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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#1
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454088/hsf4-transcriptional-regulates-hmox-1-expression-in-hlecs
#2
Shengjie Liao, Zhen Qu, Linqiang Li, Benwen Zhou, Meng Gao, Mi Huang, Duanzhuo Li
The major causes for cataract formation are free radicals, which are neutralized by the endogenous antioxidants. However, how the human lens clean these harmful free radicals is still unclear. Transcriptional factor heat shock factor 4 (HSF4) is a cataract-causing gene and plays important roles during lens development. Here we show that HMOX-1, an anti-oxidase, is a bona fide transcriptional target gene of HSF4 in HLECs (human lens epithelial cells). HSF4 directly binds to the HSE element in HMOX-1 promoter to mediate its mRNA transcription and protein accumulation...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453958/age-dependent-effects-of-dimethyl-fumarate-on-cognitive-and-neuropathological-features-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Irena Majkutewicz, Ewelina Kurowska, Magdalena Podlacha, Dorota Myślińska, Beata Grembecka, Jan Ruciński, Karolina Pierzynowska, Danuta Wrona
We previously demonstrated that dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an anti-oxidative and immunosuppresive compound, prevents intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced disruption of spatial memory and neurodegeneration in 4-month-old rats. The present study evaluated the influence of age on DMF's therapeutic effect. Aged rats (22-months-old, n=40) were provided rodent chow containing DMF (0.4%) and given ICV injections of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle (Sham) on days 2 and 4. Spatial memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 14-21...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453511/developing-new-age-specific-prostate-specific-antigen-thresholds-for-testing-for-prostate-cancer
#4
Rebecca Gilbert, Kate Tilling, Richard M Martin, J Athene Lane, Michael Davis, Freddie C Hamdy, David E Neal, Jenny L Donovan, Chris Metcalfe
PURPOSE: To examine whether age-related reference ranges for "normal" prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (determined in men without prostate cancer) can be used to identify men at high risk of having prostate cancer. METHODS: Subjects were men aged 50-69 years with PSA < 10 ng/mL from the UK-based Prostate Testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. Men with prostate cancer were categorized as high or low risk of progression (Low risk: Gleason score ≤ 6 and stage T1-T2a; High risk: Gleason score 7-10 or stage T2C)...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453250/retinal-chitosan-conjugates-effectively-deliver-active-chromophores-to-retinal-photoreceptor-cells-in-blind-mice-and-dogs
#5
Songqi Gao, Shirin Kahremany, Jianye Zhang, Beata Jastrzebska, Janice Querubin, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Krzysztof Palczewski
The retinoid (visual) cycle consists of a series of biochemical reactions needed to regenerate the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal and sustain vision. Genetic or environmental factors affecting chromophore production can lead to blindness. Using animal models that mimic human retinal diseases, we previously demonstrated that mechanism-based pharmacological interventions can maintain vision in otherwise incurable genetic diseases of the retina. Here, we report that after 9-cis-retinal administration to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-deficient (Lrat-/-) mice, the drug was rapidly absorbed and then cleared within 1-2 h...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453225/prevalence-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-associated-genetic-risk-factors-and-4-year-progression-data-in-the-irish-population
#6
Emma Connolly, Maedbh Rhatigan, Aisling M O'Halloran, Katherine Alyson Muldrew, Usha Chakravarthy, Mark Cahill, Rose Anne Kenny, Sarah L Doyle
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is estimated to affect 196 million people >50 years old globally. Prevalence of AMD-associated genetic risk factors and rate of disease progression are unknown in Ireland. METHODS: Prevalence of AMD-associated genetic risk variants, complement factor H (CFH) rs1061170, age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) rs10490924, component 3 (C3) rs2230199, complement factor B (CFB) rs641153 and superkiller viralicidic activity 2-like (SKIV2L) rs429608 and 4-year progression data in a population-representative cohort (The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing (TILDA)) were assessed...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453223/tissue-engineering-of-retina-and-bruch-s-membrane-a-review-of-cells-materials-and-processes
#7
REVIEW
Yong Sheng Edgar Tan, Pu Jiang Shi, Chang-J Choo, Augustinus Laude, Wai Yee Yeong
The biological, structural and functional configuration of Bruch's membrane (BM) is significantly relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other chorioretinal diseases, and AMD is one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The configuration may worsen along with the ageing of retinal pigment epithelium and BM that finally leads to AMD. Thus, the scaffold-based tissue-engineered retina provides an innovative alternative for retinal tissue repair. The cell and material requirements for retinal repair are discussed including cell sheet engineering, decellularised membrane and tissue-engineered membranes...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453205/co-deficiency-of-lysosomal-mucolipins-3-and-1-in-cochlear-hair-cells-diminishes-outer-hair-cell-longevity-and-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss
#8
Teerawat Wiwatpanit, Natalie N Remis, Aisha Ahmad, Yingjie Zhou, John C Clancy, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jaime García-Añoveros
Acquired hearing loss is the predominant neurodegenerative condition associated with aging in humans. Although mutations on several genes are known to cause congenital deafness in newborns, few genes have been implicated in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), perhaps because its cause is likely polygenic. Here, we generated mice lacking lysosomal calcium channel mucolipins 3 and 1 and discovered that both male and female mice suffered a polygenic form of hearing loss. While mucolipin 1 is ubiquitously expressed in all cells, mucolipin 3 is expressed in a small subset of cochlear cells -hair cells (HCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis- and very few other cell types...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452886/shifting-the-igf-axis-an-age-related-decline-in-human-tear-igf-1-correlates-with-clinical-signs-of-dry-eye
#9
Roshni Patel, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. DESIGN: Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452862/protective-effect-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-allele-drb1-13-02-on-age-related-brain-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-healthy-women
#10
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Scott M Lewis, Brian E Engdahl, Angeliki Georgopoulos, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy) during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017). METHODS: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32-69years old) underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter...
