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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650925/quantitative-analysis-of-the-inner-retinal-layer-thicknesses-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-using-corrected-optical-coherence-tomography-segmentation
#1
Ilkay Kilic Muftuoglu, Hema L Ramkumar, Dirk-Uwe Bartsch, Amit Meshi, Raouf Gaber, William R Freeman
PURPOSE: To characterize inner retinal damage in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 60 patients with AMD were categorized using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) severity scale. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images of these patients were quantified by manually correcting the segmentation of each retinal layer, including the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer to ensure accurate delineation of layers...
June 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650831/new-precision-metrics-for-contrast-sensitivity-testing
#2
Michael Dorr, Tobias Elze, Wang Hui, Zhong-Lin Lu, Peter John Bex, Luis Andres Lesmes
Visual sensitivity is comprehensively described by the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF), but current routine clinical care does not include its assessment because of the time-consuming need to estimate thresholds for a large number of spatial frequencies. The quick CSF method, however, dramatically reduces testing times by using a Bayesian information maximization rule. We evaluate the test-retest variability of a tablet-based quick CSF implementation in a study with 100 subjects who repeatedly assessed their vision with and without optical correction...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650766/murine-mesenchymal-cells-that-express-elevated-levels-of-the-cdk-inhibitor-p16-ink4a-in-vivo-are-not-necessarily-senescent
#3
David Frescas, Brandon Hall, Evguenia Strom, Lauren P Virtuoso, Mahima Gupta, Anatoli S Gleiberman, Elena Rydkina, Vitaly Balan, Slavoljub Vujcic, Olga B Chernova, Andrei V Gudkov
Age-related health decline has been attributed to the accumulation of senescent cells recognized in vivo by p16(Ink4a) expression. The pharmacological elimination of p16(Ink4a)-positive cells from the tissues of mice was shown to extend a healthy lifespan. Here, we describe a population of mesenchymal cells isolated from mice that are highly p16(INK4a)-positive are proficient in proliferation but lack other properties of cellular senescence. These data, along with earlier reports on p16(Ink4a)-positive macrophages, indicate that p16(Ink4a)-positive and senescent cell populations only partially intersect, therefore, extending the list of potential cellular targets for anti- aging therapies...
June 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650335/development-of-ad-like-symptoms-following-co-administration-of-alcl3-and-d-gal-in-rats-a-neurochemical-biochemical-and-behavioural-study
#4
Laraib Liaquat, Saara Ahmad, Sadia Sadir, Zehra Batool, Saima Khaliq, Saiqa Tabassum, Shaista Emad, Syeda Madiha, Sidrah Shahzad, Saida Haider
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with neurochemical and neurobehavioural alterations. Aluminium (Al) is considered as a contributing factor in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders like AD. D-galactose (D-gal) is a physiological nutrient but over supply induces some neurochemical and biochemical changes that exacerbate natural aging process. In this study, we aimed to develop AD animal model by co-administration of Al and D-gal in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with AlCl3 and D-gal at a dose of 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively for one week...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649857/effect-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-sipunculus-nudus-snp-on-the-lifespan-and-immune-damage-repair-of-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-cd-vi
#5
Jie Su, Linlin Jiang, Jingna Wu, Zhiyu Liu, Yuping Wu
The water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from Sipunculus nudus (SNP) was investigated on the lifespan and immune damage repair of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to Cd (VI). SNP increased superoxyde dismutase (SOD), nitrogen monoxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC), with decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) on D. melanogaster demonstrated that SNP could attenuate oxidative damage of D. melanogaster Exposed to Cd (VI). Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that SNP enhanced the gene expression of Diptericin, Drosomycin, Defensin, PGRP-LC and the protein level of Toll, p-JNK and Relish, that suggested the promoting effect of SNP on the immune damage repair of D...
