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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734247/seasonal-variation-in-water-uptake-patterns-of-three-plant-species-based-on-stable-isotopes-in-the-semi-arid-loess-plateau
#1
Jian Wang, Bojie Fu, Nan Lu, Li Zhang
Water is a limiting factor and significant driving force for ecosystem processes in arid and semi-arid areas. Knowledge of plant water uptake pattern is indispensable for understanding soil-plant interactions and species coexistence. The 'Grain for Green' project that started in 1999 in the Loess Plateau of China has led to large scale vegetation change. However, little is known about the water uptake patterns of the main plant species that inhabit in this region. In this study, the seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of three representative plant species, Stipa bungeana, Artemisia gmelinii and Vitex negundo, that are widely distributed in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau, were identified by using dual stable isotopes of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in plant and soil water coupled with a Bayesian mixing model MixSIAR...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732063/dopamine-acting-at-d1-like-d2-like-and-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-differentially-modulates-theta-and-gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-primary-motor-cortex
#2
Mazhar Özkan, Nicholas W Johnson, Umit S Sehirli, Gavin L Woodhall, Ian M Stanford
The loss of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's is accompanied by the emergence of exaggerated theta and beta frequency neuronal oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and basal ganglia. DA replacement therapy or deep brain stimulation reduces the power of these oscillations and this is coincident with an improvement in motor performance implying a causal relationship. Here we provide in vitro evidence for the differential modulation of theta and gamma activity in M1 by DA acting at receptors exhibiting conventional and non-conventional DA pharmacology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731338/tunable-magnetism-and-extraordinary-sunlight-absorbance-in-indium-triphosphide-monolayer
#3
Naihua Miao, Bin Xu, Nicholas C Bristowe, Jian Zhou, Zhimei Sun
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials have received considerable research interest due to their extraordinary properties and promising applications. Here we predict the mono-layered indium triphosphide (InP3) as a new semiconducting 2D material with a range of favourable functional properties by means of ab initio calculations. The 2D InP3 crystal shows high stability and promise of experimental synthesis. It possesses an indirect band-gap of 1.14 eV and a high electron mobility of 1919 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), which can be strongly manipulated with applied strain...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731319/few-layered-mo-1-x-wxs2-hollow-nanospheres-on-ni3s2-nanorods-heterostructure-as-robust-electrocatalysts-for-overall-water-splitting
#4
Meiyong Zheng, Jing Du, Baopu Hou, Cai-Ling Xu
Owing to the unique optical, electronic and catalytic properties, MoS2 have received increasing interests in electrochemical water splitting. Herein, few-layered Mo(1-x)WxS2 hollow nanospheres modified Ni3S2 heterostructures are prepared through a facile hydrothermal method to further enhance the electro-catalytic performance of MoS2. The doping of W element optimizes the electronic structure of MoS2@Ni3S2, thus improves the conductivity and charge transfer ability of MoS2@Ni3S2. In addition, benefiting from the few-layered hollow structure of Mo(1-x)WxS2, the strong electronic interactions between Mo(1-x)WxS2 and Ni3S2, and the hierarchical structure of 1D nanorods and 3D Ni foam, massive active sites and fast ion and charge transportion are obtained...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730810/static-and-dynamic-water-motion-induced-instability-in-oxide-thin-film-transistors-and-its-suppression-by-using-low-k-fluoropolymer-passivation
#5
Seungbeom Choi, Jeong-Wan Jo, Jaeyoung Kim, Seungho Song, Jaekyun Kim, Sung Kyu Park, Yong-Hoon Kim
