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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334383/a-critical-role-of-inhibition-in-temporal-processing-maturation-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#1
Dongqin Cai, Rongrong Han, Miaomiao Liu, Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Yi Zheng, Limin Zhao, Jun Yao, Yiwei Wang, Yin Yue, Christoph E Schreiner, Kexin Yuan
Faithful representation of sound envelopes in primary auditory cortex (A1) is vital for temporal processing and perception of natural sounds. However, the emergence of cortical temporal processing mechanisms during development remains poorly understood. Although cortical inhibition has been proposed to play an important role in this process, direct in-vivo evidence has been lacking. Using loose-patch recordings in rat A1 immediately after hearing onset, we found that stimulus-following ability in fast-spiking neurons was significantly better than in regular-spiking (RS) neurons...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323619/fast-spiking-gaba-circuit-dynamics-in-the-auditory-cortex-predict-recovery-of-sensory-processing-following-peripheral-nerve-damage
#2
Jennifer Resnik, Daniel B Polley
Cortical neurons remap their receptive fields and rescale sensitivity to spared peripheral inputs following sensory nerve damage. To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. We related the day-by-day recovery of sound processing to dynamic changes in the strength of intracortical inhibition from parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322980/role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-anterior-dorsal-lateral-hypothalamic-area-in-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-self-administration
#3
Jordan M Blacktop, Ryan P Todd, Barbara A Sorg
Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV(+)), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior...
March 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316753/a-resting-eeg-study-of-neocortical-hyperexcitability-and-altered-functional-connectivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#4
Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, Matthew W Mosconi, Stormi P White, Devin K Binder, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. METHODS: We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and 21 age-matched healthy participants. RESULTS: FXS patients exhibited greater gamma frequency band power, which was correlated with social and sensory processing difficulties...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295046/transcriptomic-immaturity-of-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-alcoholism
#5
Tomoyuki Murano, Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Alcoholism, which is defined as the recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences, has a lifetime prevalence of 17.8%. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption disrupts various brain functions and behaviours. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie alcoholism are currently unclear. Recently, we discovered "pseudo-immature" brain cell states of the dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in mouse models of psychotic disorders and epileptic seizure. Similar pseudo-immaturity has been observed in patients with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292736/increased-metalloproteinase-activity-in-the-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#6
Deepti Dubey, Paulette A McRae, Elyse K Rankin-Gee, Esther Baranov, Luke Wandrey, Stephanie Rogers, Brenda E Porter
Increased neuronal plasticity and neuronal cell loss has been implicated in the development of epilepsy following injury. Parvalbumin fast spiking inhibitory interneurons have a robust extracellular matrix coating their cell bodies and the proximal dendrites called the perineuronal net (PNN). The role of the PNN is not clear but it has been implicated in closing of the critical period, altering seizure thresholds and providing neuronal protection from oxidative stress. The PNN is susceptible to degradation following a prolonged seizure and there is an increase in proteolytic-fragments of the PNN enriched proteoglycan aggrecan (Dzwonek et al...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277443/sugarcoated-perineuronal-nets-regulate-gabaergic-transmission-bittersweet-hypothesis-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Jessica A Burket, Maria R Urbano, Stephen I Deutsch
Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing "GABAergic" interneurons regulate synchronous oscillatory output of pyramidal neurons. Metabolic demands of these GABAergic projections are great because local ion concentrations must be optimally maintained; in addition, high rates of mitochondrial respiration necessitate exquisite redox regulation. Interestingly, only fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells coexpressing 3 metalloproteinases seem to be preferentially enwrapped in perineuronal nets (PNNs), a specialized lattice-like structure of the extracellular matrix...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274820/histamine-induces-kcnq-channel-dependent-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-hippocampus-via-activation-of-the-h1-receptor
