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Zhanghua Chen, Muhammad T Salam, Tanya L Alderete, Rima Habre, Theresa M Bastain, Kiros Berhane, Frank D Gilliland
RATIONALE: Asthma and obesity often occur together in children. It is unknown whether asthma contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of asthma and asthma medication use on the development of childhood obesity. METHODS: The primary analysis was conducted among 2,171 non-obese children who were 5-8 years of age at study enrollment in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) and were followed for up to 10 years...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sanjay Garg, Wen Wang, Yunmei Song, Patricia Eats, Darren J Trott, Stephen W Page, Kiro R Petrovski
The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro release model for intramammary drug delivery system (IMDS) evaluation. This study was the first to establish an in vitro-in vivo correlation with investigation of an IMDS containing lasalocid. Three different methods including the standard United States Pharmacopeia dissolution method with apparatus 2, a modified United States Pharmacopeia method using a dialysis bag, or a specifically designed enhancer cell system, were assessed for the release study. Full cream milk and water were selected as the release media...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rob McConnell, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Kejia Wang, Robert Urman, Hanna Hong, Jennifer Unger, Jonathan Samet, Adam Leventhal, Kiros Berhane
BACKGROUND: Rates of adolescent electronic (e-) cigarette use are increasing, but there has been little study of the chronic effects of use. Components of e-cigarette aerosol have known pulmonary toxicity. METHODS: Associations of self-reported use of e-cigarettes with chronic bronchitic symptoms (chronic cough, phlegm or bronchitis) and of wheeze in the previous 12 months were examined in 2086 Southern California Children's Health Study participants completing questionnaires in 11th and 12th grade in 2014...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Michele Trotta, Beatrice Borchi, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Gaetana Sterrantino, Michela Brogi, Seble Tekle Kiros, Chiara Lorini, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Maria Grazia Colao, Alessandro Bartoloni
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test (IgM IFAT) for the diagnosis of acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis referred to the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy during the period 1998-2012 were retrospectively enrolled. All women were tested with a panel of serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG avidity and IgM IFAT...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Christopher McCrum, Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Gaspar Epro, Kenneth Meijer, Hans H C M Savelberg, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Posturography is used to assess balance in clinical settings, but its relationship to gait stability is unclear. We assessed if dynamic gait stability is associated with standing balance in 12 patients with unilateral vestibulopathy. Participants were unexpectedly tripped during treadmill walking and the change in the margin of stability (MoSchange) and base of support (BoSchange) relative to non-perturbed walking was calculated for the perturbed and first recovery steps. The centre of pressure (COP) path during 30s stance with eyes open and closed, and the distance between the most anterior point of the COP and the anterior BoS boundary during forward leaning (ADist) were assessed using a force plate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Thijs Maria Anne Ackermans, Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Kai Daniel Oberländer, Frank Suhr, Maarten Robert Drost, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether there are different changes in Achilles tendon (AT) mechanical properties in middle-aged, compared to younger runners that might indicate that tendon fatigue, induced by long-distance running, is age-dependent. METHODS: 27 middle-aged (50-67 years) and 22 younger (21-29 years) participants ran a 21 km route at their own pace (mean and SD: old: 3.1 ± 0.3 m s(-1); young: 3.6 ± 0.5 m s(-1)). We tested for changes in the AT force-elongation relationship using dynamometry and ultrasonography during isometric voluntary ankle plantarflexion ramp contractions, conducted 20-28 h pre-run, immediately pre-run, immediately post-run and 20-28 h post-run...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Anamika Kiro, Jaya Bajpai, A K Bajpai
Bionanocomposites of sericin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were prepared by solution casting method and zinc oxide nanoparticles were impregnated within the polymer blend matrix through homogenous phase reaction between zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide at high temperature following an ex-situ co-precipitation method. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy techniques...
