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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#1
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223834/prognostic-significance-and-adjuvant-chemotherapy-survival-benefits-of-a-solid-or-micropapillary-pattern-in-patients-with-resected-stage-ib-lung-adenocarcinoma
#2
Fangfei Qian, Wenjia Yang, Rui Wang, Jianlin Xu, Shuyuan Wang, Yanwei Zhang, Bo Jin, Keke Yu, Baohui Han
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic significance and beneficiaries of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in various histological patterns of stage IB lung adenocarcinoma according to the 8th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. METHODS: A total of 1131 patients with pathological stage IB lung adenocarcinoma according to the 8th TNM classification who underwent lobectomy or segmentectomy were enrolled in this study. Based on the proportion of solid/micropapillary components, the patients were classified into 3 groups: solid/micropapillary-negative (SMPN) (n = 719; median survival, 49...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223793/overexpression-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-65-in-glioblastoma-predicts-poor-patient-prognosis
#3
Hong-Xiang Wang, Yi-Hong Chen, Jin-Xu Zhou, Xin-Yu Hu, Cong Tan, Yong Yan, Qi-Lin Huang, Jun-Yan Shen, Han-Chong Xu, Feng Li, Zhen-Yu Gong, Tao Xu, Ju-Xiang Chen
OBJECTIVE: G-protein-coupled receptors 65 (GPR65), identified as an acid-sensing receptor, is overexpressed in several malignancies and promote tumor development. Our aim was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of GPR65 in glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the expression of GPR65 protein using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 11 Grade I, 107 Grade II, 47 Grade III, and 102 Grade IV gliomas and 16 normal brains...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223481/can-breast-cancer-patients-with-her2-dual-equivocal-tumours-be-managed-as-her2-negative-disease
#4
Yiwei Tong, Xiaosong Chen, Xiaochun Fei, Lin Lin, Jiayi Wu, Ou Huang, Jianrong He, Li Zhu, Weiguo Chen, Yafen Li, Kunwei Shen
BACKGROUND: Increasing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC)/fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) dual-equivocal breast tumours are reported after the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guideline update. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinico-pathologic characteristics, treatment patterns and disease outcome of these patients with HER2 dual-equivocal tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2 IHC 2+ and available FISH results were retrospectively analysed from the Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Shanghai Ruijin Hospital...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223479/long-term-efficacy-analysis-of-the-randomised-phase-ii-tryphaena-cardiac-safety-study-evaluating-pertuzumab-and-trastuzumab-plus-standard-neoadjuvant-anthracycline-containing-and-anthracycline-free-chemotherapy-regimens-in-patients-with-her2-positive-early
#5
Andreas Schneeweiss, Stephen Chia, Tamas Hickish, Vernon Harvey, Alexandru Eniu, Maeve Waldron-Lynch, Jennifer Eng-Wong, Sarah Kirk, Javier Cortés
BACKGROUND: We report long-term efficacy and cardiac safety outcomes in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab with anthracycline-containing or anthracycline-free chemotherapy. METHODS: Descriptive efficacy analyses were conducted in patients randomised to group A (cycles 1-6: trastuzumab [8 mg/kg loading dose and 6 mg/kg maintenance] plus pertuzumab [840 mg loading dose and 420 mg maintenance], plus 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide [FEC] [cycles 1-3; 500 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil/100 mg/m2 epirubicin/600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide] then docetaxel [cycles 4-6; 75 mg/m2, escalated to 100 mg/m2 if well tolerated]), B (cycles 1-3: FEC, cycles 4-6: trastuzumab plus pertuzumab plus docetaxel as mentioned previously) or C (cycles 1-6: trastuzumab plus pertuzumab plus docetaxel [75 mg/m2, without dose escalation], and carboplatin [AUC 6]), five years after randomisation of the last patient...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223352/atp-binding-cassette-transporter-2-abca2-as-a-therapeutic-target
#6
REVIEW
Warren Davis, Kenneth D Tew
The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA2 is primarily an endolysosomal membrane protein that demonstrates pleiotropic functionalities, coalescing around the maintenance of homeostasis of sterols, sphingolipids and cholesterol. It is most highly expressed in brain tissue and ABCA2 knockout mice express neurological defects consistent with aberrant myelination. Increased expression of the transporter has been linked with resistance to cancer drugs, particularly those possessing a steroid backbone and gene expression (in concert with other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism) was found to be regulated by sterols...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223019/are-pathological-high-risk-features-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-useful-selection-tool-for-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#7
Marloes Swets, Peter J K Kuppen, Erik J Blok, Hans Gelderblom, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Iris D Nagtegaal
BACKGROUND: Several histological high-risk factors are used as an indication for adjuvant therapy in stage II colon cancer. Those and other factors, including lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion (PNI), venous invasion and tumour budding are associated with decreased outcome. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic and predictive values of these biomarkers in a cohort of rectal cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The trial-based cohort consisted of 221npTNM stage II-III rectal cancer patients, included in the PROCTOR/SCRIPT trial, a multicentre randomised phase III trial...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222813/reln-signaling-modulates-glioblastoma-growth-and-substrate-dependent-migration
