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Rodent motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412497/optogenetic-stimulation-of-cortex-to-map-evoked-whisker-movements-in-awake-head-restrained-mice
#1
Matthieu Auffret, Veronica L Ravano, Giulia M C Rossi, Nicolas Hankov, Merissa F A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Whisker movements are used by rodents to touch objects in order to extract spatial and textural tactile information about their immediate surroundings. To understand the mechanisms of such active sensorimotor processing it is important to investigate whisker motor control. The activity of neurons in the neocortex affects whisker movements, but many aspects of the organization of cortical whisker motor control remain unknown. Here, we filmed whisker movements evoked by sequential optogenetic stimulation of different locations across the left dorsal sensorimotor cortex of awake head-restrained mice...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400813/adenyl-cyclase-activator-forskolin-protects-against-huntington-s-disease-like-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
Sidharth Mehan, Shaba Parveen, Sanjeev Kalra
Long term suppression of succinate dehydrogenase by selective inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid has been used in rodents to model Huntington's disease where mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages are primary pathological hallmarks for neuronal damage. Improvements in learning and memory abilities, recovery of energy levels, and reduction of excitotoxicity damage can be achieved through activation of Adenyl cyclase enzyme by a specific phytochemical forskolin. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg 3-nitropropionic acid for 15 days in rats notably reduced body weight, worsened motor cocordination (grip strength, beam crossing task, locomotor activity), resulted in learning and memory deficits, greatly increased acetylcholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite, and malondialdehyde levels, obviously decreased adenosine triphosphate, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels in the striatum, cortex and hippocampus...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#3
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375768/learning-in-the-rodent-motor-cortex
#4
Andrew J Peters, Haixin Liu, Takaki Komiyama
The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning...
March 31, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363668/methylphenidate-alleviates-manganese-induced-impulsivity-but-not-distractibility
#5
Stephane A Beaudin, Barbara J Strupp, Walter Uribe, Lauren Ysais, Myla Strawderman, Donald R Smith
Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum...
March 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360842/neuroplastic-changes-following-brain-ischemia-and-their-contribution-to-stroke-recovery-novel-approaches-in-neurorehabilitation
#6
REVIEW
Claudia Alia, Cristina Spalletti, Stefano Lai, Alessandro Panarese, Giuseppe Lamola, Federica Bertolucci, Fabio Vallone, Angelo Di Garbo, Carmelo Chisari, Silvestro Micera, Matteo Caleo
Ischemic damage to the brain triggers substantial reorganization of spared areas and pathways, which is associated with limited, spontaneous restoration of function. A better understanding of this plastic remodeling is crucial to develop more effective strategies for stroke rehabilitation. In this review article, we discuss advances in the comprehension of post-stroke network reorganization in patients and animal models. We first focus on rodent studies that have shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal remodeling in the perilesional area and contralesional hemisphere after motor cortex infarcts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358140/a-pilot-study-on-transient-ischemic-stroke-induced-with-endothelin-1-in-the-rhesus-monkeys
#7
PeiMin Dai, Hui Huang, Lin Zhang, Jing He, XuDong Zhao, FuHan Yang, Ning Zhao, JianZhen Yang, LongJiao Ge, Yu Lin, HuaLin Yu, JianHong Wang
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor, has recently been used to induce focal ischemia in rodents and marmoset monkeys. The rhesus monkey, however, has numerous advantages to the rodent and marmoset that make it a superior and irreplaceable animal model for studying stroke in the brain. In the present study, after mapping the preferred hand representation in two healthy male monkeys with intracortical micro-stimulation, ET-1 was microinjected into the contralateral motor cortex (M1) to its preferred hand. The monkeys had been trained in three manual dexterity tasks before the microinjection and were tested for these tasks following the ET-1 injection...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338593/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-cte-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#8
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. CTE symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition and motor function, however CTE is only currently diagnosed post-mortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 WT rats, 8 rats received 2 injuries ('2xTBI'), 27 rats received 5 injuries ('5xTBI') and 13 rats were sham controls...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334314/a-template-and-probabilistic-atlas-of-the-human-sensorimotor-tracts-using-diffusion-mri
#9
Derek B Archer, David E Vaillancourt, Stephen A Coombes
The purpose of this study was to develop a high-resolution sensorimotor area tract template (SMATT) which segments corticofugal tracts based on 6 cortical regions in primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor cortex, ventral premotor cortex, supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA), and primary somatosensory cortex using diffusion tensor imaging. Individual probabilistic tractography analyses were conducted in 100 subjects using the highest resolution data currently available. Tractography results were refined using a novel algorithm to objectively determine slice level thresholds that best minimized overlap between tracts while preserving tract volume...