#8
Richard Andersson, Dagmar Galter, Daniela Papadia, André Fisahn
Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter, which regulates wakefulness, arousal and attention in the central nervous system. Histamine receptors have been the target of efforts to develop pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive functions including attention are closely associated with gamma oscillations, a rhythmical electrical activity pattern in the 30-80 Hz range, which depends on the synchronized activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273943/increased-nrg1-erbb4-signaling-in-human-symptomatic-epilepsy
#9
Jun-Ming Zhu, Ke-Xin Li, Shu-Xia Cao, Xiao-Juan Chen, Chen-Jie Shen, Ying Zhang, Hong-Yan Geng, Bi-Qing Chen, Hong Lian, Jian-Min Zhang, Xiao-Ming Li
Previous studies have shown that the neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling pathway may regulate the excitability of fast-spiking neurons in the frontal cortex and participate in primary epilepsy pathogenesis. However, the exact roles and mechanism for NRG1/ErbB4 in human symptomatic epilepsy are still unclear. Using fresh human symptomatic epilepsy tissues, we found that the protein levels of NRG1 and ErbB4 were significantly increased in the temporal cortex. In addition, NRG1-ErbB4 signaling suppressed phosphorylation of GluN2B at position 1472 by Src kinase, and decreased levels of phosphorylation level of GluN2B and Src were detected in human symptomatic epilepsy tissues...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242439/kv3-1-kv3-2-channel-positive-modulators-enable-faster-activating-kinetics-and-increase-firing-frequency-in-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons
#10
Kim Boddum, Charlotte Hougaard, Julie Xiao-Ying Lin, Nadia Lybøl von Schoubye, Henrik Sindal Jensen, Morten Grunnet, Thomas Jespersen
Due to their fast kinetic properties, Kv3.1 voltage gated potassium channels are important in setting and controlling firing frequency in neurons and pivotal in generating high frequency firing of interneurons. Pharmacological activation of Kv3.1 channels may possess therapeutic potential for treatment of epilepsy, hearing disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive impairments. Here we thoroughly investigate the selectivity and positive modulation of the two small molecules, EX15 and RE01, on Kv3 channels. Selectivity studies, conducted in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed a positive modulatory effect of the two compounds on Kv3...
February 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195311/reduced-local-input-to-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-gabaa-%C3%AE-2-r43q-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#11
Stephen P Currie, Liliana L Luz, Sam A Booker, David J A Wyllie, Peter C Kind, Michael I Daw
OBJECTIVE: Absence seizures in childhood absence epilepsy are initiated in the thalamocortical (TC) system. We investigated if these seizures result from altered development of the TC system before the appearance of seizures in mice containing a point mutation in γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptor γ2 subunits linked to childhood absence epilepsy (R43Q). Findings from conditional mutant mice indicate that expression of normal γ2 subunits during preseizure ages protect from later seizures...
February 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137723/in-vivo-spiking-dynamics-of-intra-and-extratelencephalic-projection-neurons-in-rat-motor-cortex
#12
Akiko Saiki, Yutaka Sakai, Ryoji Fukabori, Shogo Soma, Junichi Yoshida, Masanori Kawabata, Hiromu Yawo, Kazuto Kobayashi, Minoru Kimura, Yoshikazu Isomura
In motor cortex, 2 types of deep layer pyramidal cells send their axons to other areas: intratelencephalic (IT)-type neurons specifically project bilaterally to the cerebral cortex and striatum, whereas neurons of the extratelencephalic (ET)-type, termed conventionally pyramidal tract-type, project ipsilaterally to the thalamus and other areas. Although they have totally different synaptic and membrane potential properties in vitro, little is known about the differences between them in ongoing spiking dynamics in vivo...
January 30, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-cotransmission
#13
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Therefore, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052448/the-can-in-network-a-biologically-inspired-model-for-self-sustained-theta-oscillations-and-memory-maintenance-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Francesco Giovannini, Beate Knauer, Motoharu Yoshida, Laure Buhry
During working memory tasks, the hippocampus exhibits synchronous theta-band activity, which is thought to be correlated with the short-term memory maintenance of salient stimuli. Recent studies indicate that the hippocampus contains the necessary circuitry allowing it to generate and sustain theta oscillations without the need of extrinsic drive. However, the cellular and network mechanisms supporting synchronous rhythmic activity are far from being fully understood. Based on electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal pyramidal CA1 cells, we present a possible mechanism for the maintenance of such rhythmic theta-band activity in the isolated hippocampus...
