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Cancer pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458107/wnt-receptor-signalling-in-lung-physiology-and-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Wioletta Skronska-Wasek, Reinoud Gosens, Melanie Königshoff, Hoeke Abele Baarsma
The WNT signalling cascades have emerged as critical regulators of a wide variety of biological aspects involved in lung development as well as in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the adult lung. WNTs (secreted glycoproteins) interact with various transmembrane receptors and co-receptors to activate signalling pathways that regulate transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional responses within cells. In physiological conditions, the majority of WNT receptors and co-receptors can be detected in the adult lung...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458045/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-doxorubicin-induced-endothelial-cell-death-and-dysfunction
#2
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457843/the-tumour-stroma-ratio-in-colon-cancer-the-biological-role-and-its-prognostic-impact
#3
REVIEW
Gabi W van Pelt, Tessa P Sandberg, Hans Morreau, Hans Gelderblom, J Han J M van Krieken, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Wilma E Mesker
The tumour microenvironment consists of a complex mixture of non-neoplastic cells including fibroblasts, immune cells and endothelial cells embedded in the proteins of the extracellular matrix. The tumour microenvironment plays an active role in tumour behaviour. By interacting with cancer cells, it influences disease progression and the metastatic capacity of the tumour. Tumours with a high amount of stroma correspond to poor patient prognosis. The tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) is a strong independent prognostic tool in colon cancer and provides additional value to the current clinically used TNM classification...
February 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456850/-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-for-the-prediction-of-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-esophageal-cancer-who-have-undergone-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#4
Masahiko Yano, Hiroshi Miyata, Keijiro Sugimura, Masaaki Motoori, Takeshi Omori, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara, Norikatsu Miyoshi, Masayoshi Yasui, Masayuki Ohue, Hirofumi Akita, Akira Tomokuni, Hidenori Takahashi, Shogo Kobayashi, Masato Sakon
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a promising treatment strategy for advanced esophageal cancer. However, measures of NAC response assessment and prognostic prediction have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of combined18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). A total of 77 patients with stage IB-IV esophageal cancer who were treated with NAC followed by curative resection were retrospectively analyzed. PET/CT was performed before and after NAC and 56 patients were clinical responders...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456728/values-of-mir-34a-and-mir-218-expression-in-the-diagnosis-of-cervical-cancer-and-the-prediction-of-prognosis
#5
Ping Wang, Guanyun Zhai, Yunyan Bai
The expression levels of microribonucleic acid 34a (miR-34a) and miR-218 in the serum and tumor tissues of patients with cervical cancer were investigated to explore their relationship with the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Fifty patients with cervical cancer were selected, and 30 normal patients were selected as the control group. The expression levels of miR-34a and miR-218 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between the expression of miR-34a and miR-218 was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for the analysis of values of the expression of miR-34a and miR-218...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456620/endometriosis-and-endometriosis-associated-cancers-new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-ovarian-cancer-development
#6
REVIEW
Amy Dawson, Marta Llauradó Fernandez, Michael Anglesio, Paul J Yong, Mark S Carey
Endometriosis is a fascinating disease that we strive to better understand. Molecular techniques are shedding new light on many important aspects of this disease: from pathogenesis to the recognition of distinct disease variants like deep infiltrating endometriosis. The observation that endometriosis is a cancer precursor has now been strengthened with the knowledge that mutations that are present in endometriosis-associated cancers can be found in adjacent endometriosis lesions. Recent genomic studies, placed in context, suggest that deep infiltrating endometriosis may represent a benign neoplasm that invades locally but rarely metastasises...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456561/evaluation-of-observed-and-the-expected-incidence-of-common-cancers-an-experience-from-southwestern-of-iran-2010-2014
#7
Ali Ahmadi, Fatemeh Salehi
Background: Awareness of observed and expected incidence of cancers is so important in managing cancer as the third mortality cause in Iran. In the present study, we evaluated observed and the expected incidence of common cancers in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Materials and Methods: This study is a Secondary data analysis. All data about pathology-based cancer registration (Cancer diagnosis was based on pathological laboratory, ICD-O2) in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in Southwestern Iran in 2010-2014 was used...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456413/value-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-gallbladder-lesion
#8
