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Layer V

Ravinesh C Deo, Nathan Downs, Alfio V Parisi, Jan F Adamowski, John M Quilty
Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θs) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Research
V Karthik Nagareddy, Matthew D Barnes, Federico Zipoli, Khue T Lai, Arseny M Alexeev, Monica Felicia Craciun, C David Wright
Graphene oxide (GO) resistive memories offer the promise of low-cost environmentally-sustainable fabrication, high mechanical flexibility and high optical transparency, making them ideally suited to future flexible and transparent electronics applications. However, the dimensional and temporal scalability of GO memories, i.e. how small they can be made and how fast they can be switched, is an area that has received scant attention. Moreover, a plethora of GO resistive switching characteristics and mechanisms has been reported in the literature, sometimes leading to a confusing and conflicting picture...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
Chengcheng Li, Ang Li, Zhibin Luo, Jijie Zhang, Xiaoxia Chang, Zhiqi Huang, Tuo Wang, Jinlong Gong
Nanotubular Fe2 O3 is a promising photoanode material, and producing morphologies that withstand high-temperature calcination (HTC) is urgently needed to enhance the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. This work describes the design and fabrication of Fe2 O3 nanotube arrays that survive HTC for the first time. By introducing a ZrO2 shell on hydrothermal FeOOH nanorods by atomic layer deposition, subsequent high-temperature solid-state reaction converts FeOOH-ZrO2 nanorods to ZrO2 -induced Fe2 O3 nanotubes (Zr-Fe2 O3 NTs)...
February 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Shan Gao, Zhongti Sun, Wei Liu, Xingchen Jiao, Xiaolong Zu, Qitao Hu, Yongfu Sun, Tao Yao, Wenhua Zhang, Shiqiang Wei, Yi Xie
The role of oxygen vacancies in carbon dioxide electroreduction remains somewhat unclear. Here we construct a model of oxygen vacancies confined in atomic layer, taking the synthetic oxygen-deficient cobalt oxide single-unit-cell layers as an example. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate the main defect is the oxygen(II) vacancy, while X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy reveals their distinct oxygen vacancy concentrations. Proton transfer is theoretically/experimentally demonstrated to be a rate-limiting step, while energy calculations unveil that the presence of oxygen(II) vacancies lower the rate-limiting activation barrier from 0...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Bin Wang, Ming Huang, Na Yeon Kim, Benjamin V Cunning, Yuan Huang, Deshun Qu, Xianjue Chen, Sunghwan Jin, Mandakini Biswal, Xu Zhang, Sun Hwa Lee, Hyunseob Lim, Won Jong Yoo, Zonghoon Lee, Rodney S Ruoff
Folded graphene in which two layers are stacked with a twist angle between them has been predicted to exhibit unique electronic, thermal, and magnetic properties. We report the folding of a single crystal monolayer graphene film grown on a Cu(111) substrate by using a tailored substrate having a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic region. Controlled film delamination from the hydrophilic region was used to prepare macroscopic folded graphene with good uniformity on the millimeter scale. This process was used to create many folded sheets each with a defined twist angle between the two sheets...
