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Rodent motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928676/effects-of-immune-activation-during-early-or-late-gestation-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-measures-in-adult-rat-offspring
#1
Tasnim Rahman, Katerina Zavitsanou, Tertia Purves-Tyson, Lauren R Harms, Crystal Meehan, Ulrich Schall, Juanita Todd, Deborah M Hodgson, Patricia T Michie, Cyndi Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic receptor [N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)] alterations within cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are linked to schizophrenia pathology. Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring. In rodents, gestational timing of MIA may result in distinct behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how timing of MIA may impact the nature and extent of NMDAR-related changes in brain is not known. We hypothesize that NMDAR-related molecular changes in rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus are induced by MIA and are dependent on the timing of gestational inflammation and sex of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#2
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911867/population-dynamics-of-neural-progenitor-cells-during-aging-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#3
Yuka Okada, Koji Ohira
Recent studies indicate that adult neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of rodents. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have been found in the adult cerebral cortex. These cells are expected to be regulated by various stimuli, including environmental enrichment, exercise, learning, and stress. However, it is unclear what stimuli can regulate cortical NPCs. In this study, we examined whether aging has an impact on population dynamics of NPCs in the murine cerebral cortex, using immunohistological staining for NPCs...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886046/effects-of-water-avoidance-stress-on-peripheral-and-central-responses-during-bladder-filling-in-the-rat-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-study-of-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-mapp-research-network-study
#4
Zhuo Wang, Harriet H Chang, Yunliang Gao, Rong Zhang, Yumei Guo, Daniel P Holschneider, Larissa V Rodriguez
Stress plays a role in the exacerbation and possibly the development of functional lower urinary tract disorders. Chronic water avoidance stress (WAS) in rodents is a model with high construct and face validity to bladder hypersensitive syndromes, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), characterized by urinary frequency and bladder hyperalgesia and heightened stress responsiveness. Given the overlap of the brain circuits involved in stress, anxiety, and micturition, we evaluated the effects chronic stress has on bladder function, as well as its effects on regional brain activation during bladder filling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885141/automated-long-term-recording-and-analysis-of-neural-activity-in-behaving-animals
#5
Ashesh K Dhawale, Rajesh Poddar, Steffen Be Wolff, Valentin A Normand, Evi Kopelowitz, Bence P Ölveczky
Addressing how neural circuits underlie behavior is routinely done by measuring electrical activity from single neurons in experimental sessions. While such recordings yield snapshots of neural dynamics during specified tasks, they are ill-suited for tracking single-unit activity over longer timescales relevant for most developmental and learning processes, or for capturing neural dynamics across different behavioral states. Here we describe an automated platform for continuous long-term recordings of neural activity and behavior in freely moving rodents...
September 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880414/levodopa-treatment-and-dendritic-spine-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Yukihisa Funamizu, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa is the most effective treatment for the motor symptoms of PD. However, chronic oral levodopa treatment can lead to various motor and nonmotor complications because of nonphysiological pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. Examinations of autopsy cases with PD have revealed a decreased number of dendritic spines of striatal neurons. Animal models of PD have revealed altered density and morphology of dendritic spines of neurons in various brain regions after dopaminergic denervation or dopaminergic denervation plus levodopa treatment, indicating altered synaptic transmission...
September 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852380/spinal-cord-injury-drives-chronic-brain-changes
#7
REVIEW
Ignacio Jure, Florencia Labombarda
Only a few studies have considered changes in brain structures other than sensory and motor cortex after spinal cord injury, although cognitive impairments have been reported in these patients. Spinal cord injury results in chronic brain neuroinflammation with consequent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in rodents. Regarding the hippocampus, neurogenesis is reduced and reactive gliosis increased. These long-term abnormalities could explain behavioral impairments exhibited in humans patients suffering from spinal cord trauma...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842194/development-of-a-head-mounted-wireless-microstimulator-for-deep-brain-stimulation-in-rats
#8
Felix Fluri, Thomas Mützel, Michael K Schuhmann, Miloš Krstić, Heinz Endres, Jens Volkmann
BACKGROUND: Commercial neurostimulators for clinical use are effective in patients; however they are too large and prohibitively expensive for preclinical studies. Thus, there is an urgent need of a small inexpensive and wireless microstimulator which is fully programmable in frequency, pulse width and amplitude for rodent experiments. NEW METHODS: Rats were subjected to a photothrombotic stroke of the right sensorimotor cortex and a microelectrode was implanted in the right mesencephalic locomotor region...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826501/electrical-activity-controls-area-specific-expression-of-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-mouse-developing-cerebral-cortex
#9
Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Werner Kilb, Salim Sharopov, Anne Sinning, Heiko J Luhmann
Programmed cell death widely but heterogeneously affects the developing brain, causing the loss of up to 50% of neurons in rodents. However, whether this heterogeneity originates from neuronal identity and/or network-dependent processes is unknown. Here, we report that the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1), two adjacent but functionally distinct areas, display striking differences in density of apoptotic neurons during the early postnatal period. These differences in rate of apoptosis negatively correlate with region-dependent levels of activity...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822057/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-in-adult-rats-restores-mk-801-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-gabaergic-interneuron-immunoreactivity-loss
#10