Hui-Ping Zhang, Min Bai, Ji-Ying Gu, Ying-Qian He, Xiao-Hui Qiao, Lian-Fang Du
AIM: To describe contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and evaluate differential diagnosis value of CEUS and conventional ultrasound for patients with benign and malignant gallbladder lesions. METHODS: This study included 105 gallbladder lesions. Before surgical resection and pathological examination, conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed to examine for lesions. Then, all the lesions were diagnosed as (1) benign, (2) probably benign, (3) probably malignant or (4) malignant using both conventional ultrasound and CEUS...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456131/high-expression-of-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-ccr5-promotes-disease-progression-in-patients-with-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
#9
Aleksandra Butrym, Ilona Kryczek, Dorota Dlubek, Emilia Jaskula, Andrzej Lange, Artur Jurczyszyn, Grzegorz Mazur
Chemokines are small proteins, that regulate cell migration in many physiological and pathologic processes in human body. They are also responsible for cancer progression. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for cell recruitment in inflammation and may be involved in antitumor immune response controlling. Aberrant CCR5 can be found in different kind of cancers, not only hematological, but also solid tumors. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas consist of many lymphoma subtypes. They predominantly derive from B cells and can have very heterogenous clinical course...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456024/protective-effects-of-flagellin-a-n-c-against-radiation-induced-nlr-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-dependent-pyroptosis-in-intestinal-cells
#10
Dongming Wu, Rong Han, Shihua Deng, Teng Liu, Ting Zhang, Hongxiang Xie, Ying Xu
PURPOSE: To investigate changes induced in mouse intestines after irradiation and to explore the potential radioprotective effects of flagellin A N/C (FlaAN/C). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A mouse model of radiation-induced enteropathy was used in this study. A 10-Gy abdominal irradiation was performed on FlaAN/C- and vehicle-injected mice to explore the role of FlaAN/C in intestinal radiation injury and to study the molecular mechanism in this process. In the intestinal tissue, pathologic changes were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemistry; Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the changes in protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively; and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine protein concentration in serum...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455577/exploring-autophagy-with-gene-ontology
#11
Paul Denny, Marc Feuermann, David P Hill, Ruth C Lovering, Helene Plun-Favreau, Paola Roncaglia
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process that is well conserved among eukaryotes. It is one of the strategies that cells use to catabolize substances in a controlled way. Autophagy is used for recycling cellular components, responding to cellular stresses and ridding cells of foreign material. Perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and cancer. The growing knowledge about autophagic mechanisms needs to be collected in a computable and shareable format to allow its use in data representation and interpretation...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455242/heightened-cxcr4-and-cxcl12-expression-in-nf1-associated-neurofibromas
#12
Beren Karaosmanoglu, Çetin Y Kocaefe, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Banu Anlar, Ali Varan, İbrahim Vargel, Sükriye Ayter
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects both the skin and the nervous system. NF1 occurs due to the mutations in the NF1 gene. Neurofibromas are the most common Schwann cell-based tumors in NF1 patients, which are mainly categorized into dermal and plexiform neurofibromas. Studies on different tumor types demonstrate that CXCR4 expression increases in tumor tissues and is linked to metastasis and cancer progression. PURPOSE: In the present study, we aimed to analyze the gene expression of CXCR4, and its ligand CXCL12, in human neurofibromas...
February 17, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455167/pulmonary-metastasis-in-rectal-cancer-a-retrospective-study-of-clinicopathological-characteristics-of-404-patients-in-chinese-cohort
#13
Hong-Da Pan, Gang Zhao, Qi An, Gang Xiao
OBJECTIVES: This study aim to investigate the incidence, timing and risk factors of metachronous pulmonary recurrence after curative resection in patients with rectal cancer. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a tertiary referral cancer hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 404 patients with rectal cancer who underwent curative resection from 2007 to 2012 at Beijing Hospital were enrolled in this study...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455085/correlation-of-adc-with-pathological-treatment-response-for-radiation-therapy-of-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Entesar Dalah, Beth Erickson, Kiyoko Oshima, Diane Schott, William A Hall, Eric Paulson, An Tai, Paul Knechtges, X Allen Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to assesspathological treatment response in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) following neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCR). MATERIALS/METHODS: MRI and pathological data collected for 25patients with resectable and borderline resectable PDAC following nCR were retrospectively analyzed. Pre- and post-nCR mean ADC values in the tumors were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs test...
