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Emerging infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223666/laparoscopic-versus-open-appendectomy-in-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial-from-a-developing-country
#1
Roshan Ali, Muhammad Anwar, Jamshed Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. This study was conducted to compare the outcome in terms of duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, and wound infection rate following laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in children with acute appendicitis. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis were randomly assigned to Group A: Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and Group B: Open appendectomy (OA)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223594/femoral-neck-fractures-after-removal-of-hardware-in-healed-trochanteric-fractures
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Barquet, Peter V Giannoudis, Andrés Gelink
INTRODUCTION: Hardware removal in healed trochanteric fractures (TF) in the absence of infection or significant mechanical complications is rarely indicated. However, in patients with persistent pain, prominent material and discomfort in the activities of daily living, the implant is eventually removed. Publications of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture after removal of implants from healed trochanteric fractures (FNFARIHTF) just because of pain or discomfort are rare. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on the eventual risk factors, the mechanisms, the clinical presentation, and frequency, and to pay special emphasis in their prevention...
December 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223514/need-for-integrative-thinking-to-fight-against-emerging-infectious-diseases-proceedings-of-the-5th-seminar-on-emerging-infectious-diseases-march-22-2016-%C3%A2-current-trends-and-proposals
#3
C Burdet, J-F Guégan, X Duval, M Le Tyrant, H Bergeron, J-C Manuguerra, J Raude, C Leport, P Zylberman
We present here the proceedings of the 5th seminar on emerging infectious diseases, held in Paris on March 22nd, 2016, with seven priority proposals that can be outlined as follows: encourage research on the prediction, screening and early detection of new risks of infection; develop research and surveillance concerning transmission of pathogens between animals and humans, with their reinforcement in particular in intertropical areas ("hot-spots") via public support; pursue aid development and support in these areas of prevention and training for local health personnel, and foster risk awareness in the population; ensure adapted patient care in order to promote adherence to treatment and to epidemic propagation reduction measures; develop greater awareness and better education among politicians and healthcare providers, in order to ensure more adapted response to new types of crises; modify the logic of governance, drawing from all available modes of communication and incorporating new information-sharing tools; develop economic research on the fight against emerging infectious diseases, taking into account specific driving factors in order to create a balance between preventive and curative approaches...
December 6, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223449/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-peganum-harmala-l-and-isolation-of-the-active-compound
#4
Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Adele Papetti, Majdi Hammami, Abderrazak Smaoui, Ferid Limam
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (ACV) are the usual therapy for treating HSV infection. However, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. In this objective, Peganum harmala was investigated for its HSV-2 activity. The organic extracts of the different plant organs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells by the MTT test and anti HSV-2 activity by plaque reduction assay...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223423/the-requirement-of-sutures-to-close-intercostal-drains-site-wounds-in-thoracic-surgery
#5
Jeremy L C Smelt, Natalie Simon, Lukacs Veres, Karen Harrison-Phipps, Andrea Bille
BACKGROUND: Chest drains are used routinely in thoracic surgery. Often a pursestring or mattress suture is used to facilitate closure of the defect on removal of the drain. This stitch can cause an unsightly scar, increase drain removal pain, and necessitate that the patient attend a community health care center to have this removed. The objective of this study was to assess whether this stitch is necessary in modern thoracic surgical practice. METHODS: Data from a single surgeon's practice were collected over an 18-month period...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223169/an-overview-on-leishmania-mundinia-enriettii-biology-immunopathology-lrv-and-extracellular-vesicles-during-the-host-parasite-interaction
#6
Larissa F Paranaiba, Lucélia J Pinheiro, Diego H Macedo, Armando Menezes-Neto, Ana C Torrecilhas, Wagner L Tafuri, Rodrigo P Soares
One of the Leishmania species known to be non-infective to humans is Leishmania (Mundinia) enriettii whose vertebrate host is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. It is a good model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic and molecular studies. In the last years, an increased interest has emerged concerning the L. (Mundinia) subgenus after the finding of Leishmania (M.) macropodum in Australia and with the description of other new/putative species such as L. (M.) martiniquensis and 'L. (M.) siamensis'. This review focused on histopathology, glycoconjugates and innate immunity...
