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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333742/parvalbumin-fast-spiking-interneurons-are-selectively-altered-by-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Joshua Nichols, George Reed Bjorklund, Jason Newbern, Trent Anderson
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Traditionally, ongoing neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity have thought to confer children with an advantage following TBI. However, recent findings indicate that the pediatric brain may be more sensitive to brain injury. Inhibitory interneurons are essential for proper cortical function and implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI, yet few studies have directly examined for TBI induced changes to interneurons themselves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#2
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#3
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons,2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons,4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons,and5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326172/diversity-and-connectivity-of-layer-5-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#4
Nigro Maximiliano José, Yoshiko Hashikawa, Bernardo Rudy
Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo. However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321592/amyloid-%C3%AE-causes-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-through-dopamine-receptor-1-dependent-disruption-of-fast-spiking-gabaergic-input-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#5
Si-Qiang Ren, Wen Yao, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chunhui Jin, Jia-Jun Yin, Jianmin Yuan, Shui Yu, Zaohuo Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. At the early stages of AD development, the soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) induces synaptic dysfunction, perturbs the excitation/inhibition balance of neural circuitries, and in turn alters the normal neural network activity leading to cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here by using whole-cell recordings in acute mouse brain slices, we found that 50 nM Aβ induces hyperexcitability of excitatory pyramidal cells in the cingulate cortex, one of the most vulnerable areas in AD, via depressing inhibitory synaptic transmission...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317600/altered-avalanche-dynamics-in-a-developmental-nmdar-hypofunction-model-of-cognitive-impairment
#6
Saurav Seshadri, Andreas Klaus, Daniel E Winkowski, Patrick O Kanold, Dietmar Plenz
Disturbed activity patterns in cortical networks contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Several lines of evidence implicate NMDA receptor hypofunction in SZ, and blocking NMDA receptor signaling during early neurodevelopment produces cognitive deficits in rodent models that resemble those seen in schizophrenic patients. However, the altered network dynamics underlying these cognitive impairments largely remain to be characterized, especially at the cellular level. Here, we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to describe pathological dynamics, occurring in parallel with cognitive dysfunction, in a developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction model...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302214/antidepressant-drug-paroxetine-blocks-the-open-pore-of-kv3-1-potassium-channel
#7
Hyang Mi Lee, Ok Hee Chai, Sang June Hahn, Bok Hee Choi
In patients with epilepsy, depression is a common comorbidity but difficult to be treated because many antidepressants cause pro-convulsive effects. Thus, it is important to identify the risk of seizures associated with antidepressants. To determine whether paroxetine, a very potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), interacts with ion channels that modulate neuronal excitability, we examined the effects of paroxetine on Kv3.1 potassium channels, which contribute to highfrequency firing of interneurons, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289596/neuronal-activity-pattern-defects-in-the-striatum-in-awake-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Hui Chen, Huimeng Lei, Qunyuan Xu
Previous studies showed the loss of dopaminergic neurons directly leads to both changes in firing rate and neuronal synchrony in the striatum by pharmacogenetic approach, but physiological observation of striatal neurons in awake animal is rare up to now due to the limitation of recording methods. We use multichannel in vivo recording system, to record the activity pattern of both medium spiny projecting neurons (MSNs) and fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) in awake mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), created by injection of 6-hydroxyl-dopamine (6-OHDA) into dorsolateral striatum bilaterally and unilaterally...
December 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235497/pharmacological-modulation-of-kv3-1-mitigates-auditory-midbrain-temporal-processing-deficits-following-auditory-nerve-damage
#9
Anna R Chambers, Nadia Pilati, Pooja Balaram, Charles H Large, Leonard K Kaczmarek, Daniel B Polley
Higher stages of central auditory processing compensate for a loss of cochlear nerve synapses by increasing the gain on remaining afferent inputs, thereby restoring firing rate codes for rudimentary sound features. The benefits of this compensatory plasticity are limited, as the recovery of precise temporal coding is comparatively modest. We reasoned that persistent temporal coding deficits could be ameliorated through modulation of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels that regulate temporal firing patterns...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235480/vocal-learning-promotes-patterned-inhibitory-connectivity
#10
Mark N Miller, Chung Yan J Cheung, Michael S Brainard
Skill learning is instantiated by changes to functional connectivity within premotor circuits, but whether the specificity of learning depends on structured changes to inhibitory circuitry remains unclear. We used slice electrophysiology to measure connectivity changes associated with song learning in the avian analog of primary motor cortex (robust nucleus of the arcopallium, RA) in Bengalese Finches. Before song learning, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) densely innervated glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) with apparently random connectivity...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227249/eye-opening-differentially-modulates-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-developing-visual-cortex
#11
Wuqiang Guan, Jun-Wei Cao, Lin-Yun Liu, Zhi-Hao Zhao, Yinghui Fu, Yong-Chun Yu
Eye opening, a natural and timed event during animal development, influences cortical circuit assembly and maturation; yet, little is known about its precise effect on inhibitory synaptic connections. Here we show that coinciding with eye opening, the strength of unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) from somatostatin-expressing interneurons (Sst-INs) to nearby excitatory neurons, but not interneurons, sharply decreases in layer 2/3 of the mouse visual cortex. In contrast, the strength of uIPSCs from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs) to excitatory neurons significantly increases during eye opening...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206101/serotonin-enhances-excitability-and-gamma-frequency-temporal-integration-in-mouse-prefrontal-fast-spiking-interneurons