#8
Markus Schulze, Christ Violonchi, Stefan Swoboda, Tobias Welz, Eugen Kerkhoff, Sabine Hoja, Susanne Brüggemann, Johann Simbürger, Jörg Reinders, Markus J Riemenschneider
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and most malignant type of primary brain tumor and significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. Invasion into the healthy brain parenchyma is a major feature of glioblastoma aggressiveness. Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain and sustains functionality in the adult brain. We here show that both RELN and its main downstream effector DAB1 are silenced in glioblastoma as compared to non-neoplastic tissue and mRNA expression is inversely correlated with malignancy grade...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222807/long-non-coding-rna-expression-in-bladder-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Taheri, Mir Davood Omrani, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
The advent of novel high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated identification of non-coding RNAs with fundamental roles in cellular biological and pathological conditions. A group of these consisting of at least 200 nucleotides are called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Their participation in the pathogenesis of cancer has been highlighted in recent years. Bladder cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, exhibits altered expression levels of several lncRNAs. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have assessed the effects of silencing RNAs on cancer cell phenotypes and in vivo tumor growth...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222623/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-breast-cancer-patients-with-progressive-disease-during-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#10
Jacques Raphael, S Nofech-Mozes, T Paramsothy, N Li, S Gandhi
A minority of breast cancer (BC) patients progress during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). The aim of this study was to assess the value of Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in such a high-risk population where valid biomarkers are eagerly needed. A retrospective review identified BC patients who either progressed during NCT or achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR). An experienced BC pathologist semi-quantified stromal TILs in pre-treatment core biopsies using hematoxylin and eosin stained slides...
December 8, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222172/proximal-aberrant-crypt-foci-associate-with-synchronous-neoplasia-and-are-primed-for-neoplastic-progression
#11
David A Drew, Allen Mo, James J Grady, Richard G Stevens, Joel B Levine, Bruce M Brenner, Joseph C Anderson, Faripour Forouhar, Michael J O'Brien, Thomas J Devers, Daniel W Rosenberg
Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest morphologically identifiable lesion found within the human colon. Despite their relatively high frequency in the distal colon, few studies have examined the molecular characteristics of ACF within the proximal colon. In the following study, clinical participants (n=184) were screened for ACF using high-definition chromoendoscopy with contrast dye-spray. Following pathological confirmation, ACF biopsies were subjected to laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and epithelial cells were evaluated for somatic mutations with a customized colorectal cancer mutation panel using DNA-mass spectrometry...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222163/novel-in-vitro-cancer-models-for-optimizing-anti-egfr-therapies
#12
Stefania Napolitano, Fortunato Ciardiello
Pre-clinical models, that are able to recapitulate the biology and pathology of the original individual cancer, are needed to better investigate mechanisms of response and resistance to anticancer therapies. In this respect, novel in vitro models for metastatic colorectal cancer could be of high value.
December 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222042/antiangiogenic-compounds-well-established-drugs-versus-emerging-natural-molecules
#13
Andreia Ribeiro, Rui M V Abreu, Madalena M Dias, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Angiogenesis is the natural and physiologic process of growing blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Pathological angiogenesis occurs when the precise balance of all the molecular pathways that regulate angiogenesis is disrupted, and this process is a critical step in many diseases, including cancer. A limited number of antiangiogenic synthetic drugs have been developed. However, due to toxicity and side effects issues, the search for alternative to existing drugs is ongoing. In this sense, natural molecules obtained from plants or macrofungi, have demonstrated extraordinary potential in the treatment of angiogenesis-related pathologies, specially taking into consideration its absence or very low toxicity, when compared to synthetic drugs...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221789/pretherapy-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-do-not-predict-survival-in-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Akhil Chawla, Tiffany L Huang, Andrew M Ibrahim, Jeffrey M Hardacre, Christopher Siegel, John B Ammori
BACKGROUND: Pretherapy serum neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have both been identified as prognostic in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic implication of pretherapy NLR and PLR in patients with resectable PDAC. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively on patients operated at our institution between 2004 and 2014. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the relationship between clinical and pathological parameters, NLR and PLR to overall survival (OS)...