January 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Gebrehiwot Teklay, Tsigemariam Teklu, Befikadu Legesse, Kiros Tedla, Eveline Klinkenberg
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy is a key public health intervention for the prevention of tuberculosis disease among people living with HIV. Despite the confirmed efficacy of isoniazid preventive therapy and global recommendations existing for decades, its implementation remains limited. In resource constrained settings, few have investigated why isoniazid preventive therapy is not implemented on full scale. This study was designed to investigate the level of isoniazid preventive therapy implementation and reasons for suboptimal implementation in Tigray region of Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Robert Urman, Adam M Leventhal, W James Gauderman, Tess Boley Cruz, Tamika D Gilreath, Steve Howland, Jennifer B Unger, Kiros Berhane, Jonathan M Samet, Rob McConnell
BACKGROUND: Adolescent e-cigarette use has increased rapidly in recent years, but it is unclear whether e-cigarettes are merely substituting for cigarettes or whether e-cigarettes are being used by those who would not otherwise have smoked. To understand the role of e-cigarettes in overall tobacco product use, we examine prevalence rates from Southern California adolescents over 2 decades. METHODS: The Children's Health Study is a longitudinal study of cohorts reaching 12th grade in 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2014...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Diana Younan, Catherine Tuvblad, Lianfa Li, Jun Wu, Fred Lurmann, Meredith Franklin, Kiros Berhane, Rob McConnell, Anna H Wu, Laura A Baker, Jiu-Chiuan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood greenspace improves mental health of urban-dwelling populations, but its putative neurobehavioral benefits in adolescents remain unclear. We conducted a prospective study on urban-dwelling adolescents to examine the association between greenspace in residential neighborhood and aggressive behaviors. METHOD: Participants (n = 1,287) of the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study, a multi-ethnic cohort of twins and triplets born in 1990 to 1995 and living in Southern California, were examined in 2000 to 2012 (aged 9-18 years) with repeated assessments of their aggressive behaviors by the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jonathan M Samet, Hossein Bahrami, Kiros Berhane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2016: Circulation
Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Robert Urman, Kiros Berhane, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Boley Cruz, Mary Ann Pentz, Jonathan M Samet, Adam M Leventhal, Rob McConnell
BACKGROUND: There has been little research examining whether e-cigarette use increases the risk of cigarette initiation among adolescents in the transition to adulthood when the sale of cigarettes becomes legal. METHODS: The Children's Health Study is a prospectively followed cohort in Southern California. Data on e-cigarette use were collected in 11th and 12th grade (mean age = 17.4); follow-up data on tobacco product use were collected an average of 16 months later from never-smoking e-cigarette users at initial evaluation (n = 146) and from a sample of never-smoking, never e-cigarette users (n = 152) frequency matched to e-cigarette users on gender, ethnicity, and grade...
July 2016: Pediatrics
Katrin Eysel-Gosepath, Christopher McCrum, Gaspar Epro, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
Preserving upright stance requires central integration of the sensory systems and appropriate motor output from the neuromuscular system to keep the centre of pressure (COP) within the base of support. Unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder (UPVD) causes diminished stance stability. The aim of this study was to determine the limits of stability and to examine the contribution of multiple sensory systems to upright standing in UPVD patients and healthy subjects. We hypothesized that closure of the eyes and Achilles tendon vibration during upright stance will augment the postural sway in UPVD patients more than in healthy subjects...
June 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Kiros Berhane, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Boley Cruz, Robert Urman, Chih Ping Chou, Steve Howland, Kejia Wang, Mary Ann Pentz, Tamika D Gilreath, Jimi Huh, Adam M Leventhal, Jonathan M Samet, Rob McConnell
PURPOSE: One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. METHODS: Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke...
July 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The health of women and children has improved considerably in rural Ethiopia, thanks to the dedication of its health extension workers and its network of volunteers. Bethlehem Kiros reports.
May 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Kiros Karamanidis, Artemis Travlou, Peter Krauss, Uwe Jaekel
Ultrasound imaging can be used to study tendon movement during muscle contraction to estimate the tendon force-length relationship in vivo. Traditionally, such tendon displacement measurements are made manually (time consuming and subjective). Here we evaluated a Lucas-Kanade-based tracking algorithm with an optic flow extension that accounts for tendon movement characteristics between consecutive frames of an ultrasound image sequence. Eleven subjects performed 12 voluntary isometric plantar flexion contractions on a dynamometer...
July 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Kiros Berhane, Chih-Chieh Chang, Rob McConnell, W James Gauderman, Edward Avol, Ed Rapapport, Robert Urman, Fred Lurmann, Frank Gilliland
IMPORTANCE: Childhood bronchitic symptoms are significant public and clinical health problems that produce a substantial burden of disease. Ambient air pollutants are important determinants of bronchitis occurrence. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether improvements in ambient air quality in Southern California were associated with reductions in bronchitic symptoms in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A longitudinal study involving 4602 children (age range, 5-18 years) from 3 cohorts was conducted during the 1993-2001, 1996-2004, and 2003-2012 years in 8 Southern California communities...
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Christopher McCrum, Gaspar Epro, Kenneth Meijer, Wiebren Zijlstra, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Deepak K Tempe, Kiran L Kiro, Subodh Satyarthy, Sanjula Virmani, Pradeep Kumar, Vithalkumar M Betigiri, Harpreet S Minhas
BACKGROUND: Postoperative hepatic dysfunction may occur in an otherwise uncomplicated open heart surgery. One of the reasons is malpositioning of the inferior vena cava (IVC) cannula in the hepatic vein (HV) or beyond. A straight cannula is considered more likely to be malpositioned compared to the angled cannula and a malpositioned cannula can lead to hepatic dysfunction. METHODS: In this prospective study, forty adult patients undergoing atrial septal defect repair were randomized into two groups as: straight cannula group (n=20) and angled cannula group (n=20)...
September 2016: Perfusion
Carrie V Breton, Wendy J Mack, Jin Yao, Kiros Berhane, Milena Amadeus, Fred Lurmann, Frank Gilliland, Rob McConnell, Howard N Hodis, Nino Künzli, Ed Avol
Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY) study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) were assessed...
2016: PloS One
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