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Jianing Yu, Diego A Gutnisky, S Andrew Hires, Karel Svoboda
We rely on movement to explore the environment, for example, by palpating an object. In somatosensory cortex, activity related to movement of digits or whiskers is suppressed, which could facilitate detection of touch. Movement-related suppression is generally assumed to involve corollary discharges. Here we uncovered a thalamocortical mechanism in which cortical fast-spiking interneurons, driven by sensory input, suppress movement-related activity in layer 4 (L4) excitatory neurons. In mice locating objects with their whiskers, neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) fired in response to touch and whisker movement...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Keisuke Kaneko, Yuko Koyanagi, Yoshiyuki Oi, Masayuki Kobayashi
Propofol is a major intravenous anesthetic that facilitates GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents and modulates Ih, K(+), and voltage-gated Na(+) currents. This propofol-induced modulation of ionic currents changes intrinsic membrane properties and repetitive spike firing in cortical pyramidal neurons. However, it has been unknown whether propofol modulates these electrophysiological properties in GABAergic neurons, which express these ion channels at different levels. This study examined whether pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal properties are differentially modulated by propofol in the rat insular cortical slice preparation...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Robert G Averkin, Viktor Szemenyei, Sándor Bordé, Gábor Tamás
Ultra-high-frequency network events in the hippocampus are instrumental in a dialogue with the neocortex during memory formation, but the existence of transient ∼200 Hz network events in the neocortex is not clear. Our recordings from neocortical layer II/III of freely behaving rats revealed field potential events at ripple and high-gamma frequencies repeatedly occurring at troughs of spindle oscillations during sleep. Juxtacellular recordings identified subpopulations of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing basket cells with epochs of firing at ripple (∼200 Hz) and high-gamma (∼120 Hz) frequencies detected during spindles and centered with millisecond precision at the trough of spindle waves in phase with field potential events but phase shifted relative to pyramidal cell firing...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Kévin Marche, Paul Apicella
Recent works highlight the importance of local inhibitory interneurons in regulating the function of the striatum. In particular, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), which likely correspond to a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons, have been involved in the control of movement by exerting strong inhibition on striatal output pathways. However, little is known about the exact contribution of these presumed interneurons in movement preparation, initiation, and execution. We recorded the activity of FSIs in the striatum of monkeys as they performed reaching movements to a visual target under two task conditions: one in which the movement target was presented at unsignaled left or right locations, and another in which advance information about target location was available, thus allowing monkeys to react faster...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Eiko Yokota, Yuko Koyanagi, Kiyofumi Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Oi, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
The insular cortex (IC) plays a principal role in the regulation of pain processing. Although opioidergic agonists depress cortical excitatory synaptic transmission, little is known about opioidergic roles in inhibitory synaptic transmission. In the IC, the opioid receptors differentially regulate the excitatory propagation: agonists of the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) exhibit suppressive, facilitative, and little effects, respectively. Thus, we aimed to examine the effects of opioid receptor agonists on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) in the IC...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Christoph Straub, Jessica Lizette Saulnier, Aurelien Bègue, Danielle D Feng, Kee Wui Huang, Bernardo Luis Sabatini
The striatum, the entry nucleus of the basal ganglia, lacks laminar or columnar organization of its principal cells; nevertheless, functional data suggest that it is spatially organized. Here we examine whether the connectivity and synaptic organization of striatal GABAergic interneurons contributes to such spatial organization. Focusing on the two main classes of striatal GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking interneurons [FSIs] and low-threshold-spiking interneurons [LTSIs]), we apply a combination of optogenetics and viral tracing approaches to dissect striatal microcircuits in mice...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Yu Gu, Trinh Tran, Sachiko Murase, Andrew Borrell, Alfredo Kirkwood, Elizabeth M Quinlan
: Maturation of excitatory drive onto fast-spiking interneurons (FS INs) in the visual cortex has been implicated in the control of the timing of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. However, the mechanisms that regulate the strength of these synapses over cortical development are not understood. Here we use a mouse model to show that neuregulin (NRG) and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbB4 regulate the timing of the critical period. NRG1 enhanced the strength of excitatory synapses onto FS INs, which inhibited ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period but rescued plasticity in transgenics with hypoexcitable FS INs...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J Stedehouder, S A Kushner
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Despite more than a century of research, the neurobiological mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. White matter abnormalities and interneuron dysfunction are the most widely replicated cellular neuropathological alterations in patients with schizophrenia. However, a unifying model incorporating these findings has not yet been established. Here, we propose that myelination of fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons could be an important locus of pathophysiological convergence in schizophrenia...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Fábio A Nascimento, Danielle M Andrade
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a distinct group of seizure disorders characterized by gradual neurological decline with ataxia, myoclonus and recurring seizures. There are several forms of PME, among which the most recently described is MEAK - myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation. This particular subtype is caused by a recurrent de novo heterozygous mutation (c.959G>A, p.Arg320His) in the KCNC1 gene, which maps to chromosome 11 and encodes for the Kv3.1 protein (a subunit of the Kv3 subfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels)...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Sarah Cushing Woolley
Basal ganglia circuits are critical for the modulation of motor performance across behavioral states. In zebra finches, a cortical-basal ganglia circuit dedicated to singing is necessary for males adjust their song performance and transition between spontaneous singing, when they are alone ('undirected' song), and a performance state when they sing to a female ('female-directed song'). However, we know little about the role of different basal ganglia cell types in this behavioral transition or the degree to which behavioral context modulates the activity of different neuron classes...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Heather Trantham-Davidson, Samuel W Centanni, S Corrin Garr, Natasha N New, Patrick J Mulholland, Justin T Gass, Elizabeth J Glover, Stan B Floresco, Fulton T Crews, Harish R Krishnan, Subhash C Pandey, L Judson Chandler
Repeated binge-like exposure to alcohol during adolescence has been reported to perturb prefrontal cortical development, yet the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Here we report that adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure induces cellular and dopaminergic abnormalities in the adult prelimbic cortex (PrL-C). Exposing rats to alcohol during early-mid adolescence (PD28-42) increased the density of long/thin dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the adult PrL-C. Interestingly, although AIE exposure did not alter the expression of glutamatergic proteins in the adult PrL-C, there was a pronounced reduction in dopamine (DA) D1 receptor modulation of both intrinsic firing and evoked NMDA currents in pyramidal cells, whereas D2 receptor function was unaltered...