December 5, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221745/upfront-surgery-as-first-line-therapy-in-selected-patients-with-stage-iiia-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Difan Zheng, Ting Ye, Hong Hu, Yawei Zhang, Yihua Sun, Jiaqing Xiang, Haiquan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery plays an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment strategy for patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Besides induction therapy, patients could benefit from surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study analyzed a subset of patients with pIIIA NSCLC who underwent upfront surgery as first-line therapy. METHODS: Selected patients with pIIIA NSCLC who received upfront surgery were retrospectively analyzed...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221721/factors-affecting-the-precision-of-lesion-sizing-with-contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography
#16
M Del Mar Travieso-Aja, P Naranjo-Santana, C Fernández-Ruiz, W Severino-Rondón, D Maldonado-Saluzzi, M Rodríguez Rodríguez, V Vega-Benítez, O P Luzardo
AIM: To evaluate the precision of the pre-surgical measurement of the size of breast cancer by contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 204 breast cancers. Variables related to tumour biology and anthropometric variables were recorded and considered when evaluating the efficacy of CESM in predicting tumour size. Microscopic measurement of the largest diameter of the tumour at pathology was chosen as the reference standard...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221719/integration-of-different-criteria-for-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-using-classification-tree-analysis-the-use-of-radiological-tumour-vascular-interface-in-correlation-with-surgical-and-pathological-outcomes
#17
J A Hwang, K M Jang, S H Kim, T W Kang, K D Song, D I Cha, S Ahn
AIM: To integrate various criteria for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) based on radiological parameters using classification tree analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Two hundred and thirty-five tumour-vein interfaces and 67 tumour-artery interfaces in 245 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent both preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed by two independent readers...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221718/correlation-between-dual-energy-spectral-ct-imaging-parameters-and-pathological-grades-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
L-Y Lin, Y Zhang, S-T Suo, F Zhang, J-J Cheng, H-W Wu
AIM: To investigate the correlation between pathological grades of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and quantitative parameters generated in dual-energy spectral computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients with NSCLCs who underwent preoperative dual-energy spectral CT imaging and surgical resection were evaluated retrospectively. These patients were divided into a low-grade group and a high-grade group based on their histopathological differentiation...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221663/-long-term-outcomes-of-prostate-cancer-patients-with-lymph-nodes-metastasis-after-radical-prostatectomy-and-pelvic-lymph-node-dissection
#19
S De Vergie, N Gaschignard, M Baron, J Branchereau, F Luyckx, T Butel, M-A Perrouin-Verbe, O Bouchot, J Rigaud
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS) and to identify useful predictors of such survival in localized prostate cancer patients (cN0) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (pN+) treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter and retrospective study, assessed overall survival (OS), cancer specific survival (CSS) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS), between January 2005 until December 2010 with 5 years of distance...
December 5, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221642/impact-of-age-on-outcomes-of-patients-with-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-treated-with-immediate-postoperative-instillation-of-mitomycin-c
#20
Evanguelos Xylinas, Matthew Kent, Yohann Dabi, Malte Rieken, Luis A Kluth, Bashir Al Hussein Al Awamlh, Idir Ouzaid, Armin Pycha, Evi Comploj, Robert S Svatek, Yair Lotan, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Sten Holmang, Shahrokh F Shariat
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether age affects the clinical benefit afforded by immediate postoperative intravesical instillation of mitomycin C in a contemporary cohort of patients with NMIBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 4,258 patients with NMIBC treated with transurethral resection of the bladder with (n = 2,605, 61%) or without (n = 1,652, 39%) one immediate instillation of mitomycin C from 5 institutions (study period: 2000-2007) were included. No patients received adjuvant instillations...
December 5, 2017: Urologic Oncology
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