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Rodent motor cortex

Sten Grillner, Brita Robertson
The lamprey belongs to the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates that diverged from the mammalian evolutionary line 560 million years ago. A comparison between the lamprey and mammalian basal ganglia establishes a detailed similarity regarding its input from cortex/pallium and thalamus, as well as its intrinsic organisation and projections of the output nuclei. This means that the basal ganglia circuits now present in rodents and primates most likely had evolved already at the dawn of vertebrate evolution...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
Jeff Walker, Jason MacLean, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The common marmoset has recently gained interest as an animal model for systems and behavioral neuroscience. This is due in part to the advent of transgenic marmosets, which affords the possibility of combining genetic manipulations with physiological recording and behavioral monitoring to study neural systems. In this review, we will argue that the marmoset provides a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of voluntary motor control from an integrative perspective. First, as an intermediate animal model, the marmoset represents an important bridge in motor system function between other primates, including humans, and rodents...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Russell G Port, William Gaetz, Luke Bloy, Dah-Jyuu Wang, Lisa Blaskey, Emily S Kuschner, Susan E Levy, Edward S Brodkin, Timothy P L Roberts
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hypothesized to arise from imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission (E/I imbalance). Studies have demonstrated E/I imbalance in individuals with ASD and also corresponding rodent models. One neural process thought to be reliant on E/I balance is gamma-band activity (Gamma), with support arising from observed correlations between motor, as well as visual, Gamma and underlying GABA concentrations in healthy adults. Additionally, decreased Gamma has been observed in ASD individuals and relevant animal models, though the direct relationship between Gamma and GABA concentrations in ASD remains unexplored...
October 1, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Yamila Rodríguez Cruz, Manon Strehaiano, Teresita Rodríguez Obaya, Julío César García Rodríguez, Tangui Maurice
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine known to have effective cytoprotective action in the brain, particularly in ischemic, traumatic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of a low sialic form of EPO, Neuro-EPO, applied intranasally in rodent models of stroke or cerebellar ataxia and in a non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we analyzed the protective effect of Neuro-EPO in APPSwe mice, a reference transgenic mouse model of AD...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Caio M Massari, Adalberto A Castro, Tharine Dal-Cim, Débora Lanznaster, Carla I Tasca
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the loss of striatal dopaminergic neurons, although other neurotransmitters and brain areas are also involved in its pathophysiology. In rodent models to PD it has been shown statins improve cognitive and motor deficits and attenuate inflammatory responses evoked by PD-related toxins. Statins are the drugs most prescribed to hypercholesterolemia, but neuroprotective effects have also been attributed to statins treatment in humans and in animal models. This study aimed to establish an in vitro model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity, used as an initial screening test to identify effective drugs against neural degeneration related to PD...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Peter J Fried, Lukas Schilberg, Anna-Katharine Brem, Sadhvi Saxena, Bonnie Wong, Aaron M Cypess, Edward S Horton, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accelerates cognitive aging and increases risk of Alzheimer's disease. Rodent models of T2DM show altered synaptic plasticity associated with reduced learning and memory. Humans with T2DM also show cognitive deficits, including reduced learning and memory, but the relationship of these impairments to the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms has never been assessed. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to compare mechanisms of cortical plasticity in humans with and without T2DM...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
César Quiroz, Seema Gulyani, Wan Ruiqian, Jordi Bonaventura, Roy Cutler, Virginia Pearson, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley, Mark P Mattson, Sergi Ferré
Deficits of sensorimotor integration with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and hyperarousal and sleep disturbances in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) constitute two pathophysiologically distinct but interrelated clinical phenomena, which seem to depend mostly on alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Brain iron deficiency is considered as a main pathogenetic mechanism in RLS. Rodents with brain iron deficiency represent a valuable pathophysiological model of RLS, although they do not display motor disturbances...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Jeffery A Boychuk, Jordan S Farrell, Laura A Palmer, Anna C Singleton, Quentin J Pittman, G Campbell Teskey
The mechanisms by which distinct movements of a forelimb are generated from the same area of motor cortex have remained elusive. Here we examined a role for HCN channels, given their ability to alter synaptic integration, in the expression of forelimb movement responses during intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and movements of the forelimb on a skilled reaching task. We used short-duration high resolution ICMS to evoke forelimb movements following pharmacological (ZD7288), experimental (electrically induced cortical seizures) or genetic approaches that we confirmed with whole-cell patch clamp to substantially reduce Ih current...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Michael K Schuhmann, Miloš Krstić, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Felix Fluri
Fingolimod (FTY720) a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) antagonist reduces infarct volume and improves neurological deficits in different rodent stroke models by modulating inflammatory and immune processes. However, studies on FTY720 regarding its non-immunological efficacy on ischemic cerebral tissue are sparse. Here we investigated whether FTY720 has cytoprotective and restorative properties following ischemic stroke in mice. Male C57Bl/6 mice received FTY720 (1mg/kg) or a vehicle solution intraperitoneally immediately prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO; 30 min...
