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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691274/negative-myoclonus-secondary-to-paroxetine-intake
#1
Pedro Correia, Joana Afonso Ribeiro, Conceição Bento, Francisco Sales
Outside the context of overdose and serotonin syndrome, seizures and myoclonic movements attributed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are rare and poorly documented. We present a 77-year-old man, with no history of epilepsy, presenting in the emergency department with whole body jerks since that morning. Two days earlier, due to a prescription mistake, he was started on paroxetine 20 mg instead of his usual fluoxetine 20 mg. The patient's electroencephalogram (EEG), performed in the emergency department, revealed a bilateral synchronous parieto-occipital fast spike activity pattern, which correlated consistently with negative myoclonus...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668858/densities-and-laminar-distributions-of-kv3-1b-pv-gaba-and-smi-32-immunoreactive-neurons-in-macaque-area-v1
#2
Jenna G Kelly, Virginia García-Marín, Bernardo Rudy, Michael J Hawken
The Kv3.1b potassium channel subunit is associated with narrow spike widths and fast-spiking properties. In macaque primary visual cortex (V1), subsets of neurons have previously been found to be Kv3.1b-immunoreactive (ir) but not parvalbumin (PV)-ir or not GABA-ir, suggesting that they may be both fast-spiking and excitatory. This population includes Meynert cells, the large layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons that are also labeled by the neurofilament antibody SMI-32. In the present study, triple immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy were used to measure the distribution of Kv3...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621485/complementary-tuning-of-na-and-k-channel-gating-underlies-fast-and-energy-efficient-action-potentials-in-gabaergic-interneuron-axons
#3
Hua Hu, Fabian C Roth, David Vandael, Peter Jonas
Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons (PV+ -BCs) express a complex machinery of rapid signaling mechanisms, including specialized voltage-gated ion channels to generate brief action potentials (APs). However, short APs are associated with overlapping Na+ and K+ fluxes and are therefore energetically expensive. How the potentially vicious combination of high AP frequency and inefficient spike generation can be reconciled with limited energy supply is presently unclear. To address this question, we performed direct recordings from the PV+ -BC axon, the subcellular structure where active conductances for AP initiation and propagation are located...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615897/adenosine-a-2a-receptors-control-glutamatergic-synaptic-plasticity-in-fast-spiking-interneurons-of-the-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Amber Kerkhofs, Paula M Canas, A J Timmerman, Tim S Heistek, Joana I Real, Carolina Xavier, Rodrigo A Cunha, Huibert D Mansvelder, Samira G Ferreira
Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) are activated upon increased synaptic activity to assist in the implementation of long-term plastic changes at synapses. While it is reported that A2A R are involved in the control of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent behavior such as working memory, reversal learning and effort-based decision making, it is not known whether A2A R control glutamatergic synapse plasticity within the medial PFC (mPFC). To elucidate that, we tested whether A2A R blockade affects long-term plasticity (LTP) of excitatory post-synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons and fast spiking (FS) interneurons in layer 5 of the mPFC and of population spikes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574880/cannabidiol-exerts-antiepileptic-effects-by-restoring-hippocampal-interneuron-functions-in-a-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model
#5
Archie A Khan, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Ayatakin Khalil, Matthew C Walker, Afia B Ali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated the effects of CBD at synaptic connections, and the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin -expressing (PV) and adapting, cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) interneurons...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560928/fast-eeg-spike-detection-via-eigenvalue-analysis-and-clustering-of-spatial-amplitude-distribution
#6
Tadanori Fukami, Takamasa Shimada, Bunnoshin Ishikawa
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we tested a proposed method for fast spike detection in electroencephalography (EEG). APPROACH: We performed eigenvalue analysis in two-dimensional space spanned by gradients calculated from two neighboring samples to detect high-amplitude negative peaks. We extracted the spike candidates by imposing restrictions on parameters regarding spike shape and eigenvalues reflecting detection characteristics of individual medical doctors...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551491/nav1-1-overexpressing-interneuron-transplants-restore-brain-rhythms-and-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Magdalena Martinez-Losa, Tara E Tracy, Keran Ma, Laure Verret, Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Abdullah S Khan, Inma Cobos, Kaitlyn Ho, Li Gan, Lennart Mucke, Manuel Alvarez-Dolado, Jorge J Palop
Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531088/disinhibition-of-ca1-pyramidal-cells-by-low-dose-ketamine-and-other-antagonists-with-rapid-antidepressant-efficacy
#8
Allie J Widman, Lori L McMahon
Low-dose ketamine, an open-channel N -methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, mediates rapid antidepressant effects in humans that are mimicked in preclinical rodent models. Disinhibition of pyramidal cells via decreased output of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons has been proposed as a key mechanism that triggers the antidepressant response. Unfortunately, to date, disinhibition has not been directly demonstrated. Furthermore, whether disinhibition is a common mechanism shared among other antagonists with rapid antidepressant properties in humans has not been investigated...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507147/activity-dependent-myelination-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-mediated-by-axonal-morphological-plasticity
#9
Jeffrey Stedehouder, Demi Brizee, Guy Shpak, Steven A Kushner
Axonal myelination of neocortical pyramidal neurons is modulated dynamically by neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that a substantial proportion of neocortical myelin content is contributed by fast-spiking, parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons. However, it remains unknown whether the myelination of PV+ interneurons is also modulated by intrinsic activity. Here, we used cell-type-specific Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) in adult mice to activate a sparse population of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) PV+ interneurons...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503190/gamma-oscillation-dysfunction-in-mpfc-leads-to-social-deficits-in-neuroligin-3-r451c-knockin-mice
#10
Wei Cao, Shen Lin, Qiang-Qiang Xia, Yong-Lan Du, Qian Yang, Meng-Ying Zhang, Yi-Qing Lu, Jing Xu, Shu-Min Duan, Jun Xia, Guoping Feng, Junyu Xu, Jian-Hong Luo
Neuroligins (NLs) are critical for synapse formation and function. NL3 R451C is an autism-associated mutation. NL3 R451C knockin (KI) mice exhibit autistic behavioral abnormalities, including social novelty deficits. However, neither the brain regions involved in social novelty nor the underlying mechanisms are clearly understood. Here, we found decreased excitability of fast-spiking interneurons and dysfunction of gamma oscillation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which contributed to the social novelty deficit in the KI mice...
March 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483660/multiple-long-range-inputs-evoke-nmda-currents-in-prefrontal-cortex-fast-spiking-interneurons
#11
Luke Joseph Bogart, Patricio O'Donnell
Several aspects of schizophrenia can be mimicked acutely in healthy human volunteers via administration of NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. As these agents decrease firing rates in prefrontal cortical (PFC) GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons (FSI) in animal studies, a leading hypothesis on schizophrenia pathophysiology is that NMDAR in FSI are impaired. However, whole-cell recordings of FSI in slices of adult mouse PFC revealed limited amounts of NMDAR-mediated current. Since those studies used local electrical stimulation to activate a heterogeneous set of synaptic inputs to the recorded cell, it is unclear whether specific afferent inputs may preferentially drive NMDAR responses in FSI...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480942/excitatory-extrinsic-afferents-to-striatal-interneurons-and-interactions-with-striatal-microcircuitry
#12
REVIEW
Maxime Assous, James M Tepper
The striatum constitutes the main input structure of the basal ganglia and receives two major excitatory glutamatergic inputs, from the cortex and the thalamus. Excitatory cortico- and thalamostriatal connections innervate the principal neurons of the striatum, the spiny projection neurons (SPNs), which constitute the main cellular input as well as the only output of the striatum. In addition, corticostriatal and thalamostriatal inputs also innervate striatal interneurons. Some of these inputs have been very well studied, for example the thalamic innervation of cholinergic interneurons and the cortical innervation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons, but inputs to most other GABAergic interneurons remain largely unstudied, due in part to the relatively recent identification and characterization of many of these interneurons...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429614/inversely-active-striatal-projection-neurons-and-interneurons-selectively-delimit-useful-behavioral-sequences
#13
Nuné Martiros, Alexandra A Burgess, Ann M Graybiel
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representation specifically marking previously rewarded behavioral sequences independent of the individual movements making up the behavior. We recorded spike activity in the striatum and primary motor cortex as individual rats learned specific rewarded lever-press sequences, each one unique to a given rat...
