-Li Hu, Ling Wang, Da Li, Kun Gao
It is very important to have a good understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on marine diatoms. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) and cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2) were compared and evaluated using 96h growth tests in a batch-culture system. At 96h of exposure, the growth inhibition rate (IR, %) of P. tricornutum increased from 5.46 to 27.31% with increasing nano-TiO2 concentrations from 2...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Junfeng Jim Zhang, Ki-Bum Lee, Linchen He, Joanna Seiffert, Prasad Subramaniam, Letao Yang, Shu Chen, Pierce Maguire, Gediminas Mainelis, Stephan Schwander, Teresa Tetley, Alexandra Porter, Mary Ryan, Milo Shaffer, Sheng Hu, Jicheng Gong, Kian Fan Chung
Nanoceria (i.e., CeO2 nanoparticles) fuel additives have been used in Europe and elsewhere to improve fuel efficiency. Previously we have shown that the use of a commercial fuel additive Envirox™ in a diesel-powered electricity generator reduced emissions of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) mass and other pollutants. However, such additives are currently not permitted for use in on-road vehicles in North America, largely due to limited data on the potential health impact. In this study, we characterized a variety of physicochemical properties of DEPs emitted from the same engine...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
D J Scanderbeg, B J Taylor, R E Baumbach, J Paglione, M B Maple
Electrical and thermal transport measurements were performed on thin films of the electron-doped superconductor Sm2-x Ce x CuO4-y (x  =  0.13  -  0.19) in order to study the evolving nature of the charge carriers from the under-doped to over-doped regime. A temperature versus cerium content (T  -  x) phase diagram has been constructed from the electrical transport measurements, yielding a superconducting region similar to that found for other electron-doped superconductors. Thermopower measurements show a dramatic change from the underdoped region (x  <  0...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Asma Beltifa, Mohamed Ali Borgi, Anouar Ferieni, Abdelfettah Elfekih, Hedi Ben Mansour, Mohamed Sallah Allagui
In the present study, adult, healthy male Wistar rats (120 ± 10 g) were pre-treated by intragastric administration of cerium chloride (CeCl3) 10 mg/kg (BW) each day during 60 days. Control animal were treated with omega 3, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3), by an intragastric administration at 10 mg/kg of BW for 60 days. Our results showed that CeCl3-induced alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. In fact, CeCl3-induced the increase the level of both the creatinine concentration and the expression of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminase activities in serum...
October 2, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhaohan Zhang, Peng Gao, Ye Qiu, Guohong Liu, Yujie Feng, Mark Wiesner
This paper aimed to investigate the influences of operational parameters and aqueous chemical conditions on transport behaviors of cerium oxides nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) in saturated silica media. Results indicated that increasing rates of attachment efficiency (α) were related with cationic types, and critical deposition concentration (CDC) for divalent cation (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) were more than 31-fold of that for monovalent cation (Na(+) and K(+)). Increase or reduction of electrolyte pH could both promote the mobility of CeO2-NPs in glass beads, while influence was more evident at alkaline conditions...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Valérie Forest, Lara Leclerc, Jean-François Hochepied, Adeline Trouvé, Gwendoline Sarry, Jérémie Pourchez
Cerium oxides (CeO2) nanoparticles, also referred to as nanoceria, are extensively used with a wide range of applications. However, their impact on human health and on the environment is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the CeO2 nanoparticles morphology on their in vitro toxicity. CeO2 nanoparticles of similar chemical composition and crystallinity were synthesized, only the shape varied (rods or octahedrons/cubes). Macrophages from the RAW264.7 cell line were exposed to these different samples and the toxicity was evaluated in terms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
September 28, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Sonja M H J Scholten-Jaegers, Marianne K Nieuwenhuis, Magriet E van Baar, Anuschka S Niemeijer, Jakob Hiddingh, Gerard I J M Beerthuizen
In this study, the outcome of treatment with Flammacerium in burn patients is studied. The retrospective study involved patients with acute burns admitted to the Burn Centre of Martini Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands, between 2009 and 2014. The outcome parameters were mortality, complications (noninfectious and infectious), need of surgery, and length of stay. The group of patients consisted of 853 patients, of which 554 were male (64.9%). There were 23 patients with a total burn size of 40% TBSA or more (2...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
E Tassi, L Giorgetti, E Morelli, J R Peralta-Videa, J L Gardea-Torresdey, M Barbafieri
Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO2 at 0-800 mg kg(-1)...