December 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222939/which-outcomes-are-reported-in-cellulitis-trials-results-of-a-review-of-outcomes-included-in-cellulitis-trials-and-a-patient-priority-setting-survey
#7
REVIEW
E Smith, M Patel, K Thomas
BACKGROUND: There is an emerging need to develop consistent outcomes in clinical trials to allow effective comparison of treatment effects. No systematic review has previously looked at the reporting of outcome measures used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on treatment and prevention of cellulitis (erysipelas). OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to describe the breadth of outcomes reported from RCTs on cellulitis treatment and prevention. The secondary aim was to identify outcome themes from patient and health care professionals' feedback from a cellulitis priority setting partnership (PSP)...
December 9, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222426/surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-common-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-hong-kong
#8
Viola C Y Chow, Thomas N Y Kwong, Erica W M So, Yolanda I I Ho, Sunny H Wong, Raymond W M Lai, Raphael C Y Chan
Incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly increasing and it poses a major health burden globally. However, data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Asia are limited. We aimed to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common ribotypes of toxigenic C. difficile in Hong Kong. Fifty-three PCR ribotypes were identified among 284 toxigenic C. difficile clinical isolates. The five most prevalent ribotypes were 002 (13%), 017 (12%), 014 (10%), 012 (9.2%), and 020 (9.5%). All tested C...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222409/immune-stealth-driven-o2-serotype-prevalence-and-potential-for-therapeutic-antibodies-against-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#9
Meghan E Pennini, Anna De Marco, Mark Pelletier, Jessica Bonnell, Romana Cvitkovic, Martina Beltramello, Elisabetta Cameroni, Siro Bianchi, Fabrizia Zatta, Wei Zhao, Xiaodong Xiao, Maria M Camara, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Elena Semenova, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Paul Warrener, JoAnn Suzich, Qun Wang, Davide Corti, C Kendall Stover
Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria are a challenge for modern medicine, but how these pathogens are so successful is not fully understood. Robust antibacterial vaccines have prevented and reduced resistance suggesting a pivotal role for immunity in deterring antibiotic resistance. Here, we show the increased prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O2 serotype strains in all major drug resistance groups correlating with a paucity of anti-O2 antibodies in human B cell repertoires. We identify human monoclonal antibodies to O-antigens that are highly protective in mouse models of infection, even against heavily encapsulated strains...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222263/crisis-management-in-the-treatment-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-putting-right-what-can-go-wrong-emergency-complications-of-disease-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Rachael Hough, Ajay Vora
The improvement in overall survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) over the last 5 decades has been considerable, with around 90% now surviving long term. The risk of relapse has been reduced to such an extent that the risk of treatment-related mortality is now approaching that of mortality caused by relapse. Toxicities may also lead to the suboptimal delivery of chemotherapy (treatment delays, dose reductions, dose omissions), potentially increasing relapse risk, and short- and long-term morbidity, adding to the "burden of therapy" in an increasing number of survivors...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222217/necrotising-pneumonia-caused-by-non-pvl-staphylococcus-aureus-with-2-year-follow-up
#11
Bryn Hilton, Aniket N Tavare, Dean Creer
Necrotising pneumonia (NP) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pulmonary infection. It is characterised by progressive necrosis of lung parenchyma with cavitating foci evident upon radiological investigation. This article reports the case of a 52-year-old woman, immunocompetent healthcare professional presenting to Accident and Emergency with NP and Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia. The cavitating lesion was not identified on initial chest X-ray leading to a delay in antimicrobial optimisation. However, the patient went on to achieve a full symptomatic recovery in 1 month and complete radiological recovery at 2-year follow-up...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#12
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222091/waste-management-informal-recycling-environmental-pollution-and-public-health
#13
Hong Yang, Mingguo Ma, Julian R Thompson, Roger J Flower
With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222034/management-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-candidemia-in-critically-ill-adults-expert-opinion-of-the-european-society-of-anaesthesia-esa-intensive-care-scientific-subcommittee
#14
REVIEW
Ruth-Aoibheann OLeary, Sharon Einav, Marc Leone, Krisztina Madách, Claude Martin, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