September 13, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Laurie Lambot, David Gall
Optical imaging of voltage indicators is a promising approach for detecting the activity of neuronal circuits with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this context, genetically encoded voltage indicators, combining genetic targeting and optical readout of transmembrane voltage, represent a technological breaktrough that will without doubt have a major impact in neuroscience. However, so far the existing genetically encoded voltage indicators lacked the capabilities to detect individual action potentials and fast spike trains in live animals...
August 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Amy Baohan, Taruna Ikrar, Elaine Tring, Xiangmin Xu, Joshua T Trachtenberg
Perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal neurons is established by fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells). Failure to assemble adequate perisomatic inhibition is thought to underlie the aetiology of neurological dysfunction in seizures, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Here we show that in mouse visual cortex, strong perisomatic inhibition does not develop if PV cells lack a single copy of Pten. PTEN signalling appears to drive the assembly of perisomatic inhibition in an experience-dependent manner by suppressing the expression of EphB4; PV cells hemizygous for Pten show an ∼2-fold increase in expression of EphB4, and over-expression of EphB4 in adult PV cells causes a dismantling of perisomatic inhibition...
2016: Nature Communications
Adam M Large, Nicholas A Kunz, Samantha L Mielo, Anne-Marie M Oswald
Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral role in cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST) interneurons onto pyramidal cells (PCs), parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, and other interneuron classes...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Timothy S Balmer
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized complexes of extracellular matrix molecules that surround the somata of fast-spiking neurons throughout the vertebrate brain. PNNs are particularly prevalent throughout the auditory brainstem, which transmits signals with high speed and precision. It is unknown whether PNNs contribute to the fast-spiking ability of the neurons they surround. Whole-cell recordings were made from medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) principal neurons in acute brain slices from postnatal day 21 (P21) to P27 mice...
July 2016: ENeuro
Gábor Molnár, Márton Rózsa, Judith Baka, Noémi Holderith, Pál Barzó, Zoltan Nusser, Gábor Tamás
Classic theories link cognitive abilities to synaptic properties and human-specific biophysical features of synapses might contribute to the unparalleled performance of the human cerebral cortex. Paired recordings and multiple probability fluctuation analysis revealed similar quantal sizes, but 4-times more functional release sites in human pyramidal cell to fast-spiking interneuron connections compared to rats. These connections were mediated on average by three synaptic contacts in both species. Each presynaptic active zone (AZ) contains 6...
2016: ELife
Julia Brill, Joanna Mattis, Karl Deisseroth, John R Huguenard
Neocortical pyramidal cells (PYRs) receive synaptic inputs from many types of GABAergic interneurons. Connections between parvalbumin (PV)-positive, fast-spiking interneurons ("PV cells") and PYRs are characterized by perisomatic synapses and high-amplitude, short-latency IPSCs. Here, we present novel methods to study the functional influence of PV cells on layer 5 PYRs using optogenetics combined with laser-scanning photostimulation (LSPS). First, we examined the strength and spatial distribution of PV-to-PYR inputs...
July 2016: ENeuro
Garrett T Neske, Barry W Connors
During cortical network activity, recurrent synaptic excitation among pyramidal neurons is approximately balanced by synaptic inhibition, which is provided by a vast diversity of inhibitory interneurons. The relative contributions of different interneuron subtypes to inhibitory tone during cortical network activity is not well-understood. We previously showed that many of the major interneuron subtypes in mouse barrel cortex are highly active during Up states (Neske et al., 2015); while fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells were the most active interneuron subtype, many non-fast-spiking (NFS), PV-negative interneurons were as active or more active than neighboring pyramidal cells...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
E M Hiolski, S Ito, J M Beggs, K A Lefebvre, A M Litke, D R Smith
Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by algae and is found in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As a glutamate agonist, domoic acid inappropriately stimulates excitatory activity in neurons. At high doses, this leads to seizures and brain lesions, but it is unclear how lower, asymptomatic exposures disrupt neuronal activity. Domoic acid has been detected in an increasing variety of species across a greater geographical range than ever before, making it critical to understand the potential health impacts of low-level exposure on vulnerable marine mammal and human populations...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
Rie Kimura, Akiko Saiki, Yoko Fujiwara-Tsukamoto, Yutaka Sakai, Yoshikazu Isomura
Spike synchrony within several milliseconds in presynaptic neurons enables effective integration of functional information in the postsynaptic neuron. However, few studies have systematically analyzed the population-wide relationships between spike synchrony and behavioral functions. Here we obtained a sufficiently large amount of spike data among regular-spiking (RS; putatively excitatory) and fast-spiking (FS; putatively inhibitory) neuron subtypes (>23,000 pairs) by multiple single-unit recording from deep layers in motor cortical areas [caudal forelimb area (CFA), rostral forelimb area (RFA)] in rats performing a forelimb movement task...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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