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Rodent motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773980/anatomical-inputs-from-the-sensory-and-value-structures-to-the-tail-of-the-rat-striatum
#1
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752287/-rnaset2-knockout-rats-exhibit-hippocampal-neuropathology-and-deficits-in-memory
#2
Kerstin W Sinkevicius, Thomas R Morrison, Praveen Kulkarni, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Sade Iriah, Samantha Malmberg, Julia Sabrick, Jennifer A Honeycutt, Kim L Askew, Malav Trivedi, Craig F Ferris
RNASET2 deficiency in humans is associated with infant cystic leukoencephalopathy, which causes psychomotor impairment, spasticity, and epilepsy. A zebrafish mutant model suggests that loss of RNASET2 function leads to neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of non-degraded RNA in the lysosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the first rodent model of RNASET2 deficiency. The brains of 3- and 12-month-old RNaseT2 knockout rats were studied using multiple magnetic resonance imaging modalities and behavioral tests...
May 10, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712947/resting-state-fmri-study-of-brain-activation-using-low-intensity-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-rats
#3
Bhedita J Seewoo, Kirk W Feindel, Sarah J Etherington, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique used to treat many neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying its mode of action are still unclear. This is the first rodent study using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to examine low-intensity (LI) rTMS effects, in an effort to provide a direct means of comparison between rodent and human studies. Using anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats, rs-fMRI data were acquired before and after control or LI-rTMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) or biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS)...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644536/cigarette-smoke-and-nicotine-effects-on-brain-proinflammatory-responses-and-behavioral-and-motor-function-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#4
Walter Royal, Adem Can, Todd D Gould, Ming Guo, Jared Huse, Myles Jackson, Harry Davis, Joseph Bryant
Cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection is associated with the induction of chronic proinflammatory responses in the brains of infected individuals. The risk of HIV-related cognitive impairment is increased by cigarette smoking, which induces brain inflammation in rodent models. To better understand the role of smoking and the associated immune response on behavioral and motor function in HIV infection, wild-type F344 and HIV-1 transgenic (HIV1Tg) rats were exposed to either smoke from nicotine-containing (regular) cigarettes, smoke from nicotine-free cigarettes, or to nicotine alone...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614377/neural-representations-of-time-linked-memory
#5
Maryna Pilkiw, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Many cognitive processes, such episodic memory and decision making, rely on the ability to form associations between two events that occur separately in time. The formation of such temporal associations depends on neural representations of three types of information: what has been presented (trace holding), what will follow (temporal expectation), and when the following event will occur (explicit timing). The present review seeks to link these representations with firing patterns of single neurons recorded while rodents and non-human primates associate stimuli, outcomes, and motor responses over time intervals...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610671/the-mystery-of-the-cerebellum-clues-from-experimental-and-clinical-observations
#6
REVIEW
Charlotte Lawrenson, Martin Bares, Anita Kamondi, Andrea Kovács, Bridget Lumb, Richard Apps, Pavel Filip, Mario Manto
The cerebellum has a striking homogeneous cytoarchitecture and participates in both motor and non-motor domains. Indeed, a wealth of evidence from neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical studies has substantially modified our traditional view on the cerebellum as a sole calibrator of sensorimotor functions. Despite the major advances of the last four decades of cerebellar research, outstanding questions remain regarding the mechanisms and functions of the cerebellar circuitry. We discuss major clues from both experimental and clinical studies, with a focus on rodent models in fear behaviour, on the role of the cerebellum in motor control, on cerebellar contributions to timing and our appraisal of the pathogenesis of cerebellar tremor...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608880/limitations-of-the-rat-medial-forebrain-lesion-model-to-study-prefrontal-cortex-mediated-cognitive-tasks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Courtney Marshall, Kirsten M King, Sandhya Kortagere
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Besides motor impairment, PD patients exhibit non-motor symptoms that negatively impact their quality of life and often manifest prior to motor deficits. One such symptom is mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), which is comprised of deficits in executive function such as working memory, attention, cognitive flexibility, and spatial memory. The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced unilateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) lesion animal model successfully recapitulates PD motor impairment but is also used to assess non-motor deficits...
March 30, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556028/cortico-reticulo-spinal-circuit-reorganization-enables-functional-recovery-after-severe-spinal-cord-contusion
#8
Leonie Asboth, Lucia Friedli, Janine Beauparlant, Cristina Martinez-Gonzalez, Selin Anil, Elodie Rey, Laetitia Baud, Galyna Pidpruzhnykova, Mark A Anderson, Polina Shkorbatova, Laura Batti, Stephane Pagès, Julie Kreider, Bernard L Schneider, Quentin Barraud, Gregoire Courtine
Severe spinal cord contusions interrupt nearly all brain projections to lumbar circuits producing leg movement. Failure of these projections to reorganize leads to permanent paralysis. Here we modeled these injuries in rodents. A severe contusion abolished all motor cortex projections below injury. However, the motor cortex immediately regained adaptive control over the paralyzed legs during electrochemical neuromodulation of lumbar circuits. Glutamatergic reticulospinal neurons with residual projections below the injury relayed the cortical command downstream...