Here, we report static and dynamic water motion-induced instability in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and its effective suppression with the use of a simple, solution-processed low-k (ε ~ 1.9) fluoroplastic resin (FPR) passivation layer. The liquid-contact electrification effect, in which an undesirable drain current modulation is induced by a dynamic motion of charged liquid such as water, can cause a significant instability in IGZO TFTs. It was found that by adopting a thin (~44 nm) FPR passivation layer for IGZO TFTs, the current modulation induced by the water-contact electrification was greatly reduced in both off- and on-states of the device...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729693/ta2o5-tio2-composite-charge-trapping-dielectric-for-the-application-of-the-nonvolatile-memory
#6
C Y Wei, B Shen, P Ding, P Han, A D Li, Y D Xia, B Xu, J Yin, Z G Liu
The charge-trapping memory devices with a structure Pt/Al2O3/(Ta2O5) x (TiO2) 1-x /Al2O3/p-Si (x = 0.9, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25) were fabricated by using rf-sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques. A special band alignment between (Ta2O5) x (TiO2) 1-x and Si substrate was designed to enhance the memory performance by controlling the composition and dielectric constant of the charge-trapping layer and reducing the difference of the potentials at the bottom of the conduction band between (Ta2O5) x (TiO2) 1-x and Si substrate...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728428/consequence-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-blockade-on-the-hyperphagic-effect-induced-by-cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors-in-layers
#7
M Khodadadi, M Zendehdel, A Baghbanzadeh, V Babapour
1. Endocannabinoids (ECBs) and their receptors play a regulatory function on several physiological processes such as feed intake behaviour, mainly in the brain. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors on CB1/CB2 ECB receptor induced hyperphagia in 3-h feed-deprived (FD3) neonatal layer chickens. 2. A total of 8 experiments were designed to explore the interplay of these two modulatory systems on feed intake in neonatal chickens. In Experiment 1, chickens were intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with control solution, L-DOPA (levo-dihydroxyphenylalanine as precursor of dopamine; 125 nmol), 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol as CB1 receptor agonist; 2 µg) and co-adminstration of L-DOPA (125 nmol) plus 2-AG (2 µg)...
July 21, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727438/a-wettability-metric-for-characterization-of-capillary-flow-on-textured-superhydrophilic-surfaces
#8
Taylor P Allred, Justin A Weibel, Suresh V Garimella
Surface wettability is typically characterized by measuring the static contact angle of a sessile droplet placed on the surface. For extremely wetting surfaces on which liquid spontaneously spreads into a thin liquid film, the near-zero static contact angle is not amenable to measurement and does not fully describe the wetting behavior. There are unmet needs in microfluidics, boiling heat transfer enhancement, and anti-fogging applications for a metric to characterize highly wetting (i.e., superhydrophilic) textured surfaces based on their capillary-driven liquid pumping performance, as a supplement to the contact angle for this highly wetting regime...
July 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726966/ab-initio-performance-predictions-of-single-layer-in-v-tunnel-field-effect-transistors
#9
Juan Lu, Zhi-Qiang Fan, Jian Gong, Xiang-Wei Jiang
The device performances of both n-type and p-type tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) made of single-layer InX (X = N, P, As, Sb) are theoretically evaluated through density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio simulations in this paper. It is found that a promising steep subthreshold swing (SS) of [less-than-or-eq] 60 mV dec(-1) can be obtained with gate length LG = 15.2 nm for all two-dimensional (2D) InX TFETs. In particular, an outstanding on-current of ∼1058 μA μm(-1) (or 880 μA μm(-1)) is estimated in a 2D p-type (or n-type) InSb device, which could barely satisfy the ITRS requirements for future high-performance (HP) applications...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726693/nitrogen-removal-in-a-shallow-maturation-pond-with-sludge-accumulated-during-10-years-of-operation-in-brazil
#10
V A J Rodrigues, E F A Mac Conell, D F C Dias, M von Sperling, J C de Araújo, J L Vasel
Accumulated sludge in polishing (maturation) ponds reduces the hydraulic retention time (smaller useful volume), and this could potentially lead to a decrease in performance. However, settled biomass, present in the sediments, can contribute to nitrogen removal by different mechanisms such as nitrification and denitrification. This study investigated the influence of the bottom sludge present in a shallow maturation pond treating the effluent from an anaerobic reactor on the nitrification and denitrification processes...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726665/-about-the-role-of-digestive-tract-decompression-in-patients-with-acute-bowel-obstruction-mistakes-complications-and-their-prevention