February 20, 2017: Nano Letters
Mohammadreza Fathollahi, Mohsen Ameri, Ezeddin Mohajerani, Ebrahim Mehrparvar, Mohammadrasoul Babaei
We investigate dynamic formation of nanosheet charge accumulations by heterointerface engineering in double injection layer (DIL) based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Our experimental results show that the device performance is considerably improved for the DIL device as the result of heterointerface injection layer (HIIL) formation, in comparison to reference devices, namely, the current density is doubled and even quadrupled and the turn-on voltage is favorably halved, to 3.7 V, which is promising for simple small-molecule OLEDs...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hiroshi Kawarada, Tetsuya Yamada, Dechen Xu, Hidetoshi Tsuboi, Yuya Kitabayashi, Daisuke Matsumura, Masanobu Shibata, Takuya Kudo, Masafumi Inaba, Atsushi Hiraiwa
Complementary power field effect transistors (FETs) based on wide bandgap materials not only provide high-voltage switching capability with the reduction of on-resistance and switching losses, but also enable a smart inverter system by the dramatic simplification of external circuits. However, p-channel power FETs with equivalent performance to those of n-channel FETs are not obtained in any wide bandgap material other than diamond. Here we show that a breakdown voltage of more than 1600 V has been obtained in a diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FET with a p-channel based on a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicole L Ritzert, Thomas P Moffat
The interaction between electrodeposition of Ni and electrolyte breakdown, namely the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) via H3O(+) and H2O reduction, was investigated under well-defined mass transport conditions using ultramicroelectrodes (UME's) coupled with optical imaging, generation/collection scanning electrochemical microscopy (G/C-SECM), and preliminary microscale pH measurements. For 5 mmol/L NiCl2 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl, pH 3.0, electrolytes, the voltammetric current at modest overpotentials, i.e., between -0...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Sebastian H Bitzenhofer, Joachim Ahlbeck, Amy Wolff, J Simon Wiegert, Christine E Gee, Thomas G Oertner, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Coordinated activity patterns in the developing brain may contribute to the wiring of neuronal circuits underlying future behavioural requirements. However, causal evidence for this hypothesis has been difficult to obtain owing to the absence of tools for selective manipulation of oscillations during early development. We established a protocol that combines optogenetics with electrophysiological recordings from neonatal mice in vivo to elucidate the substrate of early network oscillations in the prefrontal cortex...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Dai Dong, Da Fang, Hairong Li, Caixia Zhu, Xianghua Zhao, Jiewei Li, Lingzhi Jin, Linghai Xie, Lin Chen, Jianfeng Zhao, Hongmei Zhang, Wei Huang
A novel perfluoro-1,4-phenylenyl 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline derivative (TFBIQ) was designed and synthesized via C-H direct arylation. The opto-electrical properties of the obtained TFBIQ were fully characterized by UV-vis and photoluminescence, cyclic voltammetry, film morphology and Alq3-based green organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Device A using 0.5 nm thick TFBIQ as the interfacial modification layer exhibits the best five advantages of device performance including the lowest minimum turn-on voltage (Von) as low as 3...
February 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Deborah A Marshall, Juan Marcos Gonzalez, Karen V MacDonald, F Reed Johnson
We examine key study design challenges of using stated-preference methods to estimate the value of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a specific example of genomic testing. Assessing the value of WGS is complex because WGS provides multiple findings, some of which can be incidental in nature and unrelated to the specific health concerns that motivated the test. In addition, WGS results can include actionable findings (variants considered to be clinically useful and can be acted on), findings for which evidence for best clinical action is not available (variants considered clinically valid but do not meet as high of a standard for clinical usefulness), and findings of unknown significance...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Ilzira A Minigalieva, Boris A Katsnelson, Vladimir G Panov, Larisa I Privalova, Anatoly N Varaksin, Vladimir B Gurvich, Marina P Sutunkova, Vladimir Ya Shur, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Irene E Valamina, Ilya V Zubarev, Oleg H Makeyev, Ekaterina Y Meshtcheryakova, Svetlana V Klinova
Stable suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles (Me-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure copper, zinc or lead under a layer of deionized water were used separately, in three binary combinations and a triple combination in two independent experiments on rats. In one of the experiments the rats were instilled with Me-NPs intratracheally (i.t.) (for performing a broncho-alveolar lavage in 24hrs to estimate the cytological and biochemical indices of the response of the lower airways), while in the other, Me-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology
