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Cancer pathology

Hakmin Lee, Sung Il Hwang, Hak Jong Lee, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be an important component of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). We compared performance of DWI for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 460 subjects who underwent preoperative 3.0-Tesla mpMRI and subsequently radical prostatectomy. Level of suspicion for PCa was graded using 5-grade Likert-scale from DWI...
2018: PloS One
Kristin Torre, Janelle Ricketts, Soheil S Dadras
We report a case of a 68-year-old white woman presenting with 5 sebaceous neoplasms, ranging from sebaceous adenoma to sebaceoma on histopathology. Despite the lack of a personal cancer history, her multiple sebaceous neoplasms and a paternal history of colon cancer prompted testing her sebaceous adenomas for microsatellite instability (MSI) by immunohistochemistry. The results showed retained nuclear expressions of MLH1 and PMS2 while MSH2 and MSH6 proteins were absent. The tumor infiltrating lymphocytes expressed both MSH2 and MSH6, providing reliable internal positive controls...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Harald Pichler, Anita Emmerstorfer-Augustin
All intact cells, and their organelles, are surrounded by a ∼30 Å hydrophobic film that typically separates the interior from the environment. This film is composed of lipid bilayers that form from a pool of structurally highly diverse, amphipathic lipids. The specific composition and nature of these lipids strongly contributes to many different processes in the cell by influencing membrane structures, membrane protein sorting and functionalities. In this review, we discuss strategies to alter membrane lipid compositions of organelles and plasma membranes in different organisms, focusing on microbial cells...
June 19, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Louis Anthony Tony Cox
Sufficiently high and prolonged inhalation exposures to some respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs), notably including amphibole asbestos fibers, can increase risk of inflammation-mediated diseases including malignant mesothelioma, pleural diseases, fibrosis, and lung cancer. Chronic inflammation involves ongoing activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which enables immune cells to produce potent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (in particular, mitochondrial ROS) contribute to NRLP3 activation via a well-elucidated mechanism involving oxidation of reduced thioredoxin and association of thioredoxin-interacting protein with NLRP3...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lucas Goense, Kenneth W Merrell, Andrea L Arnett, Christopher L Hallemeier, Gert J Meijer, Jelle P Ruurda, Wayne L Hofstetter, Richard van Hillegersberg, Steven H Lin
BACKGROUND: Recently a nomogram was developed for the prediction of overall survival (OS) after treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) combined with surgery for esophageal or junctional cancer. The nomogram included clinical nodal category (cN), pathological tumour category (ypT) and number of positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen (ypN). The aim of this study was to externally validate the nomogram in an international multi-institutional cohort of patients, and to explore the prognostic use of the nomogram for the prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) after nCRT followed by surgery...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Raúl Gómez, Ana Castro, Jessica Martínez, Víctor Rodríguez-García, Octavio Burgués, Juan J Tarín, Antonio Cano
The system integrated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL, modulates the role of hormones in the genesis and progression of breast tumors. We investigated whether the expression of RANK was related with clinicopathological features of primary endometrial tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used in an endometrial cancer tissue array containing samples from 36 tumors. The amount of RANK mRNA was examined in a tissue scan cDNA array containing cDNA from 40 tumors. Normal endometrium was examined for comparison...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ekrem İslamoğlu, Hakan Anıl, İbrahim Erol, Selim Taş, Mutlu Ateş, Murat Savaş
OBJECTIVE: To present the surgical and pathological results of robotic radical cystectomy (RRC) operations performed in our clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 18 patients, who underwent RRC and intracorporeal urinary diversion between October 2016 and September 2017 for clinically localized bladder cancer in our clinic, were included in the study. The results were evaluated under three headings. 1. operative outcomes (total operation time, perioperative blood loss, postoperative hematocrit decrease) 2...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
D Führer
Thyroid nodules are heterogeneous tumors with variable genetic signatures. Thyroid cancers are monoclonal lesions with a defined histomorphology that largely depends on the underlying somatic mutation. While the mutation rate is generally low in differentiated thyroid cancers, poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers show a high mutation load. The identification of somatic mutations in fine needle aspirates can be helpful for the differential diagnostics of thyroid nodules; however, a prognostic contribution is less certain...
