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Rodent motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#1
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128414/mapping-of-the-prenatal-and-postnatal-methamphetamine-effects-on-d1-like-dopamine-m1-and-m2-muscarinic-receptors-in-rat-central-nervous-system
#2
Vladimir Farar, Paulina Valuskova, Maria Sevcikova, Jaromir Myslivecek, Romana Slamberova
Methamphetamine (MA) is worldwide known drug with high potential for addiction that causes dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin release. MA is also able to increase acetylcholine levels in adult rodents. The aim of this study was to map changes in D1-like dopamine receptors (DR), M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors (MR), and the total number of MR (M1-M5 MR) in the CNS of rats exposed to MA prenatally and in adulthood. Rat mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/kg s.c.) or saline during the entire gestation period and their male offspring were administered in adulthood with single MA (1mg/kg) or saline injection...
November 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107829/evaluating-rodent-motor-functions-which-tests-to-choose
#3
REVIEW
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Dearbhaile Dooley, Ali Jahanshahi, Yasin Temel, Sven Hendrix
Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089866/rapid-identification-of-cortical-motor-areas-in-rodents-by-high-frequency-automatic-cortical-stimulation-and-novel-motor-threshold-algorithm
#4
Mitsuaki Takemi, Elisa Castagnola, Alberto Ansaldo, Davide Ricci, Luciano Fadiga, Miki Taoka, Atsushi Iriki, Junichi Ushiba
Cortical stimulation mapping is a valuable tool to test the functional organization of the motor cortex in both basic neurophysiology (e.g., elucidating the process of motor plasticity) and clinical practice (e.g., before resecting brain tumors involving the motor cortex). However, compilation of motor maps based on the motor threshold (MT) requires a large number of cortical stimulations and is therefore time consuming. Shortening the time for mapping may reduce stress on the subjects and unveil short-term plasticity mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029200/lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-stimulation-has-selective-effects-on-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-perilesional-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-in-the-rodent-model
#5
Hugh H Chan, Jessica Cooperrider, Zhihong Chen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Connor A Wathen, Claire R Modic, Hyun-Joo Park, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation of the rodent lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) has been demonstrated to enhance motor recovery following cortical ischemia. This effect is concurrent with synaptogenesis and expression of long-term potentiation markers in the perilesional cerebral cortex. OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the cellular changes associated with chronic LCN stimulation in the ischemic rodent by examining neurogenesis along the cerebellothalamocortical pathway...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021744/posterior-thalamic-nucleus-modulation-of-tactile-stimuli-processing-in-rat-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortices
#6
Diana Casas-Torremocha, Francisco Clascá, Ángel Núñez
Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF) and motor (M1wk) cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020291/reward-sensitivity-and-waiting-impulsivity-shift-towards-reward-valuation-away-from-action-control
#7
Daisy J Mechelmans, Daniela Strelchuk, Nuria Donamayor-Alonso, Paula Banca, Trevor W Robbins, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
Background: Impulsivity and reward expectancy are commonly inter-related. Waiting impulsivity, measured using the rodent 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time (5-CSRT) task, predicts compulsive cocaine seeking and sign (or cue) tracking. Here we assess human waiting impulsivity using a novel translational task, the 4-CSRT, and the relationship with reward cues. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n=29) performed the monetary incentive delay task as a functional MRI study where subjects observe a cue predicting reward (cue) and wait to respond for high (£5), low (£1) or no reward...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966971/local-or-not-local-investigating-the-nature-of-striatal-theta-oscillations-in-behaving-rats
#8
Laetitia Lalla, Pavel E Rueda Orozco, Maria-Teresa Jurado-Parras, Andrea Brovelli, David Robbe
In the cortex and hippocampus, neuronal oscillations of different frequencies can be observed in local field potentials (LFPs). LFPs oscillations in the theta band (6-10 Hz) have also been observed in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of rodents, mostly during locomotion, and have been proposed to mediate behaviorally-relevant interactions between striatum and cortex (or between striatum and hippocampus). However, it is unclear if these theta oscillations are generated in the striatum. To address this issue, we recorded LFPs and spiking activity in the DLS of rats performing a running sequence on a motorized treadmill...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951322/mechanisms-of-motor-learning-mediated-by-synaptic-plasticity-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Kida, Dai Mitsushima
Motor skill training induces long-term potentiation (LTP) and structural plasticity at dendritic spines in the primary motor cortex (M1). However, little is known about the plasticity of individual M1 neurons. Skilled motor coordination in rodents was recently assessed in studies using an accelerated rotor rod task with 1-2days of training. Using this model, we investigated the effects of motor training on both AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synapses and GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synapses in layer II/III neurons in the M1...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928676/effects-of-immune-activation-during-early-or-late-gestation-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-measures-in-adult-rat-offspring
#10
Tasnim Rahman, Katerina Zavitsanou, Tertia Purves-Tyson, Lauren R Harms, Crystal Meehan, Ulrich Schall, Juanita Todd, Deborah M Hodgson, Patricia T Michie, Cyndi Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic receptor [N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)] alterations within cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are linked to schizophrenia pathology. Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring. In rodents, gestational timing of MIA may result in distinct behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how timing of MIA may impact the nature and extent of NMDAR-related changes in brain is not known. We hypothesize that NMDAR-related molecular changes in rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus are induced by MIA and are dependent on the timing of gestational inflammation and sex of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#11
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911867/population-dynamics-of-neural-progenitor-cells-during-aging-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#12
Yuka Okada, Koji Ohira