April 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534631/synaptic-properties-of-layer-vi-inverted-pyramidal-cells-in-the-rodent-somatosensory-cortex
#9
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520856/synchronization-in-the-prefrontal-striatal-circuit-tracks-behavioural-choice-in-a-go-no-go-task-in-rats
#10
Christine Stubbendorff, Manuel Molano-Mazon, Andrew M J Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
Rodent striatum is involved in sensory-motor transformations and reward-related learning. Lesion studies suggest dorsolateral striatum, dorsomedial striatum and nucleus accumbens underlie stimulus-response transformations, goal-directed behaviour and reward expectation, respectively. In addition, prefrontal inputs likely control these functions. Here, we set out to study how reward-driven behaviour is mediated by the coordinated activity of these structures in the intact brain. We implemented a discrimination task requiring rats to either respond or suppress responding on a lever after the presentation of auditory cues in order to obtain rewards...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515352/the-role-of-insulin-igf-1-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Liying Yang, Hongyan Wang, Lijun Liu, Anmu Xie
Dementia, a condition that frequently afflicts patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), results in decreased quality of life and survival time. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are not completely understood. The symptoms characteristic of PDD may be the result of functional and structural deficiencies. The present study implicates the accumulation of Lewy bodies in the cortex and limbic system as a potent trigger in the development of PDD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507375/low-intensity-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-modulates-skilled-motor-learning-in-adult-mice
#12
Alexander D Tang, William Bennett, Claire Hadrill, Jessica Collins, Barbora Fulopova, Karen Wills, Aidan Bindoff, Rohan Puri, Michael I Garry, Mark R Hinder, Jeffery J Summers, Jennifer Rodger, Alison J Canty
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is commonly used to modulate cortical plasticity in clinical and non-clinical populations. Clinically, rTMS is delivered to targeted regions of the cortex at high intensities (>1 T). We have previously shown that even at low intensities, rTMS induces structural and molecular plasticity in the rodent cortex. To determine whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alters behavioural performance, daily intermittent theta burst LI-rTMS (120 mT) or sham was delivered as a priming or consolidating stimulus to mice completing 10 consecutive days of skilled reaching training...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467603/cognitive-functions-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-involving-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#13
REVIEW
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450943/cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-grey-squirrels-sciurus-carolinensis
#14
Mary K L Baldwin, Nicole A Young, Denis Matrov, Jon H Kaas
The superior colliculus is an important midbrain structure involved with integrating information from varying sensory modalities and sending motor signals to produce orienting movements towards environmental stimuli. Because of this role, the superior colliculus receives a multitude of sensory inputs from a wide variety of subcortical and cortical structures. Proportionately, the superior colliculus of grey squirrels is among the largest in size of all studied mammals, suggesting the importance of this structure in the behavioural characteristics of grey squirrels...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431654/enhanced-operant-extinction-and-prefrontal-excitability-in-a-mouse-model-of-angelman-syndrome
#15
Michael S Sidorov, Matthew C Judson, Hyojin Kim, Marie Rougie, Alejandra I Ferrer, Viktoriya D Nikolova, Natallia V Riddick, Sheryl S Moy, Benjamin D Philpot
Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, is caused by loss of maternal allele expression of UBE3A in neurons. Mouse models of AS faithfully recapitulate disease phenotypes across multiple domains, including behavior. Yet in AS, there has been only limited study of behaviors encoded by the prefrontal cortex, a region broadly involved in executive function and cognition. Because cognitive impairment is a core feature of AS, it is critical to develop behavioral readouts of prefrontal circuit function in AS mouse models...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386260/neurons-in-primate-entorhinal-cortex-represent-gaze-position-in-multiple-spatial-reference-frames
#16
Miriam L R Meister, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Primates predominantly rely on vision to gather information from the environment, and neurons representing visual space and gaze position are found in many brain areas. Within the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for memory, neurons in the entorhinal cortex of macaque monkeys exhibit spatial selectivity for gaze position. Specifically, the firing rate of single neurons reflects fixation location within a visual image (Killian et al., 2012). In the rodents, entorhinal cells such as grid cells, border cells, and head direction cells show spatial representations aligned to visual environmental features instead of the body (Hafting et al...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373631/physiological-and-anatomical-outputs-of-rat-genital-cortex
#17
Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
Rat somatosensory genital cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic representation of the penis in males and the clitoris in females. Genital cortex microstimulation-evoked movements of legs, trunk and genitals, which showed sex-specific differences related to mating behaviors and included thrusting in males and lordosis-like movements in females. Erections/tumescence of penis or clitoris could not be evoked, however. Anterograde tracer injections into penis/clitoris cortex revealed eleven corticocortical and 10 subcortical projection targets, which were qualitatively similar in both sexes...
April 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360208/progression-of-histopathological-and-behavioral-abnormalities-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-male-ferret
#18
Susan C Schwerin, Mitali Chatterjee, Aminat O Imam-Fulani, Kryslaine L Radomski, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Carlo M Pierpaoli, Sharon L Juliano
White matter damage is an important consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Unlike rodents, ferrets have a substantial amount of white matter and a gyrencephalic brain; therefore, they may represent an ideal small mammal model to study human-pertinent consequences of TBI. Here we report immunohistochemical and behavioral results after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the sensorimotor cortex of adult male ferrets. We assessed inflammation in the neocortex and white matter, and behavior at 1 day post injury and 1, 4, and 16 weeks post injury (WPI)...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356161/neural-bases-of-rhythmic-entrainment-in-humans-critical-transformation-between-cortical-and-lower-level-representations-of-auditory-rhythm
#19
Sylvie Nozaradan, Marc Schönwiesner, Peter E Keller, Tomas Lenc, Alexandre Lehmann
The spontaneous ability to entrain to meter periodicities is central to music perception and production across cultures. There is increasing evidence that this ability involves selective neural responses to meter-related frequencies. This phenomenon has been observed in the human auditory cortex, yet it could be the product of evolutionarily older lower-level properties of brainstem auditory neurons, as suggested by recent recordings from rodent midbrain. We addressed this question by taking advantage of a new method to simultaneously record human EEG activity originating from cortical and lower-level sources, in the form of slow (< 20 Hz) and fast (> 150 Hz) responses to auditory rhythms...
February 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#20
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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