Ming Chen, Song Li, Guang Feng
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf₂N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yunping Wen, Long Chen, Ying Pang, Zhaowei Guo, Duan Bin, Yong-Gang Wang, Congxiao Wang, Yongyao Xia
This paper reports a facile sol-gel synthesis method to successfully prepare the TiP2O7/expanded graphite (EG) nanocomposite as an advanced anode material for aqueous lithium-ion batteries. The constructed TiP2O7 nanocomposite (50-100 nm) are in-situ encapsulated in the pore and layer structure of expanded graphite with good conductivity and high specific surface area. As a consequence, the resulting TiP2O7/EG electrode exhibits a reversible capacity of 66 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with an appropriate potential of -0...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoqing Jiang, Ze Yu, Yuchen Zhang, Jianbo Lai, Jiajia Li, Gagik G Gurzadyan, Xichuan Yang, Licheng Sun
Herein, we successfully applied a facile in-situ solid-state synthesis of conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a HTM, directly on top of the perovskite layer, in conventional mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) (n-i-p structure). The fabrication of the PEDOT film only involved a very simple in-situ solid-state polymerisation step from a monomer 2,5-dibromo-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (DBEDOT) made from a commercially available and cheap starting material. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) demonstrated that the as-prepared PEDOT film possesses the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Prasanna V Balachandran, Joshua Young, Turab Lookman, James M Rondinelli
Accelerating the search for functional materials is a challenging problem. Here we develop an informatics-guided ab initio approach to accelerate the design and discovery of noncentrosymmetric materials. The workflow integrates group theory, informatics and density-functional theory to uncover design guidelines for predicting noncentrosymmetric compounds, which we apply to layered Ruddlesden-Popper oxides. Group theory identifies how configurations of oxygen octahedral rotation patterns, ordered cation arrangements and their interplay break inversion symmetry, while informatics tools learn from available data to select candidate compositions that fulfil the group-theoretical postulates...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Lu Zhao, Hong-Xia Liu, Xing Wang, Chen-Xi Fei, Xing-Yao Feng, Yong-Te Wang
We investigated the effects of different annealing ambients on the physical and electrical properties of LaAlO3 films grown by atomic layer deposition. Post-grown rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was carried out at 600 °C for 1 min in vacuum, N2, and O2, respectively. It was found that the chemical bonding states at the interfacial layers (ILs) between LaAlO3 films and Si substrate were affected by the different annealing ambients. The formation of IL was enhanced during the RTA process, resulting in the decrease of accumulation capacitance, especially in O2 ambient...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
O V Mykhailenko, Yu I Prylutskyy, I V Кomarov, A V Strungar
The arrangement of Fe and Co atoms between two silicene planes was theoretically investigated. The research has shown that below 500 K Co atoms form stable lattices-"hexagonal" (with the lattice parameters 0.635 nm of AB configuration) and cubic (with the lattice parameter of 0.244 nm), whereas Fe atoms form cubic lattices only (with the lattice parameter of 0.281 nm). The system intercalated with Co atoms is stable enough at high temperatures up to ~625 K, while the Fe-silicene system is stable only at ~770 K...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
P V Dolganov, N S Shuravin, V K Dolganov, Atsuo Fukuda
We report imaging of the director field near edge dislocations in thermotropic antiferroelecric smectic-C_{A}^{*} (SmC_{A}^{*}) liquid crystal. Measurements were made in freestanding films with thickness from two to ten smectic layers. We find two different orientations of the molecular tilt plane with respect to the edge dislocation line. The orientation is determined by the value of the Burgers vector of the dislocation. Elementary edge dislocation and dislocations with a Burgers vector equal to an odd number of layers orient the tilt plane perpendicular on the two sides of the dislocation...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Irina Ginzburg
Impact of the unphysical tangential advective-diffusion constraint of the bounce-back (BB) reflection on the impermeable solid surface is examined for the first four moments of concentration. Despite the number of recent improvements for the Neumann condition in the lattice Boltzmann method-advection-diffusion equation, the BB rule remains the only known local mass-conserving no-flux condition suitable for staircase porous geometry. We examine the closure relation of the BB rule in straight channel and cylindrical capillary analytically, and show that it excites the Knudsen-type boundary layers in the nonequilibrium solution for full-weight equilibrium stencil...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
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