June 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649668/metabolic-costs-of-daily-activity-in-older-adults-chores-xl-study-design-and-methods
#6
Duane B Corbett, Amal A Wanigatunga, Vincenzo Valiani, Eileen M Handberg, Thomas W Buford, Babette Brumback, Ramon Casanova, Christopher M Janelle, Todd M Manini
BACKGROUND: For over 20 years, normative data has guided the prescription of physical activity. This data has since been applied to research and used to plan interventions. While this data seemingly provides accurate estimates of the metabolic cost of daily activities in young adults, the accuracy of use among older adults is less clear. As such, a thorough evaluation of the metabolic cost of daily activities in community dwelling adults across the lifespan is needed. METHODS: The Metabolic Costs of Daily Activity in Older Adults Study is a cross-sectional study designed to compare the metabolic cost of daily activities in 250 community dwelling adults across the lifespan...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#7
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649601/excessive-early-life-dietary-exposure-a-potential-source-of-elevated-brain-iron-and-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Dominic J Hare, Bárbara Rita Cardoso, Erika P Raven, Kay L Double, David I Finkelstein, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Beverley-Ann Biggs
Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649427/global-rise-of-potential-health-hazards-caused-by-blue-light-induced-circadian-disruption-in-modern-aging-societies
#9
REVIEW
Megumi Hatori, Claude Gronfier, Russell N Van Gelder, Paul S Bernstein, Josep Carreras, Satchidananda Panda, Frederick Marks, David Sliney, Charles E Hunt, Tsuyoshi Hirota, Toshiharu Furukawa, Kazuo Tsubota
Mammals receive light information through the eyes, which perform two major functions: image forming vision to see objects and non-image forming adaptation of physiology and behavior to light. Cone and rod photoreceptors form images and send the information via retinal ganglion cells to the brain for image reconstruction. In contrast, nonimage-forming photoresponses vary widely from adjustment of pupil diameter to adaptation of the circadian clock. nonimage-forming responses are mediated by retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649103/-aging-and-homeostasis-biomedical-peculiarities-of-semi-supercentenarians
#10
Yasumichi Arai
Semi-supercentenarians, or people who reach 105 years of age, are regarded as model cases for 'successful ageing'. Semi-supercentenarians maintain capability and cognition for longer than the centenarians who died between 100-104 years of age, together with postponed frailty or age-related diminution of multiple organ reserve. Understanding the biological factors determining extreme longevity and compression of morbidity might help to achieve extended healthy life span for the wider population.
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649102/-aging-and-homeostasis-chronic-inflammation-and-aging
#11
Hiroshi Akazawa
Chronic inflammation is one of the common pathological bases underlying aging and aging-related diseases. Recently, it was reported that complement C1q, a crucial regulator of innate immunity, is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of aging-related sarcopenia, heart failure, and hypertension-induced aortic remodeling. In this review, the role and function of chronic inflammation in aging and aging-related diseases will be summarized.
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649101/-aging-and-homeostasis-circadian-rhythms-and-aging
#12
Megumi Hatori
Daily rhythms of physiological and behavioral processes such as sleep and arousal are controlled by the circadian clock. The expression of the clock genes oscillate rhythmically in daily manner, and this clock oscillator resides in almost all of the cells in the body. The circadian clock entrains to diurnal environmental changes by using light and food intake as external time cues. Timing of feeding and fasting strongly affects daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes and key regulators of nutrient homeostasis...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649096/-aging-and-homeostasis-aging-of-bone
#13
Seijiro Mori
Quantitative as well as qualitative bone loss occurs with aging in both men and women, leading to alterations in skeletal microarchitecture and increased fracture incidence. Sex steroids, primarily estrogen and testosterone, have been shown to play a central role in the aging process of bone. The relationship between diminishing estrogen levels in women caused by ovarian failure and the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis is widely recognized. Unexpectedly, bone mineral density at various skeletal sites in men is also better correlated with circulating levels of bioavailable estrogen than with testosterone...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648985/aging-and-caloric-restriction-research-a-biological-perspective-with-translational-potential
#14
REVIEW
Priya Balasubramanian, Porsha R Howell, Rozalyn M Anderson
Aging as a research pursuit is fairly new compared with traditional lines of medical research. A growing field of investigators is focused on understanding how changes in tissue biology, physiology, and systemic homeostasis, conspire to create increased vulnerability to disease as a function of age. Aging research as a discipline is necessarily broad; in part because aging itself is multi-faceted and in part because different model systems are employed to define the underlying biology. In this review we outline aspects of aging research that are likely to uncover the pivotal events leading to age-related disease vulnerability...