Ane Murueta-Goyena, Naiara Ortuzar, Pascual Gargiulo, José Vicente Lafuente, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Perinatal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in rodents emulate some cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations, such as decreased GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) interneuron immunoreactivity, also found in schizophrenia. These features are pervasive, and developing neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies is of special interest. In this work, we aimed to investigate if a short exposure to enriched environment (EE) in early adulthood (P55-P73) was an effective strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction and to restore interneuron expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765070/prefrontal-connections-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-in-the-rat
#11
Eunkyu Hwang, Bailey S Willis, Rebecca D Burwell
Knowing how prefrontal regions interact with medial temporal lobe structures is important for understanding memory and cognition. Using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods in the rat, we report a detailed study of the perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) connections with the lateral, ventrolateral, and medial orbitofrontal cortices (ORBl, ORBvl, ORBm), infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (IL, PL), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACAv, ACAd), and secondary motor cortex (MOs). Our analyses included the topography and laminar patterns of these connections...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757050/electroencephalographic-cognitive-and-neurochemical-effects-of-ly3130481-cerc-611-a-selective-antagonist-of-tarp-%C3%AE-8-associated-ampa-receptors
#12
Jeffrey M Witkin, Jennifer Li, Gary Gilmour, Stephen N Mitchell, Guy Carter, Scott D Gleason, Wesley F Seidel, Brian J Eastwood, Andrew McCarthy, Warren J Porter, Jon Reel, Kevin M Gardinier, Akihiko S Kato, Keith A Wafford
6-[(1S)-1-[1-[5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-pyridyl]pyrazol-3-yl]ethyl]-3H-1,3-benzothiazol-2-one (LY3130481 or CERC-611) is a selective antagonist of AMPA receptors containing transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) γ-8. This molecule has been characterized as a potent and efficacious anticonvulsant in an array of acute and chronic epilepsy models in rodents. The present set of experiments was designed to assess the effects of LY3130481 on the electroencephelogram (EEG), cognitive function, and neurochemical outflow...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743454/convergence-of-primary-sensory-cortex-and-cerebellar-nuclei-pathways-in-the-whisker-system
#13
REVIEW
Carmen B Schäfer, Freek E Hoebeek
To safely maneuver through the environment the brain needs to compare active sensory information with ongoing motor programs. This process occurs at various levels in the brain: at the lower level, i.e., in the spinal cord, reflexes are generated for the most primitive motor responses; at the intermediate level, i.e., in the brainstem, various nuclei co-process sensory- and motor-related inputs; and, at the higher level cerebellum and thalamo-cortical networks individually compute suitable commands for fine-tuned motor output...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#14
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721358/utah-optrode-array-customization-using-stereotactic-brain-atlases-and-3-d-cad-modeling-for-optogenetic-neocortical-interrogation-in-small-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#15
Ronald W Boutte, Sam Merlin, Guy Yona, Brandon Griffiths, Alessandra Angelucci, Itamar Kahn, Shy Shoham, Steve Blair
As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719951/neuronal-apoptosis-pathological-basis-of-behavioral-dysfunctions-induced-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-rodents-model
#16
Shiqi Luo, Lisi OuYang, Jie Wei, Feng Wu, Zhongdao Wu, Wanlong Lei, Dongjuan Yuan
Angiostrongylus cantonensis invades the central nervous system (CNS) of humans to induce eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis and leads to persistent headache, cognitive dysfunction, and ataxic gait. Infected mice (nonpermissive host), admittedly, suffer more serious pathological injuries than rats (permissive host). However, the pathological basis of these manifestations is incompletely elucidated. In this study, the behavioral test, histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and analysis of apoptotic gene expression, especially caspase-3, were conducted...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687229/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-selective-inhibitor-tak-063-induces-c-fos-expression-in-both-direct-and-indirect-pathway-medium-spiny-neurons-and-sub-regions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#17
Atsushi Nakatani, Sayuri Nakamura, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063, a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor, produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects in rodents via balanced activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Brain activity modulation by TAK-063 has been characterized using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in animals, revealing modulation of activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) where there is little or no PDE10A expression. To understand the specific brain regions and cells affected by TAK-063 in rats, we assessed neural activation in the striatal complex and PFC using immunofluorescence staining to measure c-Fos expression...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685918/a-long-term-bci-study-with-ecog-recordings-in-freely-moving-rats
#18
Thomas Costecalde, Tetiana Aksenova, Napoleon Torres-Martinez, Andriy Eliseyev, Corinne Mestais, Cecile Moro, Alim Louis Benabid
BACKGROUND: Brain Computer Interface (BCI) studies are performed in an increasing number of applications. Questions are raised about electrodes, data processing and effectors. Experiments are needed to solve these issues. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple BCI set-up to easier studies for improving the mathematical tools to process the ECoG to control an effector. METHOD: We designed a simple BCI using transcranial electrodes (17 screws, three mechanically linked to create a common reference, 14 used as recording electrodes) to record Electro-Cortico-Graphic (ECoG) neuronal activities in rodents...
July 6, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#19
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663200/bilateral-discrimination-of-tactile-patterns-without-whisking-in-freely-running-rats
#20
Pauline Kerekes, Aurélie Daret, Daniel E Shulz, Valérie Ego-Stengel
A majority of whisker discrimination tasks in rodents are performed on head-fixed animals to facilitate tracking or control of the sensory inputs. However, head fixation critically restrains the behavior and thus the incoming stimuli compared with those occurring in natural conditions. In this study, we investigated whether freely behaving rats can discriminate fine tactile patterns while running, in particular when stimuli are presented simultaneously on both sides of the snout. We developed a two-alternative forced-choice task in an automated modified T-maze...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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