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Cancer pathology

Patrizia Ferroni, Francesca Santilli, Francesco Cavaliere, Paola Simeone, Leopoldo Costarelli, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Silvia Riondino, Mario Roselli, Giovanni Davi, Fiorella Guadagni
The hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) patients could induce enhanced lipid peroxidation, which, in turn, would contribute to platelet activation and poor clinical outcome is attractive. To address this issue, we investigated pre-surgical urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α (marker of in vivo oxidative stress) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 (marker of in vivo platelet activation) levels in patients with primary BC (n=115) compared with control women paired for co-morbidities and their association with patients' metabolic profile and clinical prognostic factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Wenhui Zhou, Thomas K Ni, Ania Wronski, Benjamin Glass, Adam Skibinski, Andrew Beck, Charlotte Kuperwasser
Overabundance of Slug protein is common in human cancer and represents an important determinant underlying the aggressiveness of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Despite its importance, this transcription factor is rarely mutated in BLBC, and the mechanism of its deregulation in cancer remains unknown. Here, we report that Slug undergoes acetylation-dependent protein degradation and identify the deacetylase SIRT2 as a key mediator of this post-translational mechanism. SIRT2 inhibition rapidly destabilizes Slug, whereas SIRT2 overexpression extends Slug stability...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Karla A Mark, Kathleen J Dumas, Dipa Bhaumik, Birgit Schilling, Sonnet Davis, Tal Ronnen Oron, Dylan J Sorensen, Mark Lucanic, Rachel B Brem, Simon Melov, Arvind Ramanathan, Bradford W Gibson, Gordon J Lithgow
Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Ryo Takaji, Shunro Matsumoto, Maki Kiyonaga, Yasunari Yamada, Hiromu Mori, Yukio Iwashita, Masayuki Ohta, Masafumi Inomata, Naoki Hijiya, Masatsugu Moriyama, Hajime Takaki, Kengo Fukuzawa, Hirotoshi Yonemasu
OBJECTIVES: Periportal low attenuation (PPLA) associated with metastatic liver cancer is occasionally seen on multi-detector-row CT (MDCT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the MDCT patterns of the PPLA and to correlate it with pathological findings. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MDCT images of 63 patients with metastatic liver cancers from colorectal adenocarcinoma. On MDCT scans, PPLA associated with liver metastasis was visualized in six patients with colorectal cancer...
October 25, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Devasena Ponnalagu, Harpreet Singh
Mitochondria are the "power house" of a cell continuously generating ATP to ensure its proper functioning. The constant production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation demands a large electrochemical force that drives protons across the highly selective and low-permeable mitochondrial inner membrane. Besides the conventional role of generating ATP, mitochondria also play an active role in calcium signaling, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress responses, and regulation of cell-death pathways...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Aki Takiyama, Hiroaki Nozawa, Soichiro Ishihara, Hirotoshi Takiyama, Koji Murono, Koji Yasuda, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Kazushige Kawai, Keisuke Hata, Toshiaki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Secondary metastasis to regional lymph nodes for adjacent bowel invaded by colorectal cancers (CRCs) has not been extensively reviewed. We herein present three such cases. CASE PRESENTATION: The first case is a cancer involving the cecum and sigmoid colon, and its primary site could not be determined even by pathological evaluation. Nodal involvement was revealed both in the mesocolon of the cecum and sigmoid. The second and third cases are a sigmoid colon cancer invading the jejunum and an ascending colon cancer invading the jejunum, respectively...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Yoshiya Horimoto, Takuo Hayashi, Atsushi Arakawa
Several aspects of the article by Morita et al. (Cancer Medicine 5:1607-18, 2016), examining the spontaneous healing phenomenon with reference to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), require clarification. The concept of "healing", which can perhaps be more accurately termed "regressive change", remains controversial due to a lack of concrete evidence. Since regressive change is characterized by fibrosis and lymphocytes, a cancer nest that appears to lack a distinct basement membrane, surrounded only by lymphocytes, as in Morita et al's Figure 2F, should be meticulously examined because the appearance may correspond to a tumor having just completed the process of invasion...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Carlo Furlan, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Michele Spina, Mariagrazia Michieli, Anna Ermacora, Roberta Maestro, Sara Piccinin, Riccardo Bomben, Michele Dal Bo, Marco Trovo, Valter Gattei, Umberto Tirelli, Giovanni Franchin, Pietro Bulian
Low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) given in 2 × 2 Gy is a highly effective and safe treatment for palliation of indolent lymphomas. Otherwise, very little regarding the use of LDRT for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been investigated. We designed a phase 2 trial of LDRT in patients with DLBCL with indication for palliative radiation. Low-dose radiotherapy was administered on symptomatic areas only. Clinical response was assessed 21 days after LDRT and defined as reduction >50% of maximum diameter of the radiated lesions...
