keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Rodent motor cortex

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743454/convergence-of-primary-sensory-cortex-and-cerebellar-nuclei-pathways-in-the-whisker-system
#1
REVIEW
Carmen B Schäfer, Freek E Hoebeek
To safely maneuver through the environment the brain needs to compare active sensory information with ongoing motor programs. This process occurs at various levels in the brain: at the lower level, i.e. in the spinal cord, reflexes are generated for the most primitive motor responses; at the intermediate level, i.e., in the brainstem, various nuclei co-process sensory- and motor-related inputs; and, at the higher level cerebellum and thalamo-cortical networks individually compute suitable commands for fine-tuned motor output...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#2
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721358/utah-optrode-array-customization-using-stereotactic-brain-atlases-and-3-d-cad-modeling-for-optogenetic-neocortical-interrogation-in-small-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#3
Ronald W Boutte, Sam Merlin, Guy Yona, Brandon Griffiths, Alessandra Angelucci, Itamar Kahn, Shy Shoham, Steve Blair
As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks(®) computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719951/neuronal-apoptosis-pathological-basis-of-behavioral-dysfunctions-induced-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-rodents-model
#4
Shiqi Luo, Lisi OuYang, Jie Wei, Feng Wu, Zhongdao Wu, Wanlong Lei, Dongjuan Yuan
Angiostrongylus cantonensis invades the central nervous system (CNS) of humans to induce eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis and leads to persistent headache, cognitive dysfunction, and ataxic gait. Infected mice (nonpermissive host), admittedly, suffer more serious pathological injuries than rats (permissive host). However, the pathological basis of these manifestations is incompletely elucidated. In this study, the behavioral test, histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and analysis of apoptotic gene expression, especially caspase-3, were conducted...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687229/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-selective-inhibitor-tak-063-induces-c-fos-expression-in-both-direct-and-indirect-pathway-medium-spiny-neurons-and-sub-regions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#5
Atsushi Nakatani, Sayuri Nakamura, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063, a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor, produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects in rodents via balanced activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Brain activity modulation by TAK-063 has been characterized using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in animals, revealing modulation of activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) where there is little or no PDE10A expression. To understand the specific brain regions and cells affected by TAK-063 in rats, we assessed neural activation in the striatal complex and PFC using immunofluorescence staining to measure c-Fos expression...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685918/a-long-term-bci-study-with-ecog-recordings-in-freely-moving-rats
#6
Thomas Costecalde, Tetiana Aksenova, Napoleon Torres-Martinez, Andriy Eliseyev, Corinne Mestais, Cecile Moro, Alim Louis Benabid
BACKGROUND: Brain Computer Interface (BCI) studies are performed in an increasing number of applications. Questions are raised about electrodes, data processing and effectors. Experiments are needed to solve these issues. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple BCI set-up to easier studies for improving the mathematical tools to process the ECoG to control an effector. METHOD: We designed a simple BCI using transcranial electrodes (17 screws, three mechanically linked to create a common reference, 14 used as recording electrodes) to record Electro-Cortico-Graphic (ECoG) neuronal activities in rodents...
July 6, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#7
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663200/%C3%A2-bilateral-discrimination-of-tactile-patterns-without-whisking-in-freely-running-rats-%C3%A2
#8
Pauline Kerekes, Aurélie Daret, Daniel E Shulz, Valérie Ego-Stengel
A majority of whisker discrimination tasks in rodents are carried out on head-fixed animals, to facilitate tracking or control of the sensory inputs. However, head fixation critically restrains the behavior and thus the incoming stimuli compared to those occurring in natural conditions. In this study, we asked whether freely-behaving rats can discriminate fine tactile patterns while running, in particular when stimuli are presented simultaneously on both sides of the snout.We developed a two-alternative forced-choice task in an automated modified T-maze...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663199/behavioral-consequences-of-a-bifacial-map-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#9
Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Shuxin Zhao, Alain Chédotal, Reha S Erzurumlu
The whisker system is an important sensory organ with extensive neural representations in the brain of the mouse. Patterned neural modules (barrelettes) in the ipsilateral principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PrV) correspond to the whiskers. Axons of the PrV barrelette neurons cross the midline and confer the whisker-related patterning to the contralateral ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, and subsequently to the cortex. In this way, specific neural modules called barreloids and barrels in the contralateral thalamus and cortex represent each whisker...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595827/the-ovine-motor-cortex-a-review-of-functional-mapping-and-cytoarchitecture
#10
REVIEW
Sam E John, Timothy J H Lovell, Nicholas L Opie, Stefan Wilson, Theodore C Scordas, Yan T Wong, Gil S Rind, Stephen Ronayne, Sébastien H Bauquier, Clive N May, David B Grayden, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
In recent years, sheep (Ovis aries) have emerged as a useful animal model for neurological research due to their relatively large brain and blood vessel size, their cortical architecture, and their docile temperament. However, the functional anatomy of sheep brain is not as well studied as that of non-human primates, rodents, and felines. For example, while the location of the sheep motor cortex has been known for many years, there have been few studies of the somatotopy of the motor cortex and there were a range of discrepancies across them...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592694/opening-a-new-time-window-for-treatment-of-stroke-by-targeting-hdac2
#11
