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Rodent motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012708/secondary-motor-cortex-where-sensory-meets-motor-in-the-rodent-frontal-cortex
#1
REVIEW
Florent Barthas, Alex C Kwan
In rodents, the medial aspect of the secondary motor cortex (M2) is known by other names, including medial agranular cortex (AGm), medial precentral cortex (PrCm), and frontal orienting field (FOF). As a subdivision of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), M2 can be defined by a distinct set of afferent and efferent connections, microstimulation responses, and lesion outcomes. However, the behavioral role of M2 remains mysterious. Here, we focus on evidence from rodent studies, highlighting recent findings of early and context-dependent choice-related activity in M2 during voluntary behavior...
December 21, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003409/a-circuit-for-saccadic-suppression-in-the-primate-brain
#2
Rebecca A Berman, James Cavanaugh, Kerry McAlonan, Robert H Wurtz
Saccades should cause us to see a blur as the eyes sweep across a visual scene. Specific brain mechanisms prevent this by producing suppression during saccades. Neuronal correlates of such suppression were first established in the visual superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC) and subsequently have been observed in cortical visual areas, including the middle temporal visual area (MT). In this study, we investigated suppression in a recently identified circuit linking visual SC (SCs) to MT through the inferior pulvinar (PI)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983564/dysregulation-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-huntington-s-disease-a%C3%A2-role-for-dopamine-modulation
#3
Claudia Rangel-Barajas, George V Rebec
Aberrant communication between striatum, the main information processing unit of the basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex plays a critical role in the emergence of Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal monogenetic condition that typically strikes in the prime of life. Although both striatum and cortex undergo substantial cell loss over the course of HD, corticostriatal circuits become dysfunctional long before neurons die. Understanding the dysfunction is key to developing effective strategies for treating a progressively worsening triad of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955948/array-focal-cortical-stimulation-enhances-motor-function-recovery-and-brain-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemia
#4
Jing Yang, Lu Liu, Tao Li, Chengyan Li
OBJECTIVE: Using a new microelectrode array implanted into the cranial window employing a new stimulation protocol, we investigated the effects of the implanted electrode arrays on both motor map plasticity and neural regeneration in a rodent model of stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretrained on single-pellet retrieval task, then received focal ischemic infarction and microelectrode arrays implantation. Rats in the cortical stimulation (CS) group received daily electrical stimulation (1 hour each day) for 14 days whereas animals in the no stimulation (NS) group did not receive electrical stimulation and only underwent motor mapping...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940102/association-of-environmental-enrichment-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-of-cerebral-palsy-insights-of-biological-mechanisms
#5
André L F Meireles, Marília R Marques, Ethiane Segabinazi, Christiano Spindler, Francele V Piazza, Gabriela S Salvalaggio, Otávio A Augustin, Matilde Achaval, Simone Marcuzzo
Several physiotherapy approaches are used with different aims in the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP), such as the early stimulation and the locomotor training, but their biological effects, isolated or combined, are not completely known. In animals models, these strategies can be compared, with due translational restrictions, to the environmental enrichment (EE), that involves the enhancement of animal's physical and social environment, and locomotor stimulation (LS), that can be performed using the treadmill adapted for rats...
January 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#6
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851801/whole-cell-properties-of-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-in-vivo
#7
Cathrin B Canto, Laurens Witter, Chris I De Zeeuw
Cerebellar nuclei neurons integrate sensorimotor information and form the final output of the cerebellum, projecting to premotor brainstem targets. This implies that, in contrast to specialized neurons and interneurons in cortical regions, neurons within the nuclei encode and integrate complex information that is most likely reflected in a large variation of intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of individual neurons. Yet, whether this large variation in properties is reflected in a heterogeneous physiological cell population of cerebellar nuclei neurons with well or poorly defined cell types remains to be determined...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823929/expression-of-secreted-phosphoprotein-1-osteopontin-in-human-sensorimotor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-changes-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shigeo Murayama, Masaki Takao, Tadashi Isa, Noriyuki Higo
Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, also known as osteopontin) is expressed in large pyramidal neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) of certain primate species, including macaque monkeys, but not of rodents. Based on this, we suggested that SPP1 expression may reflect the functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems. In the present study, we further characterized SPP1 in the human central nervous system by investigating its expression in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and spinal cord, in addition to M1...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807140/fef-inactivation-with-improved-optogenetic-methods
#9
Leah Acker, Erica N Pino, Edward S Boyden, Robert Desimone
Optogenetic methods have been highly effective for suppressing neural activity and modulating behavior in rodents, but effects have been much smaller in primates, which have much larger brains. Here, we present a suite of technologies to use optogenetics effectively in primates and apply these tools to a classic question in oculomotor control. First, we measured light absorption and heat propagation in vivo, optimized the conditions for using the red-light-shifted halorhodopsin Jaws in primates, and developed a large-volume illuminator to maximize light delivery with minimal heating and tissue displacement...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780050/the-basal-ganglia-over-500-million-years
#10
REVIEW
Sten Grillner, Brita Robertson
The lamprey belongs to the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates that diverged from the mammalian evolutionary line 560 million years ago. A comparison between the lamprey and mammalian basal ganglia establishes a detailed similarity regarding its input from cortex/pallium and thalamus, as well as its intrinsic organisation and projections of the output nuclei. This means that the basal ganglia circuits now present in rodents and primates most likely had evolved already at the dawn of vertebrate evolution...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774574/constrained-spherical-deconvolution-tractography-reveals-cerebello-mammillary-connections-in-humans
#11
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739220/the-marmoset-as-a-model-system-for-studying-voluntary-motor-control
#12
Jeff Walker, Jason MacLean, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The common marmoset has recently gained interest as an animal model for systems and behavioral neuroscience. This is due in part to the advent of transgenic marmosets, which affords the possibility of combining genetic manipulations with physiological recording and behavioral monitoring to study neural systems. In this review, we will argue that the marmoset provides a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of voluntary motor control from an integrative perspective. First, as an intermediate animal model, the marmoset represents an important bridge in motor system function between other primates, including humans, and rodents...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705958/chronic-in-vivo-stability-assessment-of-carbon-fiber-microelectrode-arrays
#13
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696740/exploring-the-relationship-between-cortical-gaba-concentrations-auditory-gamma-band-responses-and-development-in-asd-evidence-for-an-altered-maturational-trajectory-in-asd
#14
Russell G Port, William Gaetz, Luke Bloy, Dah-Jyuu Wang, Lisa Blaskey, Emily S Kuschner, Susan E Levy, Edward S Brodkin, Timothy P L Roberts
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hypothesized to arise from imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission (E/I imbalance). Studies have demonstrated E/I imbalance in individuals with ASD and also corresponding rodent models. One neural process thought to be reliant on E/I balance is gamma-band activity (Gamma), with support arising from observed correlations between motor, as well as visual, Gamma and underlying GABA concentrations in healthy adults. Additionally, decreased Gamma has been observed in ASD individuals and relevant animal models, though the direct relationship between Gamma and GABA concentrations in ASD remains unexplored...