#12
Jegath C Athilingam, Roy Ben-Shalom, Caroline M Keeshen, Vikaas Sohal, Kevin Bender
The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in higher order cognitive functions like decision making and social cognition. These complex behaviors emerge from the coordinated firing of prefrontal neurons. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) control the timing of excitatory neuron firing via somatic inhibition and generate gamma (30-100 Hz) oscillations. Therefore, factors that regulate how FSIs respond to gamma-frequency input could affect both prefrontal circuit activity and behavior. Here, we show that serotonin (5HT), which is known to regulate gamma power, acts via 5HT2A receptors to suppress an inward-rectifying potassium conductance in FSIs...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166601/triple-function-of-synaptotagmin-7-ensures-efficiency-of-high-frequency-transmission-at-central-gabaergic-synapses
#13
Chong Chen, Rachel Satterfield, Samuel M Young, Peter Jonas
Synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is thought to be a Ca(2+) sensor that mediates asynchronous transmitter release and facilitation at synapses. However, Syt7 is strongly expressed in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons, and the output synapses of these neurons produce only minimal asynchronous release and show depression rather than facilitation. To resolve this apparent contradiction, we examined the effects of genetic elimination of Syt7 on synaptic transmission at the GABAergic basket cell (BC)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapse in cerebellum...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139050/modeling-mesoscopic-cortical-dynamics-using-a-mean-field-model-of-conductance-based-networks-of-adaptive-exponential-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#14
Yann Zerlaut, Sandrine Chemla, Frederic Chavane, Alain Destexhe
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) has revealed fundamental properties of neocortical processing at macroscopic scales. Since for each pixel VSDi signals report the average membrane potential over hundreds of neurons, it seems natural to use a mean-field formalism to model such signals. Here, we present a mean-field model of networks of Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate-and-fire neurons, with conductance-based synaptic interactions. We study a network of regular-spiking (RS) excitatory neurons and fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory neurons...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138759/identification-of-persistent-and-resurgent-sodium-currents-in-spiral-ganglion-neurons-cultured-from-the-mouse-cochlea
#15
Lorcan Browne, Katie E Smith, Daniel J Jagger
In spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent single units of the auditory nerve, high spontaneous and evoked firing rates ensure preservation of the temporal code describing the key features of incoming sound. During postnatal development, the spatiotemporal distribution of ion channel subtypes contributes to the maturation of action potential generation in SGNs, and to their ability to generate spike patterns that follow rapidly changing inputs. Here we describe tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na+ currents in SGNs cultured from mice, whose properties may support this fast spiking behavior...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126935/age-dependent-and-region-specific-alteration-of-parvalbumin-neurons-and-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#16
Hiroshi Ueno, Keizo Takao, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Shozo Aoki, Takeshi Ishihara
Cognitive function declines with age. Such function depends on γ-oscillation in the frontal cortex. Pyramidal neurons, and the parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV neurons) that control them, are important for the generation of γ-oscillation. The mechanism by which cognitive function declines is unclear. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) mainly surround the soma and proximal dendrites and axon segments of PV neurons in the cerebral cortex. Previous evidence indicates that PNNs inhibit neural plasticity. If this is true, an increase in the number of neurons surrounded by PNNs or in the thickness or density of the PNNs around neurons could decrease plasticity in the cortex...
November 7, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121216/fast-inhibitory-decay-facilitates-adult-like-temporal-processing-in-layer-5-of-developing-primary-auditory-cortex
#17
Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Dongqin Cai, Miaomiao Liu, Yin Yue, Yiwei Wang, Kexin Yuan
The protracted maturational process of temporal processing in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) has been extensively studied. Accumulating evidences show that layer 5 (L5) receives direct thalamic inputs as well. How the temporal responses in L5 may developmentally emerge remains unclear. Using in vivo loose-patch recordings in rat A1, we found that putative pyramidal (Pyr) neurons in developing L5 exhibited adult-like stimulus-following ability but less bursting shortly after hearing onset. L5 Pyr neurons in adult A1 exhibited phase-locking similar to L4 neurons, while L5 fast-spiking (FS) neurons showed greater phase-locking at 7 and 12...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101523/functional-comparison-of-corticostriatal-and-thalamostriatal-postsynaptic-responses-in-striatal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#18
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096588/non-nmda-receptor-mediated-vibrotactile-responses-of-neurons-from-the-hindpaw-representation-in-the-rat-si-cortex
#19
Bige Vardar, Burak Güçlü
Non-NMDA receptor-mediated vibrotactile responses of neurons from the hindpaw representation were investigated in the rat SI cortex. We recorded single-unit spikes evoked by sinusoidal (duration: 500 ms; frequency: 5, 40, and 250 Hz; amplitude: 100 μm peak-to-peak) stimulation of the glabrous skin. The responses were obtained with microinjection of aCSF (sham), bicuculline, and AMPA near the isolated neurons in anaesthetized rats. Blocking most of the NMDA receptors by ketamine revealed local dynamics differentially modulated by each drug...
September 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081006/callosal-responses-in-a-retrosplenial-column
#20
Alejandro Sempere-Ferràndez, Belén Andrés-Bayón, Emilio Geijo-Barrientos
The axons forming the corpus callosum sustain the interhemispheric communication across homotopic cortical areas. We have studied how neurons throughout the columnar extension of the retrosplenial cortex integrate the contralateral input from callosal projecting neurons in cortical slices. Our results show that pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and the large, thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in layer 5B showed larger excitatory callosal responses than layer 5A and layer 5B thin-tufted pyramidal neurons, while layer 6 remained silent to this input...
October 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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