June 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648815/age-dependent-changes-in-autophosphorylation-of-alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-ii-in-hippocampus-and-amygdala-after-contextual-fear-conditioning
#15
Ton Fang, Kamillia Kasbi, Stephanie Rothe, Wajeeha Aziz, K Peter Giese
The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala...
June 22, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648383/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
REVIEW
Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Alessandro Rabiolo, Riccardo Sacconi, Adriano Carnevali, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a new imaging modality that provides non-invasive characterization and quantification of the microvasculature in different retinal conditions. The purpose of this paper is to give an updated review of the features of dry age-related macular degeneration investigated by means of new generation OCT-A. We searched PubMed and Medline using the terms "optical coherence tomography angiography" associated with "age-related macular degeneration", "drusen", "reticular pseudodrusen," and "geographic atrophy" and reviewed publications up to January, 2017...
June 22, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648238/getting-gritty-about-practice-and-success-motivational-characteristics-of-great-performers
#17
Nicola J Hodges, Paul R Ford, David T Hendry, A Mark Williams
We consider the data reported in the target article with respect to key motivational frameworks and characteristics, including grit and self-determined forms of motivation. Empirical data are reviewed that highlight the relationships between these concepts and practice and success. We highlight the concept of grit as a defining characteristic of the super-elite athletes, in reference to both their continued perseverance in the face of obstacles, as well as the increased motivation seemingly caused by such obstacles or setbacks...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647809/left-ventricles-of-aging-athletes-better-untwisters-but-not-more-relaxed-during-exercise
#18
Claire Maufrais, G Doucende, T Rupp, M Dauzat, P Obert, S Nottin, I Schuster
OBJECTIVE: With an aging population and the increasing prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, developing strategies to prevent diastolic dysfunction is crucial. Regular endurance training has been suggested to be one such strategy. However, the underlying mechanisms of training, including the effect on left ventricular (LV) untwist, which promotes LV filling, are unclear and studies exploring the heart during exercise in the aging heart are lacking. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing with speckle tracking echocardiography was realized in male subjects: 16 young athletes (YA), 19 young controls (YC), 22 middle-aged athletes (MA) with a lifelong history of endurance training, and 20 middle-aged controls (MC)...
June 24, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647803/chronic-joint-pain-and-handgrip-strength-correlates-with-osteoporosis-in-mid-life-women-a-singaporean-cohort
#19
S Logan, W P P Thu, W K Lay, L Y Wang, J A Cauley, E L Yong
This study aimed to identify novel correlates which may relate to low bone mass at lumbar spine in mid-life Asian women. The possibility of developing a prediction model for osteoporosis (OP) was explored which resulted in a risk assessment tool that performed better than currently available tools. INTRODUCTION: In order to identify novel correlates associated with low spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in mid-life women, we examined a large number of lifestyle and medical and performance measurements and developed a prediction model for triage to BMD scanning...
June 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647726/treatments-for-gestational-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, Maria Bryant, Trevor A Sheldon, Derek Tuffnell, Su Golder, Debbie A Lawlor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of different treatments for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). DESIGN: Systematic review, meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. METHODS: Data sources were searched up to July 2016 and included MEDLINE and Embase. Randomised trials comparing treatments for GDM (packages of care (dietary and lifestyle interventions with pharmacological treatments as required), insulin, metformin, glibenclamide (glyburide)) were selected by two authors and double checked for accuracy...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
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