#11
V Benedykt
The purpose of the work is improvement in treatment of patients with acute small bowel obstruction by justification for gastrointestinal decompression and different methods of small intestine intubation for effective evacuation of itscontents. We conducted morphological and morphometric study of the small intestine in 53 white rats. It was established that acute small bowel obstruction causes expansion of all parts of small bowel microvasculature with significant lesions of venous structures. We revealed thinning of intestinal muscular layer 2...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725141/high-performance-thin-layer-chromatography-based-concurrent-estimation-of-biomarkers-ent-phyllanthidine-and-rutin-in-the-dried-aerial-parts-of-flueggea-virosa
#12
Nasir A Siddiqui, Ramzi A Mothana, Adnan J Al-Rehaily, Perwez Alam, Muhammad Yousaf, Sarfaraz Ahmed, Abdulrahman Alatar
The biomarkers are needed to be defined for standardization purposes so that safe and effective herbal formulations can be catered to the society. There is an urgent need for statistical support of herbal drugs because most of the herbal products are still used in the non-standardized form. This study is based on the development of a simple and sensitive RP-HPTLC method for concurrent estimation of two biomarkers ent-phyllanthidine and rutin in the methanol extract of aerial parts of Flueggea virosa. The developed method was found to be simple, economic and sensitive...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725000/trivalent-y-3-ionic-sensor-development-based-on-e-methyl-n-nitrobenzylidene-benzenesulfonohydrazide-mnbbsh-derivatives-modified-with-nafion-matrix
#13
Mohammad Musarraf Hussain, Mohammed M Rahman, Muhammad Nadeem Arshad, Abdullah M Asiri
(E)-Methyl-N'-nitrobenzylidene-benzenesulfonohydrazide (MNBBSH) compounds were synthesized using a condensation procedure from the derivatives of nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-Methyl-benzenesulfonylhydrazine, which crystallized in ethanol and methanol as well as characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR. MNBBSH structure was confirmed using a single crystal X-ray diffraction technique and used for the detection of selective yttrium ion (Y(3+)) by I-V system. A thin layer of MNBBSH was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with 5% nafion for the sensitive and selective Y(3+) sensor...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724954/loss-of-x-linked-protocadherin-19-differentially-affects-the-behavior-of-heterozygous-female-and-hemizygous-male-mice
#14
Shuichi Hayashi, Yoko Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Mari Kaneko, Go Shioi, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Masatoshi Takeichi
Mutations in the X-linked gene Protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) cause female-limited epilepsy and mental retardation in humans. Although Pcdh19 is known to be a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule, how its mutations bring about female-specific disorders remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Pcdh19 knockout in mice on their development and behavior. Pcdh19 was expressed in various brain regions including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although Pcdh19-positive cells were evenly distributed in layer V of wild-type cortices, their distribution became a mosaic in Pcdh19 heterozygous female cortices...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723120/graphene-oxide-nanoprisms-for-sensitive-detection-of-environmentally-important-aromatic-compounds-with-sers
#15
Peter V Shanta, Quan Cheng
Recent advances in graphene-based sensors have shown that heavily oxidized (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive materials for environmental sensing due to their unique chemical and physical properties. We describe here the fabrication of nanostructured GO assemblies with Ag nanoprisms for improved detection with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Specifically, 100-μm-sized, periodic-nanoprism-array domains were fabricated on top of the GO layers by GO-assisted lithography (GOAL). The atomically thin GO underlayers are shown to attract cyclic aromatic molecules to the surface, likely via π-π stacking interactions...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722402/layered-noble-metal-dichalcogenides-tailoring-electrochemical-and-catalytic-properties