October 25, 2016: Hematological Oncology
Shihao Dong, Jingsong Chen
Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is closely associated with the initiation and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), however, there is few research on SPS in China. Serrated polyps can be divided into hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps and traditional serrated polyps. The diagnosis standard of SPS is as following: (1) There are at least 5 serrated lesions in proximal colon, and diameter of more than 2 lesions is >10 mm; (2) The patient has one serrated polyp with family history of SPS; (3) More than 20 serrated polyps can be found in the entire large bowel...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Jiayin Li, Yang Liu, Jianbo Gao, Dandan Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of CT perfusion imaging in differential diagnosis between Borrmann types II( and III( gastric cancer. METHODS: All the patients were proven as ulcerated gastric cancer by preoperative gastroscopy and underwent CT perfusion scanning with Aquilion ONE 320 spiral CT from October 2013 to June 2014 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, including 19 patients as Borrmann type II( gastric cancer and 23 patients as Borrmann type III( gastric cancer by pathology...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Dawei Song, Rui Huang, Tianyi Ma, Yinggang Chen, Jiaying Li, Xishan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the result of colorectal cancer screening for high-risk groups in Harbin, China from 2012 to 2015. METHODS: According to the Project of National Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban Area, epidemiological investigation and cancer risk evaluation established by National Cancer Center were performed among 40-69 years old residents in Harbin. Questionnaires were issued to assess high-risk groups for clinical screening, including colonoscope examination...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Yaqi Li, Wencheng Yu, Weixing Dai, Qingguo Li, Sanjun Cai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the weekday of surgery on the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent radical resection in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center(FUSCC) between January 2007 and December 2013, and 4 971 patients were identified eligible. Statistical analyses were carried out between patients who received surgery on Monday to Thursday and those who received surgery on Friday...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Hao Li, Xiaohui Du, Shaoyou Xia, Songyan Li, Jian Xu, Guijun Zou, Shidong Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application of multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer(CLM). METHODS: Clinical data of 118 patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, including 32 patients with MDT (MDT group) and 86 patients without MDT (control group), from February 2014 to April 2015 in PLA General Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Compliance of preoperative examination and adjuvant therapy, and efficacy-associated indexes were compared between the two groups...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Caibing Luo, Guanrong Zhang, Wei Wang, Zhiwei Zhou, Jinxin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prognostic value of three lymph node(N) staging systems, including the number of metastatic lymph nodes(pN), the metastatic lymph node ratio (Nr) and the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS), in gastric cancer patients after radical resection. METHODS: Clinical and pathological data of 1 796 patients who underwent gastric cancer radical resection with complete follow-up information from January 2000 to December 2010 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Jianping Gong
Surgical or local anatomy consists of two components conventionally, organs and their blood supply. In fact, they are enveloped by the fascia membrane and serous membrane. This is the third component in surgical or local anatomy, which is omitted by surgeons for many years. The omitted reasons are failed recognition and unknown function. Re-understanding of the third component in surgical or local anatomy will make some changes in the local anatomy, tumor pathology, oncology surgery and operations. Firstly, the third component makes surgical anatomy developed from organ anatomy, blood vessel anatomy to membrane anatomy, which consists of the mesentery in broad sense and its bed, both include serous membrane and fascia membrane...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
Mu Li, Chen-Yang Dai, Yu-Ning Wang, Tao Chen, Long Wang, Ping Yang, Dong Xie, Rui Mao, Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Although marital status is an independent prognostic factor in many cancers, its prognostic impact on tracheal cancer has not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between marital status and survival in patients with tracheal cancer. RESULTS: Compared with unmarried patients (42.67%), married patients (57.33%) had better 5-year OS (25.64% vs. 35.89%, p = 0.009) and 5-year TCSS (44.58% vs. 58.75%, p = 0.004). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Deqiang Wang, Ping Wu, Hui Wang, Lei Zhu, Wei Zhao, Yuqin Lu
Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) interacting protein 1 (SIN1) is an essential TORC2 component and a key regulator of Akt pathway which plays an important role in various pathological conditions including cancer. While its functional role in breast cancer has not been well characterized. In our study, SIN1 is associated with the progression and survival of breast cancer patients, as well as human breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. SIN1 mRNA level was significantly upregulated in human breast cancer samples compared with their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues...
October 25, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Tiansheng Shen, Kui Zhang, Gene P Siegal, Shi Wei
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to assess their prognostic significance. METHODS: The expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin was examined semiquantitatively and correlated with other pathologic factors and survival outcomes. RESULTS: Of 72 consecutive TNBCs, 56% showed reduced membranous expression of E-cadherin or β-catenin, with a strong correlation to each other...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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