Read by QxMD icon Read

Rodent motor cortex

Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Christine Stubbendorff, Manuel Molano-Mazon, Andrew Mj Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
Rodent striatum is involved in sensory-motor transformations and reward-related learning. Lesion studies suggest dorsolateral striatum, dorsomedial striatum, and nucleus accumbens underlie stimulus-response transformations, goal-directed behaviour and reward expectation respectively. In addition, prefrontal inputs likely control these functions. Here we set out to study how reward-driven behaviour is mediated by the coordinated activity of these structures in the intact brain. We implemented a discrimination task requiring rats to either respond or suppress responding on a lever after the presentation of auditory cues in order to obtain rewards...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Liying Yang, Hongyan Wang, Lijun Liu, Anmu Xie
Dementia, a condition that frequently afflicts patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), results in decreased quality of life and survival time. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are not completely understood. The symptoms characteristic of PDD may be the result of functional and structural deficiencies. The present study implicates the accumulation of Lewy bodies in the cortex and limbic system as a potent trigger in the development of PDD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alexander D Tang, William Bennett, Claire Hadrill, Jessica Collins, Barbora Fulopova, Karen Wills, Aidan Bindoff, Rohan Puri, Michael I Garry, Mark R Hinder, Jeffery J Summers, Jennifer Rodger, Alison J Canty
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is commonly used to modulate cortical plasticity in clinical and non-clinical populations. Clinically, rTMS is delivered to targeted regions of the cortex at high intensities (>1 T). We have previously shown that even at low intensities, rTMS induces structural and molecular plasticity in the rodent cortex. To determine whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alters behavioural performance, daily intermittent theta burst LI-rTMS (120 mT) or sham was delivered as a priming or consolidating stimulus to mice completing 10 consecutive days of skilled reaching training...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mary K L Baldwin, Nicole A Young, Denis Matrov, Jon H Kaas
The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements toward environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of gray squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioral characteristics of gray squirrels...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michael S Sidorov, Matthew C Judson, Hyojin Kim, Marie Rougie, Alejandra I Ferrer, Viktoriya D Nikolova, Natallia V Riddick, Sheryl S Moy, Benjamin D Philpot
Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, is caused by loss of maternal allele expression of UBE3A in neurons. Mouse models of AS faithfully recapitulate disease phenotypes across multiple domains, including behavior. Yet in AS, there has been only limited study of behaviors encoded by the prefrontal cortex, a region broadly involved in executive function and cognition. Because cognitive impairment is a core feature of AS, it is critical to develop behavioral readouts of prefrontal circuit function in AS mouse models...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Miriam L R Meister, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Primates predominantly rely on vision to gather information from the environment, and neurons representing visual space and gaze position are found in many brain areas. Within the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for memory, neurons in the entorhinal cortex of macaque monkeys exhibit spatial selectivity for gaze position. Specifically, the firing rate of single neurons reflects fixation location within a visual image (Killian et al., 2012). In the rodents, entorhinal cells such as grid cells, border cells, and head direction cells show spatial representations aligned to visual environmental features instead of the body (Hafting et al...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Anterograde tracer injections into penis/clitoris cortex revealed eleven corticocortical and 10 subcortical projection targets, which were qualitatively similar in both sexes...