January 3, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987262/electrophysiological-evidence-for-defective-fast-spiking-gabaergic-neurones-in-a-schizophrenia-model
#15
EDITORIAL
K Nakazawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956068/axial-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias-and-neuronal-activity-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#16
Stephanie L Alberico, Young-Cho Kim, Tomas Lence, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are abnormal involuntary movements that limit the effectiveness of treatments for Parkinson's disease. Although dyskinesias involve the striatum, it is unclear how striatal neurons are involved in dyskinetic movements. Here we record from striatal neurons in mice during levodopa-induced axial dyskinesias. We developed an automated 3-dimensional motion tracking system to capture the development of axial dyskinesias at ∼10ms resolution, and correlated these movements with neuronal activity of striatal medium spiny neurons and fast-spiking interneurons...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929113/a-feedforward-inhibitory-circuit-mediated-by-cb1-expressing-fast-spiking-interneurons-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#17
William J Wright, Oliver M Schlüter, Yan Dong
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) gates motivated behaviors through the functional output of principle medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whereas dysfunctional output of NAc MSNs contributes to a variety of psychiatric disorders. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are sparsely distributed throughout the NAc, forming local feedforward inhibitory circuits. It remains elusive how FSI-based feedforward circuits regulate the output of NAc MSNs. Here, we investigated a distinct subpopulation of NAc FSIs that express the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1)...
April 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929004/gamma-frequency-entrainment-attenuates-amyloid-load-and-modifies-microglia
#18
Hannah F Iaccarino, Annabelle C Singer, Anthony J Martorell, Andrii Rudenko, Fan Gao, Tyler Z Gillingham, Hansruedi Mathys, Jinsoo Seo, Oleg Kritskiy, Fatema Abdurrob, Chinnakkaruppan Adaikkan, Rebecca G Canter, Richard Rueda, Emery N Brown, Edward S Boyden, Li-Huei Tsai
Changes in gamma oscillations (20-50 Hz) have been observed in several neurological disorders. However, the relationship between gamma oscillations and cellular pathologies is unclear. Here we show reduced, behaviourally driven gamma oscillations before the onset of plaque formation or cognitive decline in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Optogenetically driving fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (FS-PV)-interneurons at gamma (40 Hz), but not other frequencies, reduces levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-40 and Aβ 1-42 isoforms...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914882/representation-of-the-body-in-the-lateral-striatum-of-the-freely-moving-rat-fast-spiking-interneurons-respond-to-stimulation-of-individual-body-parts
#19
Julianna M Kulik, Anthony P Pawlak, Manraj Kalkat, Kevin R Coffey, Mark O West
Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911814/distinct-cortical-and-striatal-actions-of-a-%C3%AE-arrestin-biased-dopamine-d2-receptor-ligand-reveal-unique-antipsychotic-like-properties
#20
Nikhil M Urs, Steven M Gee, Thomas F Pack, John D McCorvy, Tama Evron, Joshua C Snyder, Xiaobao Yang, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Emiliana Borrelli, William C Wetsel, Jian Jin, Bryan L Roth, Patricio O'Donnell, Marc G Caron
The current dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates striatal hyperdopaminergia and cortical hypodopaminergia. Although partial agonists at DA D2 receptors (D2Rs), like aripiprazole, were developed to simultaneously target both phenomena, they do not effectively improve cortical dysfunction. In this study, we investigate the potential for newly developed β-arrestin2 (βarr2)-biased D2R partial agonists to simultaneously target hyper- and hypodopaminergia. Using neuron-specific βarr2-KO mice, we show that the antipsychotic-like effects of a βarr2-biased D2R ligand are driven through both striatal antagonism and cortical agonism of D2R-βarr2 signaling...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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