September 18, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lorenzo Rossi, Weilan Zhang, Leonardo Lombardini, Xingmao Ma
Dwindling high quality water resources and growing population are forcing growers to irrigate crops with water of high salinity. It is well recognized that salinity negatively affects plant physiology and biochemistry, and represents one of the most serious threats to crop production and food security. Meanwhile, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in irrigation water and agricultural soils due to the rapid advancement of nanotechnology. Previous research has demonstrated that ENPs such as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) exert significant impact on plant growth and production...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Pollution
R Tostevin, R A Wood, G A Shields, S W Poulton, R Guilbaud, F Bowyer, A M Penny, T He, A Curtis, K H Hoffmann, M O Clarkson
The oceans at the start of the Neoproterozoic Era (1,000-541 million years ago, Ma) were dominantly anoxic, but may have become progressively oxygenated, coincident with the rise of animal life. However, the control that oxygen exerted on the development of early animal ecosystems remains unclear, as previous research has focussed on the identification of fully anoxic or oxic conditions, rather than intermediate redox levels. Here we report anomalous cerium enrichments preserved in carbonate rocks across bathymetric basin transects from nine localities of the Nama Group, Namibia (∼550-541 Ma)...
September 23, 2016: Nature Communications
Yushi Chu, Jing Ren, Jianzhong Zhang, Gangding Peng, Jun Yang, Pengfei Wang, Libo Yuan
Erbium doped bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glasses, possessing the broadest 1.55 μm near infrared (NIR) emission band among oxide glasses, stand out as excellent fiber material for optical fiber amplifiers. In this work, we demonstrate that both broadened and enhanced NIR emission of Er(3+) can be obtained by sensibly combining the effects such as mixed glass former effect, phonon-assisted energy transfer (PAET) and de-excitation effect induced by codopant. Specially, by codoping CeO2 in a controlled manner, it leads to not only much improved optical quality of the glasses, enhanced NIR emission, but also significantly suppressed energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) luminescence which is detrimental to the NIR emission...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yuhui Ma, Jingkun Wang, Can Peng, Yayun Ding, Xiao He, Peng Zhang, Na Li, Tu Lan, Dongqi Wang, Zhaohui Zhang, Fuhong Sun, Haiqing Liao, Zhiyong Zhang
Cerium (Ce) and thorium (Th) are always thought to be chemically similar and have comparable toxic properties on living organisms. In the present study, the acute and chronic toxicity of these two elements to freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna were investigated in the modified reconstituted water (6mg/L KCl, 123mg/L MgSO4·7H2O, and 294mg/L CaCl2·2H2O in Milli-Q water, pH 7.8). It seemed that Ce and Th had comparable acute toxicity on Daphnia: 24/48h EC50 for Th and Ce were 7.3/4.7μM and 16.4/10.7μM, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tiziano Rimoldi, Davide Orsi, Paola Lagonegro, Benedetta Ghezzi, Carlo Galli, Francesca Rossi, Giancarlo Salviati, Luigi Cristofolini
We report on the synthesis and characterization of a composite nanostructure based on the coupling of cerium fluoride (CeF3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) for applications in self-lighted photodynamic therapy. Self-lighted photodynamic therapy is a novel approach for the treatment of deep cancers by low doses of X-rays. CeF3 is an efficient scintillator: when illuminated by X-rays it emits UV light by fluorescence at 325 nm. In this work, we simulate this effect by exciting directly CeF3 fluorescence by UV radiation...
October 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Maria Chiara Spadaro, Paola Luches, Giovanni Bertoni, Vincenzo Grillo, Stuart Turner, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Sergio Valeri, Sergio D'Addato
Ceria nanoparticles (NPs) are fundamental in heterogeneous catalysis because of their ability to store or release oxygen depending on the ambient conditions. Their oxygen storage capacity is strictly related to the exposed planes, crystallinity, density and distribution of defects. In this work a study of ceria NPs produced with a ligand-free, physical synthesis method is presented. The NP films were grown by a magnetron sputtering based gas aggregation source and studied by high resolution- and scanning-transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
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