April 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Susan C Schwerin, Mitali Chatterjee, Aminat O Imam-Fulani, Kryslaine L Radomski, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Carlo M Pierpaoli, Sharon L Juliano
White matter damage is an important consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Unlike rodents, ferrets have a substantial amount of white matter and a gyrencephalic brain; therefore, they may represent an ideal small mammal model to study human-pertinent consequences of TBI. Here we report immunohistochemical and behavioral results after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the sensorimotor cortex of adult male ferrets. We assessed inflammation in the neocortex and white matter, and behavior at 1 day post injury and 1, 4, and 16 weeks post injury (WPI)...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sylvie Nozaradan, Marc Schönwiesner, Peter E Keller, Tomas Lenc, Alexandre Lehmann
The spontaneous ability to entrain to meter periodicities is central to music perception and production across cultures. There is increasing evidence that this ability involves selective neural responses to meter-related frequencies. This phenomenon has been observed in the human auditory cortex, yet it could be the product of evolutionarily older lower-level properties of brainstem auditory neurons, as suggested by recent recordings from rodent midbrain. We addressed this question by taking advantage of a new method to simultaneously record human EEG activity originating from cortical and lower-level sources, in the form of slow (<20Hz) and fast (>150Hz) responses to auditory rhythms...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Pedro M Rodenas-Cuadrado, Janine Mengede, Laura Baas, Paolo Devanna, Tobias A Schmid, Michael Yartsev, Uwe Firzlaff, Sonja C Vernes
Genes including FOXP2, FOXP1 and CNTNAP2, have been implicated in human speech and language phenotypes, pointing to a role in the development of normal language-related circuitry in the brain. Although speech and language are unique human phenotypes, a comparative approach is possible by addressing language-relevant traits in animal model systems. One such trait, vocal learning, represents an essential component of human spoken language, and is shared by cetaceans, pinnipeds, elephants, some birds and bats...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Christopher J Yuskaitis, Brandon M Jones, Rachel L Wolfson, Chloe E Super, Sameer C Dhamne, Alexander Rotenberg, David M Sabatini, Mustafa Sahin, Annapurna Poduri
DEPDC5 is a newly identified epilepsy-related gene implicated in focal epilepsy, brain malformations, and Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). In vitro, DEPDC5 negatively regulates amino acid sensing by the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, but the role of DEPDC5 in neurodevelopment and epilepsy has not been described. No animal model of DEPDC5-related epilepsy has recapitulated the neurological phenotypes seen in patients, and germline knockout rodent models are embryonic lethal. Here, we establish a neuron-specific Depdc5 conditional knockout mouse by cre-recombination under the Synapsin1 promotor...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Takayasu Mishima, Manami Deshimaru, Takuya Watanabe, Kaori Kubota, Mariko Kinoshita-Kawada, Junichi Yuasa-Kawada, Kotaro Takasaki, Yoshinari Uehara, Shozo Jinno, Katsunori Iwasaki, Yoshio Tsuboi
Perry syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism, depression/apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation. Our previously-conducted genome-wide association scan and subsequent studies identified nine mutations in DCTN1, the largest protein subunit of the dynactin complex, in patients with Perry syndrome. These included G71A in the microtubule-binding cytoskeleton-associated protein Gly-rich domain of p150Glued. The dynactin complex is essential for function of the microtubule-based cytoplasmic retrograde motor dynein...
December 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Luiz Fabio Dimov, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Heloísa Alonso-Matielo, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Gerson Ballester, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Camila Squarzoni Dale
Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) has shown to be an effective therapeutic alternative for neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. The primary motor cortex(M1) was the main cortical target used in the vast majority of both invasive and non-invasive studies. Despite positive results M1-based approaches still fail to relieve pain in a significant proportion of individuals. It has been advocated that the direct stimulation of cortical areas directly implicated in the central integration of pain could increase the efficacy of analgesic brain stimulation...
November 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Karel Svoboda, Nuo Li
Neurons in motor cortex and connected brain regions fire in anticipation of specific movements, long before movement occurs. This neural activity reflects internal processes by which the brain plans and executes volitional movements. The study of motor planning offers an opportunity to understand how the structure and dynamics of neural circuits support persistent internal states and how these states influence behavior. Recent advances in large-scale neural recordings are beginning to decipher the relationship of the dynamics of populations of neurons during motor planning and movements...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Bingshuo Li, Juha P Virtanen, Axel Oeltermann, Cornelius Schwarz, Martin A Giese, Ulf Ziemann, Alia Benali
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here, we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8-1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6-300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles...
November 22, 2017: ELife
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one nonhuman primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"