#16
Xinyi Chia, Zdeněk Sofer, Jan Luxa, Martin Pumera
Owing to the anisotropic nature, layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have captured tremendous attention for their promising uses in a plethora of applications. Currently, bulk of the research is centered on Group 6 TMDs. Layered noble metal dichalcogenides, in particular the noble metal tellurides, belong to a subset of Group 10 TMDs, wherein the transition metal is a noble metal of either palladium or platinum. We address here a lack of contemporary knowledge on these compounds by providing a comprehensive study on the electrochemistry of layered noble metal tellurides, PdTe2 and PtTe2, and their efficiency as electrocatalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719199/giant-pbse-cdse-cdse-quantum-dots-crystal-structure-limited-ultrastable-near-infrared-photoluminescence-from-single-nanocrystals
#17
Christina J Hanson, Nicolai F Hartmann, Ajay Singh, Xuedan Ma, William J I DeBenedetti, Joanna L Casson, John K Grey, Yves J Chabal, Anton V Malko, Milan Sykora, Andrei Piryatinski, Han Htoon, Jennifer A Hollingsworth
Toward a truly photostable PbSe quantum dot (QD) we apply the thick-shell or "giant" QD structural motif to this notoriously environmentally sensitive nanocrystal system. Namely, using a sequential application of two shell-growth techniques-partial-cation exchange and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR)-we are able to overcoat the PbSe QDs with sufficiently thick CdSe shells to impart new single-QD-level photostability as evidenced by suppression of both photobleaching and blinking behavior...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718775/high-performance-top-gated-multilayer-wse2-field-effect-transistors
#18
Pushpa Raj Pudasaini, Michael G Stanford, Akinola Oyedele, Anthony Wong, Anna Hofmann, Dayrl Briggs, Kai Xiao, David G Mandrus, Thomas Z Ward, Philip D Rack
In this paper, high performance top-gated WSe2 field effect transistor (FET) devices are demonstrated via a two-step remote plasma assisted ALD process. High-quality, low-leakage aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric layers are deposited onto the WSe2 channel using a remote plasma assisted ALD process with an ultrathin (~1 nm) titanium buffer layer. The first few nanometers (~2 nm) of the Al2O3 dielectric film is deposited at relatively low temperature (i.e. 50 ºC) and remainder of the film is deposited at 150 ºC to ensure the conformal coating of Al2O3 on the WSe2 surface...
July 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718628/synthesis-and-electrochemical-reaction-of-tin-oxalate-reduced-graphene-oxide-composite-anode-for-rechargeable-lithium-batteries
#19
Jae-Sang Park, Jae Hyeon Jo, Hitoshi Yashiro, Sung-Soo Kim, Sun-Jae Kim, Yang-Kook Sun, Seung-Taek Myung
Unlike SnO2, few studies have reported on the use of SnC2O4 as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Here, we first introduce a SnC2O4-reduced graphene oxide composite produced via hydrothermal reactions followed by a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. The addition of rGO increased the electric conductivity up to ~10-3 S cm-1. As a result, the SnC2O4-reduced graphene oxide electrode exhibited a high charge (oxidation) capacity of ~1166 mAh g-1 at a current of 100 mA g-1 (0.1 C-rate) with a good retention delivering approximately 620 mAh g-1 at the 200th cycle...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718618/graphene-oxide-by-uv-ozone-treatment-as-efficient-hole-extraction-layer-for-highly-efficient-and-stable-polymer-solar-cells
#20
Yingdong Xia, Yufeng Pan, Haijuan Zhang, Jian Qiu, Yiting Zheng, YongHua Chen, Wei Huang
Hole extraction layer has significant impact on achieving high-efficiency polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we report an efficient approach to by direct UV-Ozone treatment larger device performance enhancement employing grapheme oxide (GO). The dramatically performance enhancement of PSCs with P3HT:PCBM blend as an active layer was demonstrated by UV-Ozone treated GO for 30 min: best PCE of 4.18%, FF of 0.63, Jsc of 10.94 mA cm-2, and Voc of 0.61 V, which is significantly higher than the untreated GO (1.82%) and highly comparable PEDOT:PSS-based PSCs (3...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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