OBJECTIVE: The global burden of invasive fungal disease is increasing. Candida albicans remains the leading cause of fungal blood stream infections although non-albicans Candidal infections are emerging. Areas of controversy regarding diagnosis and management are hampering our ability to respond effectively to this evolving threat. The purpose of this narrative review is to address current controversies and provide recommendations to supplement guidelines. DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS: Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis requires a combination of diagnostic tests and patient risk factors...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222019/a-novel-use-of-cellulose-based-filter-paper-containing-silver-nanoparticles-for-its-potential-application-as-wound-dressing-agent
#15
Adnan Haider, Sajjad Haider, Inn-Kyu Kang, Anuj Kumar, Madhusudana Rao Kummara, Tahseen Kamal, Sung Soo Han
The frequent use of antibiotics against microbial infections may lead the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbial strains. To overcome these microbial strains, we need to fabricate alternative materials which can handle them. It is for this reason, we have fabricated cellulose (CE) based filter paper (FP) composite scaffolds comprising of adsorbed chitosan (CS) and sliver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The AgNPs are incorporated in the CS layer of the composite scaffold. Prior to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolds against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, the scaffolds were characterized for the presence of the Ag NPs with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometer (XRD)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221887/resistance-analysis-in-patients-with-genotype-1-6-hcv-infection-treated-with-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-in-the-phase-3-studies
#16
Christophe Hezode, Nancy Reau, Evguenia S Svarovskaia, Brian P Doehle, Ragavi Shanmugam, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Charlotte Hedskog, John McNally, Anu Osinusi, Diana M Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo, Stuart K Roberts, Jacqueline G O'Leary, Stephen D Shafran, Stefan Zeuzem
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The fixed dose combination of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was highly efficacious in genotype (GT) 1-6 HCV infected patients in the ASTRAL studies. This analysis evaluated the impact of baseline resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) on treatment outcome and emergence of RASs in HCV GT1-6 infected patients treated with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir. METHODS: NS5A and NS5B deep sequencing was performed at baseline for all patients in the ASTRAL 1-3, ASTRAL-5 and POLARIS-2-3 studies treated with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks (n=1778) and at the time of relapse...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221810/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Charles S Dela Cruz, Min-Jong Kang
Inflammation represents a comprehensive host response to external stimuli for the purpose of eliminating the offending agent, minimizing injury to host tissues and fostering repair of damaged tissues back to homeostatic levels. In normal physiologic context, inflammatory response culminates with the resolution of infection and tissue damage response. However, in a pathologic context, persistent or inappropriately regulated inflammation occurs that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent scientific advances have integrated the role of innate immune response to be an important arm of the inflammatory process...
December 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220792/4-quinolone-derivatives-and-their-activities-against-gram-positive-pathogens
#18
Gui-Fu Zhang, Shu Zhang, Baofeng Pan, Xiaofeng Liu, Lian-Shun Feng
Gram-positive bacteria are responsible for a broad range of infectious diseases, and the emergency and wide spread of drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens including MRSA and MRSE has caused great concern throughout the world. 4-Quinolones which are exemplified by fluoroquinolones are mainstays of chemotherapy against various bacterial infections including Gram-positive pathogen infections, and their value and role in the treatment of bacterial infections continues to expand. However, the resistance of Gram-positive organisms to 4-quinolones develops rapidly and spreads widely, making them more and more ineffective...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220115/hiv-prevention-where-it-is-needed-most-comparison-of-strategies-for-the-geographical-allocation-of-interventions
#19
Sarah-Jane Anderson, Peter D Ghys, Regina Ombam, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219885/displaced-clavicle-fractures-in-cyclists-return-to-athletic-activity-after-anteroinferior-plate-fixation
#20
Ven Denise J C van der, Tim K Timmers, Ivo A M J Broeders, Olden G D J van
BACKGROUND: One of the most commonly observed injuries in cycling is fracture of the clavicle. Nevertheless, there is limited literature available on clinical outcomes after plate fixation of clavicle fractures in cyclists, rehabilitation protocols, and the time to return to sports. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome, complications, and return to athletic activity at short-term follow-up after surgical repair. STUDY DESIGN: Case series...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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