Recent studies indicate that adult neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of rodents. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have been found in the adult cerebral cortex. These cells are expected to be regulated by various stimuli, including environmental enrichment, exercise, learning, and stress. However, it is unclear what stimuli can regulate cortical NPCs. In this study, we examined whether aging has an impact on population dynamics of NPCs in the murine cerebral cortex, using immunohistological staining for NPCs...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886046/effects-of-water-avoidance-stress-on-peripheral-and-central-responses-during-bladder-filling-in-the-rat-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-study-of-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-mapp-research-network-study
#13
Zhuo Wang, Harriet H Chang, Yunliang Gao, Rong Zhang, Yumei Guo, Daniel P Holschneider, Larissa V Rodriguez
Stress plays a role in the exacerbation and possibly the development of functional lower urinary tract disorders. Chronic water avoidance stress (WAS) in rodents is a model with high construct and face validity to bladder hypersensitive syndromes, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), characterized by urinary frequency and bladder hyperalgesia and heightened stress responsiveness. Given the overlap of the brain circuits involved in stress, anxiety, and micturition, we evaluated the effects chronic stress has on bladder function, as well as its effects on regional brain activation during bladder filling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885141/automated-long-term-recording-and-analysis-of-neural-activity-in-behaving-animals
#14
Ashesh K Dhawale, Rajesh Poddar, Steffen Be Wolff, Valentin A Normand, Evi Kopelowitz, Bence P Ölveczky
Addressing how neural circuits underlie behavior is routinely done by measuring electrical activity from single neurons in experimental sessions. While such recordings yield snapshots of neural dynamics during specified tasks, they are ill-suited for tracking single-unit activity over longer timescales relevant for most developmental and learning processes, or for capturing neural dynamics across different behavioral states. Here we describe an automated platform for continuous long-term recordings of neural activity and behavior in freely moving rodents...
September 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880414/levodopa-treatment-and-dendritic-spine-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Yukihisa Funamizu, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa is the most effective treatment for the motor symptoms of PD. However, chronic oral levodopa treatment can lead to various motor and nonmotor complications because of nonphysiological pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. Examinations of autopsy cases with PD have revealed a decreased number of dendritic spines of striatal neurons. Animal models of PD have revealed altered density and morphology of dendritic spines of neurons in various brain regions after dopaminergic denervation or dopaminergic denervation plus levodopa treatment, indicating altered synaptic transmission...
September 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852380/spinal-cord-injury-drives-chronic-brain-changes
#16
REVIEW
Ignacio Jure, Florencia Labombarda
Only a few studies have considered changes in brain structures other than sensory and motor cortex after spinal cord injury, although cognitive impairments have been reported in these patients. Spinal cord injury results in chronic brain neuroinflammation with consequent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in rodents. Regarding the hippocampus, neurogenesis is reduced and reactive gliosis increased. These long-term abnormalities could explain behavioral impairments exhibited in humans patients suffering from spinal cord trauma...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842194/development-of-a-head-mounted-wireless-microstimulator-for-deep-brain-stimulation-in-rats
#17
Felix Fluri, Thomas Mützel, Michael K Schuhmann, Miloš Krstić, Heinz Endres, Jens Volkmann
BACKGROUND: Commercial neurostimulators for clinical use are effective in patients; however they are too large and prohibitively expensive for preclinical studies. Thus, there is an urgent need of a small inexpensive and wireless microstimulator which is fully programmable in frequency, pulse width and amplitude for rodent experiments. NEW METHODS: Rats were subjected to a photothrombotic stroke of the right sensorimotor cortex and a microelectrode was implanted in the right mesencephalic locomotor region...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826501/electrical-activity-controls-area-specific-expression-of-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-mouse-developing-cerebral-cortex
#18
Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Werner Kilb, Salim Sharopov, Anne Sinning, Heiko J Luhmann
Programmed cell death widely but heterogeneously affects the developing brain, causing the loss of up to 50% of neurons in rodents. However, whether this heterogeneity originates from neuronal identity and/or network-dependent processes is unknown. Here, we report that the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1), two adjacent but functionally distinct areas, display striking differences in density of apoptotic neurons during the early postnatal period. These differences in rate of apoptosis negatively correlate with region-dependent levels of activity...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822057/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-in-adult-rats-restores-mk-801-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-gabaergic-interneuron-immunoreactivity-loss
#19
Ane Murueta-Goyena, Naiara Ortuzar, Pascual Ángel Gargiulo, José Vicente Lafuente, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Perinatal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in rodents emulate some cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations, such as decreased GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) interneuron immunoreactivity, also found in schizophrenia. These features are pervasive, and developing neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies is of special interest. In this work, we aimed to investigate if a short exposure to enriched environment (EE) in early adulthood (P55-P73) was an effective strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction and to restore interneuron expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765070/prefrontal-connections-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-in-the-rat
#20
Eunkyu Hwang, Bailey S Willis, Rebecca D Burwell
Knowing how prefrontal regions interact with medial temporal lobe structures is important for understanding memory and cognition. Using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods in the rat, we report a detailed study of the perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) connections with the lateral, ventrolateral, and medial orbitofrontal cortices (ORBl, ORBvl, ORBm), infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (IL, PL), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACAv, ACAd), and secondary motor cortex (MOs). Our analyses included the topography and laminar patterns of these connections...
July 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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