February 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425490/fast-spiking-interneurons-supply-feedforward-control-of-bursting-calcium-and-plasticity-for-efficient-learning
#14
Scott F Owen, Joshua D Berke, Anatol C Kreitzer
Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are a prominent class of forebrain GABAergic cells implicated in two seemingly independent network functions: gain control and network plasticity. Little is known, however, about how these roles interact. Here, we use a combination of cell-type-specific ablation, optogenetics, electrophysiology, imaging, and behavior to describe a unified mechanism by which striatal FSIs control burst firing, calcium influx, and synaptic plasticity in neighboring medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
February 8, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415191/training-and-spontaneous-reinforcement-of-neuronal-assemblies-by-spike-timing-plasticity
#15
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Brent Doiron
The synaptic connectivity of cortex is plastic, with experience shaping the ongoing interactions between neurons. Theoretical studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have focused on either just pairs of neurons or large-scale simulations. A simple analytic account for how fast spike time correlations affect both microscopic and macroscopic network structure is lacking. We develop a low-dimensional mean field theory for STDP in recurrent networks and show the emergence of assemblies of strongly coupled neurons with shared stimulus preferences...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405451/nicotinic-activity-layer-specifically-modulates-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-mouse-insular-cortex
#16
Hiroki Toyoda
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the insular cortex play an important role in nicotine addiction, but its cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction still remain unresolved. In layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex, activation of nAChRs suppresses synaptic potentiation through enhancing GABAergic synaptic transmission via activation of β2-containing nAChRs in non-fast-spiking (non-FS) interneurons. However, it has not been addressed whether and how activation of nAChRs modulates synaptic plasticity in layers 3 and 6 pyramidal neurons of the insular cortex...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396456/nanodiamonds-induced-effects-on-neuronal-firing-of-mouse-hippocampal-microcircuits
#17
L Guarina, C Calorio, D Gavello, E Moreva, P Traina, A Battiato, S Ditalia Tchernij, J Forneris, M Gai, F Picollo, P Olivero, M Genovese, E Carbone, A Marcantoni, V Carabelli
Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) are carbon-based nanomaterials that can efficiently incorporate optically active photoluminescent centers such as the nitrogen-vacancy complex, thus making them promising candidates as optical biolabels and drug-delivery agents. FNDs exhibit bright fluorescence without photobleaching combined with high uptake rate and low cytotoxicity. Focusing on FNDs interference with neuronal function, here we examined their effect on cultured hippocampal neurons, monitoring the whole network development as well as the electrophysiological properties of single neurons...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386397/entorhinal-fast-spiking-speed-cells-project-to-the-hippocampus
#18
Jing Ye, Menno P Witter, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I Moser
The mammalian positioning system contains a variety of functionally specialized cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the hippocampus. In order for cells in these systems to dynamically update representations in a way that reflects ongoing movement in the environment, they must be able to read out the current speed of the animal. Speed is encoded by speed-responsive cells in both MEC and hippocampus, but the relationship between the two populations has not been determined. We show here that many entorhinal speed cells are fast-spiking putative GABAergic neurons...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377991/subthreshold-activity-underlying-the-diversity-and-selectivity-of-the-primary-auditory-cortex-studied-by-intracellular-recordings-in-awake-marmosets
#19
Lixia Gao, Xiaoqin Wang
Extracellular recording studies have revealed diverse and selective neural responses in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake animals. However, we have limited knowledge on subthreshold events that give rise to these responses, especially in non-human primates, as intracellular recordings in awake animals pose substantial technical challenges. We developed a novel intracellular recording technique in awake marmosets to systematically study subthreshold activity of A1 neurons that underlies their diverse and selective spiking responses...
January 25, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359830/integrated-anatomical-and-physiological-mapping-of-striatal-afferent-projections
#20
Kyuhyun Choi, Elizabeth N Holly, M Felicia Davatolhagh, Kevin T Beier, Marc V Fuccillo
The dorsomedial striatum, a key site of reward-sensitive motor output, receives extensive afferent input from cortex, thalamus and midbrain. These projections are integrated by striatal microcircuits containing both spiny projection neurons and local circuit interneurons. To explore target cell specificity of these projections, we compared inputs onto D1-dopamine receptor-positive spiny neurons, parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons and somatostatin-positive low-threshold-spiking interneurons, using cell type-specific rabies virus tracing and optogenetic-mediated projection neuron recruitment in mice...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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