March 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326032/a-dynamic-circuit-hypothesis-for-the-pathogenesis-of-blepharospasm
#10
David A Peterson, Terrence J Sejnowski
Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. We could develop principled strategies for preventing and reversing the disease if we knew the pathogenesis of primary BEB. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual framework and dynamic circuit hypothesis for the pathogenesis of BEB...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323088/localization-of-the-corticospinal-tract-within-the-porcine-spinal-cord-implications-for-experimental-modeling-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Anna Victoria Leonard, Joshua York Menendez, Betty Maki Pat, Mark N Hadley, Candace Lorraine Floyd
Spinal cord injury (SCI) researchers have predominately utilized rodents for SCI modeling and experimentation. Unfortunately, a large number of novel therapies developed in rodent models have failed to demonstrate efficacy in human clinical trials which suggests that improved animal models are an important translational tool. Recently, porcine models of SCI have been identified as a valuable intermediary model for preclinical evaluation of promising therapies to aid clinical translation. However, the localization of the major spinal tracts in pigs has not yet been described...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293179/disynaptic-subthalamic-input-to-the-posterior-cerebellum-in-rat
#12
Saad Jwair, Patrice Coulon, Tom J H Ruigrok
In the last decade, the interplay between basal ganglia and cerebellar functions has been increasingly advocated to explain their joint operation in both normal and pathological conditions. Yet, insight into the neuroanatomical basis of this interplay between both subcortical structures remains sparse and is mainly derived from work in primates. Here, in rodents, we have studied the existence of a potential disynaptic connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellar cortex as has been demonstrated earlier for the primate...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279169/effect-of-skilled-reaching-training-and-enriched-environment-on-generation-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-adult-sensorimotor-cortex-and-corpus-callosum
#13
Silke Keiner, Fanny Niv, Susanne Neumann, Tanja Steinbach, Christian Schmeer, Katrin Hornung, Yvonne Schlenker, Martin Förster, Otto W Witte, Christoph Redecker
BACKGROUND: Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether specific reaching training of the dominant forelimb (RT) and stimulation of unspecific motor activity through enriched environment (EE) influence the generation of distinct oligodendrocyte subpopulations in the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum of the adult rat brain...
March 9, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270049/barrels-xxix-barrels-go-hollywood
#14
Mathew H Evans, Joshua C Brumberg
Barrels XXIX brought together researchers focusing on the rodent barrel cortex and associated systems. The meeting revolved around three themes: thalamocortical interactions in motor control, touch in rodent, monkey, and humans, and the nature of the multisensory computations the brain makes. Over two days these topics were covered as well as many more presentations that focused on the physiology, behavior, and development of the rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex system.
March 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269277/implantation-and-testing-of-wfma-stimulators-in-macaque
#15
Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu
Our on-going work to develop an intracortical visual prosthesis has motivated the design, fabrication, and testing of a Wireless Floating Microelectrode Array (WFMA) stimulator. This implantable device can be used for an electrical stimulation interface in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Previously, its use in a sciatic nerve rodent model was described. Here implantation of two WFMAs in motor cortex of two NHP (macaque - two devices/animal) is presented. Preliminary functional tests show the implanted devices to be fully functional with stimulation-induced motor movements obtained...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261086/crossed-cerebellar-atrophy-of-the-lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-in-an-endothelin-1-induced-rodent-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#16
Hugh H Chan, Jessica L Cooperrider, Hyun-Joo Park, Connor A Wathen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Andre G Machado
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is a functional deficit of the cerebellar hemisphere resulting from loss of afferent input consequent to a lesion of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. It is manifested as a reduction of metabolism and blood flow and, depending on severity and duration, it can result in atrophy, a phenomenon known as crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA). While CCA has been well-demonstrated in humans, it remains poorly characterized in animal models of stroke. In this study we evaluated the effects of cerebral cortical ischemia on contralateral cerebellar anatomy using an established rodent model of chronic stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249008/characterization-of-the-resting-state-brain-network-topology-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Robert Westphal, Camilla Simmons, Michel B Mesquita, Tobias C Wood, Steve C R Williams, Anthony C Vernon, Diana Cash
Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is an imaging technology that has recently gained attention for its ability to detect disruptions in functional brain networks in humans, including in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), revealing early and widespread brain network abnormalities. This methodology is now readily applicable to experimental animals offering new possibilities for cross-species translational imaging. In this context, we herein describe the application of rsfMRI to the unilaterally-lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat, a robust experimental model of the dopamine depletion implicated in PD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227512/implantation-and-testing-of-wfma-stimulators-in-macaque
#18
Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu, Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu, Vernon L Towle, David Frim, Kazutaka Takahashi, Zhe Hu, Sam Bredeson, Martin Bak, Ben Roitberg, Sungjae Suh
Our on-going work to develop an intracortical visual prosthesis has motivated the design, fabrication, and testing of a Wireless Floating Microelectrode Array (WFMA) stimulator. This implantable device can be used for an electrical stimulation interface in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Previously, its use in a sciatic nerve rodent model was described. Here implantation of two WFMAs in motor cortex of two NHP (macaque - two devices/animal) is presented. Preliminary functional tests show the implanted devices to be fully functional with stimulation-induced motor movements obtained...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170429/cholesterol-contributes-to-dopamine-neuronal-loss-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-and-oxidative-stress
#19
Rajib Paul, Amarendranath Choudhury, Sanjeev Kumar, Anirudha Giri, Rajat Sandhir, Anupom Borah
Hypercholesterolemia is a known contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease while its role in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is only conjecture and far from conclusive. Altered antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial functions are the key mechanisms in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain in PD. Hypercholesterolemia is reported to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain in rodents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105850/next-generation-tau-models-in-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease-research-virus-based-gene-delivery-systems
#20
V Cubinková, B Valachová, V Brezovaková, R Szabó, I Zimová, Z Kostecká, S Jadhav
Alzheimer's disease (AD) the most common form of dementia is characterized by cognitive decline and progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system. Despite huge scientific progress, there are only few animal models that recapitulate at least majority of the AD pathology and related symptomatology. Therefore, alternative methods to develop animal models for neurodegenerative diseases are constantly explored. Recently, recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are widely used viral vectors in development of novel models for neurodegenerative diseases...
February 6, 2017: Acta Virologica
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