August 23, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Li J Hou, Zheng Song, Zhu J Pan, Jia L Cheng, Yong Yu, Jun Wang
One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nissrine Ballout, Isabelle Frappé, Sophie Péron, Mohamed Jaber, Kazem Zibara, Afsaneh Gaillard
Injury to the human central nervous system can lead to devastating consequences due to its poor ability to self-repair. Neural transplantation aimed at replacing lost neurons and restore functional circuitry has proven to be a promising therapeutical avenue. We previously reported in adult rodent animal models with cortical lesions that grafted fetal cortical neurons could effectively re-establish specific patterns of projections and synapses. The current study was designed to provide a detailed characterization of the spatio-temporal in vivo development of fetal cortical transplanted cells within the lesioned adult motor cortex and their corresponding axonal projections...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Anil Sindhurakar, Samuel D Butensky, Eric Meyers, Joshua Santos, Thelma Bethea, Ashley Khalili, Andrew P Sloan, Robert L Rennaker, Jason B Carmel
Background Rodents are the primary animal model of corticospinal injury and repair, yet current behavioral tests do not show the large deficits after injury observed in humans. Forearm supination is critical for hand function and is highly impaired by corticospinal injury in both humans and rats. Current tests of rodent forelimb function do not measure this movement. Objective To determine if quantification of forelimb supination in rats reveals large-scale functional loss and partial recovery after corticospinal injury...
August 16, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Richelle Mychasiuk, Harleen Hehar, Irene Ma, Sydney Candy, Michael J Esser
Despite the most common form of brain injury, there has been little progress in the prognosis and treatment of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current 'return-to-play' guidelines are conservative, deterring the initiation of physical and social activity until patients are asymptomatic; but the effects of post-injury exercise have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, this study examined the effects of voluntary exercise on concussion recovery. Using a translational rodent model of concussion, we examined the influence of exercise on injury-associated behaviours that comprise post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and gene expression changes (bdnf, dnmt1, Igf-1, pgc1-a, Tert) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Robert Westphal, Akira Sumiyoshi, Camilla Simmons, Michel Mesquita, Tobias C Wood, Steve C R Williams, Anthony C Vernon, Diana Cash
BACKGROUND: The unilaterally-lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat is one of the most commonly used experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we investigated whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that is widely used in human PD research, has the potential to non-invasively detect macroscopic structural brain changes in the 6-OHDA rat in ways translatable to humans. METHODS: We measured the grey matter composition in the unilateral 6-OHDA rat in comparison to sham animals using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) - an unbiased MR image analysis technique...
August 6, 2016: Neuroscience
Tara L Moore, Monica A Pessina, Seth P Finklestein, Ronald J Killiany, Bethany Bowley, Larry Benowitz, Douglas L Rosene
BACKGROUND: Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to stimulate axonal growth in cell culture and promote corticospinal tract axons to sprout collateral branches after stroke, spinal cord injury and TBI in rodent models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inosine on the recovery of motor function following cortical injury in the rhesus monkey. METHODS: After being trained on a test of fine motor function of the hand, monkeys received a lesion limited to the area of the hand representation in primary motor cortex...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Peter G Noakes, Nickolas A Lavidis, Mark C Bellingham
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by the death of upper (corticospinal) and lower motor neurons (MNs) with progressive muscle weakness. This incurable disease is clinically heterogeneous and its aetiology remains unknown. Increased excitability of corticospinal MNs has been observed prior to symptoms in human and rodent studies. Increased excitability has been correlated with structural changes in neuronal dendritic arbors and spines for decades. Here, using a modified Golgi-Cox staining method, we have made the first longitudinal study examining the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the motor cortex, medial pre-frontal cortex, somatosensory cortex and entorhinal cortex of hSOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls at postnatal (P) days 8-15, 28-35, 65-75 and 120...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Alexander D Tang, Andrea S Lowe, Andrew R Garrett, Robert Woodward, William Bennett, Alison J Canty, Michael I Garry, Mark R Hinder, Jeffery J Summers, Roman Gersner, Alexander Rotenberg, Gary Thickbroom, Joseph Walton, Jennifer Rodger
Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Lauren L Long, Samantha J Podurgiel, Aileen F Haque, Emily L Errante, James J Chrobak, John D Salamone
Tremulous jaw movements (TJMs) are rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at any particular stimulus. In rodents, TJMs are induced by neurochemical conditions that parallel those seen in human Parkinsonism, including neurotoxic or pharmacological depletion of striatal dopamine (DA), DA antagonism, and cholinomimetic administration. Moreover, TJMs in rodents can be attenuated by antiparkinsonian agents, including levodopa (L-DOPA), DA agonists, muscarinic antagonists, and adenosine A2A antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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