June 21, 2018: Der Internist
Ji-Yeon Kim, Ji Eun Lim, Hae Hyun Jung, Soo Youn Cho, Eun Yoon Cho, Se Kyung Lee, Jong Han Yu, Jeong Eon Lee, Seok Won Kim, Seok Jin Nam, Yeon Hee Park, Jin Seok Ahn, Young-Hyuck Im
PURPOSE: The new eighth edition TNM classification by the AJCC for breast cancer (BC) incorporates biologic factors and gene expression prognostic panels, in addition to traditional anatomic factors. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of this new staging system compared to the previous AJCC 7th edition staging system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of women with stage I, II, or III BC who underwent curative surgery with/without adjuvant systemic therapy at Samsung Medical Center between July 2004 and December 2008...
June 21, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
N D Cosgrove, D K Mullady
Endoscopy has an important role in the pre- and post-treatment staging of esophageal cancer. Complete pathologic response following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy occurs in approximately 25% of patients. However, the ability to accurately detect this preoperatively with currently available endoscopic modalities is limited such that the default pathway is for fit patients to proceed with surgical resection. This article discusses the available endoscopic modalities (primarily Esophagogastroduodenoscopy [EGD] with mucosal biopsies and endoscopic ultrasonography with or without fine needle aspiration) used for post-treatment staging of esophageal cancer...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Ritu R Gill, Beow Y Yeap, Raphael Bueno, William G Richards
Background: Analysis of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) database revealed that clinical (cTNM) staging minimally stratified survival and was discrepant with pathological (pTNM) staging. To improve prognostic classification of MPM, alternative staging models based on quantitative parameters were explored. Methods: An institutional review board-approved MPM registry was queried to identify patients with available pathological and preoperative imaging data...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Shane P Duggan, Catherine Garry, Fiona M Behan, Sinead Phipps, Hiromi Kudo, Murat Kirca, Abdul Zaheer, Sarah McGarrigle, John V Reynolds, Robert Goldin, Steve E Kalloger, David F Schaeffer, Aideen Long, Jessica Strid, Dermot Kelleher
Background & Aims: Effective therapeutic approaches are urgently required to tackle the alarmingly poor survival outcomes in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) patients. EAC originates from within the intestinal-type metaplasia, Barrett's esophagus, a condition arising on a background of gastroesophageal reflux disease and associated inflammation. Methods: This study used a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening library of 6022 siRNAs in conjunction with bioinformatics platforms, genomic studies of EAC tissues, somatic variation data of EAC from The Cancer Genome Atlas data of EAC, and pathologic and functional studies to define novel EAC-associated, and targetable, immune factors...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rafael Flores-Ruiz, Lizett Castellanos-Cosano, María-Angeles Serrera-Figallo, Eloy Cano-Díaz, Daniel Torres-Lagares, José-Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez
Background: To evaluate the evolution of patients rehabilitated with endosseous implants after oral cancer treatment. Material and Methods: An observational retrospective study was carried out between 1991 and 2011 with a sample consisting of patients with oral cancer who had been referred for rehabilitation to the Prosthetics Rehabilitation Unit from the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. All these patients have overcome oral cancer, and have a five-year follow-up after their oral rehabilitation...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Johannes Laengle, Judith Stift, Agnes Bilecz, Brigitte Wolf, Andrea Beer, Balazs Hegedus, Stefan Stremitzer, Patrick Starlinger, Dietmar Tamandl, Dietmar Pils, Michael Bergmann
Preclinical models indicate that DNA damage induces type I interferon (IFN), which is crucial for the induction of an anti-tumor immune response. In human cancers, however, the association between DNA damage and an immunogenic cell death (ICD), including the release and sensing of danger signals, the subsequent ER stress response and a functional IFN system, is less clear. Methods: Neoadjuvant-treated colorectal liver metastases (CLM) patients, undergoing liver resection in with a curative intent, were retrospectively enrolled in this study (n=33)...