February 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452785/the-risks-of-sarcopenia-falls-and-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
C Sarodnik, S P G Bours, N C Schaper, J P van den Bergh, T A C M van Geel
Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased, and the mechanism is multifactorial. Recent research on T2DM-induced bone fragility shows that bone mineral density (BMD) is often normal or even slightly elevated. However, bone turnover may be decreased and bone material and microstructural properties are altered, especially when microvascular complications are present. Besides bone fragility, extra-skeletal factors leading to an increased propensity to experience falls may also contribute to the increased fracture risk in T2DM, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and diabetes medication (e...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452755/machine-learning-algorithms-based-on-signals-from-a-single-wearable-inertial-sensor-can-detect-surface-and-age-related-differences-in-walking
#12
B Hu, P C Dixon, J V Jacobs, J T Dennerlein, J M Schiffman
The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452610/the-plasma-membrane-calcium-pumps-the-old-and-the-new
#13
REVIEW
Asma Zaidi, Mercy Adewale, Lauren McLean, Paul Ramlow
The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) pumps play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, crucial for optimal neuronal function and cell survival. Loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis is a key precursor in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we review evidence showing age-related changes in the PMCAs in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) and lipid raft microdomains isolated from rat brain. Both PMCA activity and protein levels decline progressively with increasing age...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452424/age-related-changes-in-survival-and-turnover-rates-of-balsam-fir-abies-balsamea-l-mill-fine-roots
#14
Marek J Krasowski, Michael B Lavigne, Michael A Szuter, Jakub Olesinski, John A Kershaw, Elizabeth McGarrigle
Fine-root (≤2 mm) demographics change as forests age, but the direction and extent of change are unknown. Knowledge of the change and understanding of causes will improve predictions of climate change impacts. We used minirhizotrons at three young and three mature balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) sites to measure median lifespan (MLS) for each site and for annual cohorts. We computed turnover rate from the inverse of MLS (Tinv) and calculated a second turnover rate (T) from annual mortality, annual production and previous year-end standing crop...
February 14, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452267/git2-a-keystone-in-ageing-and-age-related-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jaana van Gastel, Jan Boddaert, Areta Jushaj, Richard T Premont, Louis M Luttrell, Jonathan Janssens, Bronwen Martin, Stuart Maudsley
Since its discovery, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2, GIT2, and its family member, GIT1, have received considerable interest concerning their potential key roles in regulating multiple inter-connected physiological and pathophysiological processes. GIT2 was first identified as a multifunctional protein that is recruited to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) during the process of receptor internalization. Recent findings have demonstrated that perhaps one of the most important effects of GIT2 in physiology concerns its role in controlling multiple aspects of the complex ageing process...
February 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452266/healthy-brain-aging-interplay-between-reactive-species-inflammation-and-energy-supply
#16
REVIEW
O Garaschuk, H M Semchyshyn, V I Lushchak
Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first two trimesters of individuals' life, their increase is substantially accelerated towards the end of life...
February 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451849/a-comprehensive-review-of-eggs-choline-and-lutein-on-cognition-across-the-life-span
#17
Taylor C Wallace
In 2030, one in five Americans will be older than 65 years, and with that an increase in the number of individuals who experience loss in cognitive capacity is to be expected. At the same time, nutrition within the first 1000 days postconception has been suggested to strongly influence cognitive outcomes across the life-span in humans. Eggs are a primary source of both choline and the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein in the western diet, and both have been suggested to influence cognitive function in humans. This comprehensive review critically examines the effects of eggs, choline, and lutein on cognition across the life-span...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#18
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451807/coenzyme-q-10-from-bench-to-clinic-in-aging-diseases-a-translational-review
#19
Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Jose M Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ 10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ 10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451399/assistive-technology-for-communication-of-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#20
Thaiany Pedrozo Campos Antunes, Acary Souza Bulle de Oliveira, Robert Hudec, Tania Brusque Crocetta, Jennifer Yohanna Ferreira de Lima Antão, Renata Thais de Almeida Barbosa, Regiani Guarnieri, Thais Massetti, David M Garner, Luiz Carlos de Abreu
OBJECTIVE: Describe the use of assistive technology to enhance communication opportunities for older adults. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in two databases, PubMed and Web of Science, by using two different searches in each. The search was limited to original articles, in English language, including people aged 60 years and older that used any type of assistive technology for communication. The articles found in the initial search were filtered by title, abstracts and the remaining articles were fully read...
February 16, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
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