February 15, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454754/mutational-analysis-of-akt1-and-pik3ca-in-intraductal-papillomas-of-the-breast-with-special-reference-to-cellular-components
#15
Chieko Mishima, Naofumi Kagara, Jun-Ichiro Ikeda, Eiichi Morii, Tomohiro Miyake, Tomonori Tanei, Yasuto Naoi, Masafumi Shimoda, Kenzo Shimazu, Seung Jin Kim, Shinzaburo Noguchi
The pathological feature of intraductal papillomas is defined as a papillary structure composed of a fibrovascular stromal core lined by luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells. We used droplet digital PCR for the mutational analysis of AKT1 (E17K) and PIK3CA (H1047R, E542K, and E545K) in 60 papillomas. AKT1 and PIK3CA mutations were detected in 12 (20%) and 17 (28%) of the papillomas, respectively. In five tumors harboring mutations, mutational analysis of AKT1 or PIK3CA was performed separately using luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells sorted using anti-CK19 antibody and anti-SMA antibody...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454742/tumor-target-amplification-implications-for-nano-drug-delivery-systems
#16
REVIEW
Khaled Seidi, Heidi A Neubauer, Richard Moriggl, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Tahereh Javaheri
Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454557/development-of-a-risk-scoring-system-to-evaluate-the-serosal-invasion-for-macroscopic-serosal-invasion-positive-gastric-cancer-patients
#17
Peng-Liang Wang, Jin-Yu Huang, Zhi Zhu, Bao-Cheng Gong, Han-Wei Huang, Shi-Jie Duan, Hui-Mian Xu, Fu-Nan Liu
BACKGROUND: The status of serosal invasion is often discordance between pathological and intraoperative evaluation. Our study sought to develop a risk-scoring system (RSS) to predict the probability of pT4a for macroscopic serosal invasion (MSI) positive patients and reevaluate the serosal invasion status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1301 pT3/pT4a gastric cancer patients with curative surgery were reviewed. We constructed the RSS to predict the probability of pT4a and assigned MSI-positive patients into different risk groups based on the risk scores...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454273/mechanosensitive-adhesion-complexes-in-epithelial-architecture-and-cancer-onset
#18
REVIEW
Minerva Bosch-Fortea, Fernando Martín-Belmonte
Mechanical signals from the extracellular space are paramount to coordinate tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Although there is a wide variety of cellular mechanisms involved in transducing extracellular forces, recent literature emphasizes the central role of two main adhesion complexes in epithelial mechanosensitive processes: focal adhesions and adherens junctions. These biomechanical sensors can decode physical signals such as matrix stiffness or intercellular tension into a wide range of coordinated cellular responses, which can impact cell differentiation, migration, and proliferation...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454229/pancreatic-cancer-presenting-as-colonic-disease-a-rare-case-report
#19
Sara Tavares Nogueira, Bruno Lima Pinto, Eduardo Faria Silva, Hermano Anjos Garcia, Francisco Carneiro
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth major cause of cancer-related deaths. About 50% of the patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Metastatic disease to the colon is a very rare entity with only 5 cases described in english literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Male, 60 years-old, presents to a surgical consult with the diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. The physical exam revealed a periumbilical nodule with suspicious features. The staging CT-scan showed a mass in the tail of the pancreas involving the spleen and left kidney, thickening of the sigmoid colon, multiple mesenteric masses and trabecular changes in the ischium, suggesting metastatic disease...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454093/silencing-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0000977-suppresses-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-progression-by-stimulating-mir-874-3p-and-inhibiting-plk1-expression
#20
Wen-Jie Huang, Yun-Chao Wang, Song-Song Liu, Jia-Li Yang, Shi-Xiang Guo, Li-Jiang Wang, Huai-Zhi Wang, Ying-Fang Fan
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by interacting with microRNA (miRNA). Emerging evidence shows that dysregulation of circRNAs plays important roles in biological and pathological processes, including cancer development and progression. The functional role of circRNA in PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) remains to be investigated. In this study, high throughput microarray assay revealed that hsa_circ_0000977 was aberrantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues; this was also validated by qRT-PCR...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
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