October 1, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662300/an-intranasal-formulation-of-erythropoietin-neuro-epo-prevents-memory-deficits-and-amyloid-toxicity-in-the-appswe-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Yamila Rodríguez Cruz, Manon Strehaiano, Teresita Rodríguez Obaya, Julío César García Rodríguez, Tangui Maurice
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine known to have effective cytoprotective action in the brain, particularly in ischemic, traumatic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of a low sialic form of EPO, Neuro-EPO, applied intranasally in rodent models of stroke or cerebellar ataxia and in a non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we analyzed the protective effect of Neuro-EPO in APPSwe mice, a reference transgenic mouse model of AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647473/in-vitro-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-toxicity-in-striatal-cerebrocortical-and-hippocampal-slices-is-attenuated-by-atorvastatin-and-mk-801
#16
Caio M Massari, Adalberto A Castro, Tharine Dal-Cim, Débora Lanznaster, Carla I Tasca
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the loss of striatal dopaminergic neurons, although other neurotransmitters and brain areas are also involved in its pathophysiology. In rodent models to PD it has been shown statins improve cognitive and motor deficits and attenuate inflammatory responses evoked by PD-related toxins. Statins are the drugs most prescribed to hypercholesterolemia, but neuroprotective effects have also been attributed to statins treatment in humans and in animal models. This study aimed to establish an in vitro model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity, used as an initial screening test to identify effective drugs against neural degeneration related to PD...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636847/humans-with-type-2-diabetes-show-abnormal-long-term-potentiation-like-cortical-plasticity-associated-with-verbal-learning-deficits
#17
Peter J Fried, Lukas Schilberg, Anna-Katharine Brem, Sadhvi Saxena, Bonnie Wong, Aaron M Cypess, Edward S Horton, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accelerates cognitive aging and increases risk of Alzheimer's disease. Rodent models of T2DM show altered synaptic plasticity associated with reduced learning and memory. Humans with T2DM also show cognitive deficits, including reduced learning and memory, but the relationship of these impairments to the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms has never been assessed. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to compare mechanisms of cortical plasticity in humans with and without T2DM...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600688/adenosine-receptors-as-markers-of-brain-iron-deficiency-implications-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#18
César Quiroz, Seema Gulyani, Wan Ruiqian, Jordi Bonaventura, Roy Cutler, Virginia Pearson, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley, Mark P Mattson, Sergi Ferré
Deficits of sensorimotor integration with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and hyperarousal and sleep disturbances in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) constitute two pathophysiologically distinct but interrelated clinical phenomena, which seem to depend mostly on alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Brain iron deficiency is considered as a main pathogenetic mechanism in RLS. Rodents with brain iron deficiency represent a valuable pathophysiological model of RLS, although they do not display motor disturbances...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568501/hcn-channels-segregate-stimulation-evoked-movement-responses-in-neocortex-and-allow-for-coordinated-forelimb-movements-in-rodents
#19
Jeffery A Boychuk, Jordan S Farrell, Laura A Palmer, Anna C Singleton, Quentin J Pittman, G Campbell Teskey
KEY POINTS: The present study tested whether HCN channels contribute to the organization of motor cortex and to skilled motor behaviour during a forelimb reaching task. Experimental reductions in HCN channel signalling increase the representation of complex multiple forelimb movements in motor cortex as assessed by intracortical microstimulation. Global HCN1(KO) mice exhibit reduced reaching accuracy and atypical movements during a single-pellet reaching task relative to wild-type controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558201/fingolimod-fty720-reduces-cortical-infarction-and-neurological-deficits-during-ischemic-stroke-through-potential-maintenance-of-microvascular-patency
#20
Michael K Schuhmann, Miloš Krstić, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Felix Fluri
Fingolimod (FTY720) a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) antagonist reduces infarct volume and improves neurological deficits in different rodent stroke models by modulating inflammatory and immune processes. However, studies on FTY720 regarding its non-immunological efficacy on ischemic cerebral tissue are sparse. Here we investigated whether FTY720 has cytoprotective and restorative properties following ischemic stroke in mice. Male C57Bl/6 mice received FTY720 (1mg/kg) or a vehicle solution intraperitoneally immediately prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO; 30 min...
August 23, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
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