2018: Theranostics
Renata R Urban, Todd C Pappas, Rowan G Bullock, Donald G Munroe, Vinicius Bonato, Kathy Agnew, Barbara A Goff
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a symptom index (SI) and multivariate biomarker panel in the identification of ovarian cancer in women presenting for surgery with an adnexal mass. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of patients seen at a tertiary medical center. Following consent, patients completed an SI and preoperative serum was collected for individual markers (CA 125) and a second-generation FDA-cleared biomarker test (MIA2G). Results for the SI and MIA2G were correlated with operative findings and surgical pathology...
June 18, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Jens Müller von den Grün, Arndt Hartmann, Rainer Fietkau, Michael Ghadimi, Torsten Liersch, Werner Hohenberger, Jürgen Weitz, Rolf Sauer, Christian Wittekind, Philipp Ströbel, Claus Rödel, Emmanouil Fokas
BACKGROUND: The advent of less radical surgical approaches has generated concern about leaving locoregional lymph node metastases (LNM) unresected that could lead to adverse outcome. We examined the prognostic role of clinicopathological factors for ypN-positivity in patients with ypT0-2 rectal carcinoma treated within the CAO/ARO/AIO-94 and CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomized phase 3 trials. METHODS: The correlation of clinicopathological factors with ypN-status (ypN0 vs ypN1/2) was examined in n = 776 patients with ypT0-2 rectal carcinoma after preoperative CRT and total mesorectal excision surgery using Pearson's Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis' test for continuous variables...
June 18, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Stefano Telera, Alfredo Pompili, Francesco Crispo, Maddalena Giovannetti, Andrea Pace, Veronica Villani, Alessandra Fabi, Isabella Sperduti, Laura Raus
OBJECTIVES: Balloon Kyphoplasty (BKP) for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in cancer patients is more challenging than for osteoporotic ones. Cord compressions are frequent and the incidence of complications ten-fold greater. Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is the gold standard material for BKP but has disadvantages: exothermic reaction, short working time, rapid solidification, absence of osteoconduction. VK100 is a mixture of Dimethyl Methylvinyl siloxane and Barium Sulphate. It is elastic, adhesive to bone, leaves 30 min before solidification without exothermic reaction, and shows a stiffness close to the intact vertebrae...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Ying-Hua Pan, Mei Yang, Li-Ping Liu, Dan-Chun Wu, Ming-Yue Li, Shu-Guang Su
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S) plays pivotal roles in the progression of human cancers. However, its clinical significance and role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. Here, we show that UBE2S is upregulated in HCC and exhibits oncogenic activities via enhancing the ubiquitination of p53. Increased expression of UBE2S was significantly correlated with higher serum AFP level, higher pathological grade, advanced TNM stage, larger tumor size, vascular invasion and unfavorable patient survivals in two independent cohorts containing a total of 845 patients with HCC...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anna Wilkins, Christine Stuttle, Shama Hassan, Claire Blanchard, Clare Cruickshank, Clare Griffin, Jake Probert, Catherine M Corbishley, Chris Parker, David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
Background: This article presents the methodology for tissue sample collection in Trans-CHHiP, the main translational study within the CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High dose intensity modulated radiotherapy in Prostate cancer, ISRCTN 97182923) trial. The CHHiP trial randomised 3216 men with localised prostate cancer to 3 different radiotherapy fractionation schedules. Trans-CHHiP aims to identify biomarkers of fraction sensitivity. Methods: We outline the process of tissue collection, including central review by a study-specific specialist uropathologist and comparison of the centrally-assigned Gleason grade group with that assigned by the recruiting-centre pathologist...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Lichao Huang, Zihao Zhang, Baolin Qu, Zhiqiang Cui, Yao Wang, Jiwei Li, Jinyuan Wang, Zhentao Zuo, Yan Zhuo, Xinguang Yu, Zhipei Lin, Longsheng Pan
Herein we describe the case of an elderly patient who presented with a recent history of impaired vision of the right eye around three months due to brain lesions. He was diagnosed with liver cancer and underwent surgery three months prior. The pathological result is hepatocellular carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the diagnosis of brain to be metastatic. The patient selected CyberKnife (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, USA) radiosurgery for the brain lesion since his physical conditions are not suitable for craniotomy...
April 18, 2018: Curēus
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