Yu-Hui Lin, Jian Dong, Ying Tang, Huan-Yu Ni, Yu Zhang, Ping Su, Hai-Ying Liang, Meng-Cheng Yao, Hong-Jin Yuan, Dong-Liang Wang, Lei Chang, Hai-Yin Wu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Narrow therapeutic window limits treatments with thrombolysis and neuroprotection for most stroke patients. Widening therapeutic window remains a critical challenge. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological events in the peri-infarct area where secondary injury coexists with neuroplasticity over days to weeks may offer an opportunity for expanding the therapeutic window. Here we show that ischemia-induced HDAC2 up-regulation from 5 to 7 days after stroke plays a crucial role. In this window phase, suppressing HDAC2 in the peri-infarct cortex of rodents by HDAC inhibitors, knockdown or knockout of HDAC2 promoted recovery of motor function from stroke via epigenetically enhancing cells survival and neuroplasticity of surviving neurons as well as reducing neuroinflammation, whereas over-expressing HDAC2 worsened stroke-induced functional impairment of both WT and HDAC2 CKO mice...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527714/investigation-of-left-and-right-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-c57bl6-j-mice-in-vivo-functional-consequences
#12
Lesley D Schurman, Terry L Smith, Anthony J Morales, Nancy N Lee, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips, Aron H Lichtman
Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#13
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521140/distinct-sources-of-deterministic-and-stochastic-components-of-action-timing-decisions-in-rodent-frontal-cortex
#14
Masayoshi Murakami, Hanan Shteingart, Yonatan Loewenstein, Zachary F Mainen
The selection and timing of actions are subject to determinate influences such as sensory cues and internal state as well as to effectively stochastic variability. Although stochastic choice mechanisms are assumed by many theoretical models, their origin and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated this issue by studying how neural circuits in the frontal cortex determine action timing in rats performing a waiting task. Electrophysiological recordings from two regions necessary for this behavior, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and secondary motor cortex (M2), revealed an unexpected functional dissociation...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520686/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#15
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet K Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition, and motor function; however, CTE is currently diagnosed only postmortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI), we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed-skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 wild-type rats; eight rats received two injuries (2×TBI), 27 rats received five injuries (5×TBI), and 13 rats were sham controls...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468999/ketamine-induced-converged-synchronous-gamma-oscillations-in-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-network-of-non-human-primates
#16
Maya Slovik, Boris Rosin, Shay Moshel, Rea Mitelman, Eitan Schechtman, Renana Eitan, Aeyal Raz, Hagai Bergman
NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonists are widely used in anesthesia, pain management, schizophrenia animal model studies and recently as potential antidepressants. However the mechanisms underlying their anesthetic, psychotic, cognitive and emotional effects are still elusive. The basal-ganglia (BG) integrate input from different cortical domains through its dopamine modulated connections, to achieve optimal behavior control. NMDA antagonists have been shown to induce gamma oscillations in human EEG recordings and in rodents cortical and BG networks...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456688/native-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-4-depresses-synaptic-transmission-through-an-unusual-g%C3%AE-q-transduction-pathway
#17
Solenne Chardonnet, Thomas Bessiron, Cathy Isaura Ramos, Raoudha Dammak, Marie-Ange Richard, Céline Boursier, Christelle Cadilhac, Frédéric M Coquelle, Simon Bossi, Fabrice Ango, Pierre Le Maréchal, Paulette Decottignies, Catherine Berrier, Heather McLean, Hervé Daniel
In cerebellar cortex, mGlu4 receptors located on parallel fibers play an essential role in normal motor function, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not yet completely understood. Using a strategy combining biochemical and electrophysiological approaches in the rodent cerebellum, we demonstrate that presynaptic mGlu4 receptors control synaptic transmission through an atypical activation of Gαq proteins. First, the Gαq subunit, PLC and PKC signaling proteins present in cerebellar extracts are retained on affinity chromatography columns grafted with different sequences of the cytoplasmic domain of mGlu4 receptor...
April 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450153/epidural-focal-brain-cooling-abolishes-neocortical-seizures-in-cats-and-non-human-primates
#18
Takao Inoue, Masami Fujii, Hiroyuki Kida, Toshitaka Yamakawa, Yuichi Maruta, Tatsuji Tokiwa, Yeting He, Sadahiro Nomura, Yuji Owada, Takeshi Yamakawa, Michiyasu Suzuki
Focal brain cooling (FBC) is under investigation in preclinical trials of intractable epilepsy (IE), including status epilepticus (SE). This method has been studied in rodents as a possible treatment for epileptic disorders, but more evidence from large animal studies is required. To provide evidence that FBC is a safe and effective therapy for IE, we investigated if FBC using a titanium cooling plate can reduce or terminate focal neocortical seizures without having a significant impact on brain tissue. Two cats and two macaque monkeys were chronically implanted with an epidural FBC device over the somatosensory and motor cortex...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#19
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412497/optogenetic-stimulation-of-cortex-to-map-evoked-whisker-movements-in-awake-head-restrained-mice
#20
Matthieu Auffret, Veronica L Ravano, Giulia M C Rossi, Nicolas Hankov, Merissa F A Petersen, Carl C H Petersen
Whisker movements are used by rodents to touch objects in order to extract spatial and textural tactile information about their immediate surroundings. To understand the mechanisms of such active sensorimotor processing it is important to investigate whisker motor control. The activity of neurons in the neocortex affects whisker movements, but many aspects of the organization of cortical whisker motor control remain unknown. Here, we filmed whisker movements evoked by sequential optogenetic stimulation of different locations across the left dorsal sensorimotor cortex of awake head-restrained mice...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
107075
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"