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Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gaspar Epro, Andreas Mierau, Christopher McCrum, Michael Leyendecker, Gert-Peter Bruggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
The plantar flexors play a crucial role in recovery from sudden disturbances to gait. The objective of this study was to investigate whether medium (months) or long-term (years) exercise-induced enhancement of triceps surae (TS) neuromuscular capacities affects older adults' ability to retain improvements in reactive gait stability during perturbed walking acquired from perturbation training sessions. Thirty-four female adults (65{plus minus}7y) were recruited to a perturbation training group (n=13) or a group which additionally completed 14 weeks of TS neuromuscular exercise (n=21), 12 of whom continued with the exercise for 1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Bizuayehu Girma, Asnake Bitew, Nega Kiros, Miriam Redleaf
Aims/Purpose: When 2 models of otologic surgery instruction in Ethiopia are compared, high-density otologic surgery campaigns are more effective for accelerated skills transfer in areas of sparse expertise than the standard outpatient clinic/OR model. METHODS: A continuously operating otolaryngology/head and neck surgery department in a large public hospital is compared with a nonprofit specialty hospital where outpatients are selected for weeklong surgical campaigns. The number and variety of otologic visits and operations in each setting, presence of expert supervision, and resident-trainees' surgical progress were tallied...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Andreas Mierau, Michael Leyendecker, Gert-Peter Bruggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
This study aimed to examine whether the triceps surae (TS) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanical properties affects gait stability and its reactive adaptation potential to repeated perturbation exposure in older adults. Thirty-four older adults each experienced eight separate unexpected perturbations during treadmill walking, while a motion capture system was used to determine the margin of stability (MoS) and base of support (BoS). Ankle plantarflexor muscle strength and Achilles tendon (AT) stiffness were analysed using ultrasonography and dynamometry...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum, Kiros Karamanidis
The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a corrective exercise program on landing ground reaction force characteristics and lower limb kinematics in older adults with genu valgus. Twenty six older male adults with genu valgus were randomized into two groups. An experimental group conducted a 14- week corrective exercise program, while a control group did not perform any exercise. The experimental group displayed lower peak vertical, peak anterior and posterior, and peak medial ground reaction force components during the post-test compared to the pre-test...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Kiro Petrovski, Razi Jozani, Andrew Hoare, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide a rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic real time polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting curve assay (PCR-HRM) to identify and distinguish between four different mycoplasmas and Acholeplasma laidlawii isolated at cow-level from a single commercial dairy farm in South Australia. One set of genus-level universal primers was designed targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. RESULTS: Real time PCR-HRM analysis was able to identify and distinguish between five different mollicutes, namely A...
February 7, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Diana Younan, Catherine Tuvblad, Meredith Franklin, Fred Lurmann, Lianfa Li, Jun Wu, Kiros Berhane, Laura A Baker, Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Animal experiments and cross-sectional human studies have linked particulate matter (PM) with increased behavioral problems. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether the trajectories of delinquent behavior are affected by PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) exposures before and during adolescence. We used the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist at age 9-18 with repeated measures every ~2-3 years (up to 4 behavioral assessments) on 682 children from the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study conducted in a multi-ethnic cohort of twins born in 1990-1995...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Farhid Hemmatzadeh, Manouchehr Khazandi, Andrew Hoare, Kiro Petrovski
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Lianqiang Che, Qin Xu, Cheng Wu, Yuheng Luo, Xiaobo Huang, Bo Zhang, Eric Auclair, Tadele Kiros, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT-ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON-ETEC, ANT-ZnO-ETEC and LY-ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections...
December 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Vladimir Rendevski, Boris Aleksovski, Dragan Stojanov, Vasko Aleksovski, Ana Mihajlovska Rendevska, Milena Kolevska, Kiro Stojanoski, Icko Gjorgoski
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic values, contribution and interactions of the peripheral blood plasma glutamate and tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels toward the formation of the perifocal edema in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Fifty patients with ICH and fifty healthy controls were included in the study. The peripheral markers were detected by high-sensitivity ELISA. RESULTS: A highly significant differences in plasma glutamate and TNF-α levels with good separation of their values was detected between patients and healthy controls...
October 19, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Christopher McCrum, Kai D Oberländer, Gaspar Epro, Peter Krauss, Darren C James, Neil D Reeves, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons are viscoelastic, which implies loading rate dependency, but loading rates of contractions are often not controlled during assessment of human tendon mechanical properties in vivo. We investigated the effects of sustained submaximal isometric plantarflexion contractions, which potentially negate loading rate dependency, on the stiffness of the human Achilles tendon in vivo using dynamometry and ultrasonography. Maximum voluntary contractions (high loading rate), ramp maximum force contractions with 3 s loading (lower loading rate) and sustained contractions (held for 3 s) at 25%, 50% and 80% of maximal tendon force were conducted...
September 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Manouchehr Khazandi, Andrew J Stevens, Sarah K Sims, Stephen W Page, Sanjay Garg, Henrietta Venter, Andrew Powell, Karen White, Kiro R Petrovski, Geraldine Laven-Law, Eliane G Tótoli, Hérida R Salgado, Hongfei Pi, Geoffrey W Coombs, Dean L Shinabarger, John D Turnidge, James C Paton, Adam McCluskey, Darren J Trott
The spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Recent approaches towards combating antimicrobial resistance include repurposing old compounds with known safety and development pathways as new antibacterial classes with novel mechanisms of action. Here we show that an analog of the anticoccidial drug robenidine (4,6-bis(2-((E)-4-methylbenzylidene)hydrazinyl)pyrimidin-2-amine; NCL195) displays potent bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus by disrupting the cell membrane potential...
2017: PloS One
Mulat Adefris, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe, Kiros Terefe, Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Azmeraw Adigo, Selamawit Amare, Dorothy Lazaro, Aster Berhe, Chernet Baye
BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula and pelvic organ prolapse remain highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where women have poor access to modern health care. Women having these problems tend to stay at home for years before getting treatment. However, information regarding the reasons contributing to late presentation to treatment is scarce, especially at the study area. The objective of this study was to assess the reasons whywomen with obstetric fistula and pelvic organ prolapse at Gondar University Hospital delay treatment...
August 22, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Yue Zhang, Muhammad T Salam, Kiros Berhane, Sandrah P Eckel, Edward B Rappaport, William S Linn, Rima Habre, Theresa M Bastain, Frank D Gilliland
BACKGROUND: The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation that has proved to be useful in investigations of genetic and epigenetic airway susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. For example, susceptibility to airway inflammation from exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < =2.5 μm (PM2.5) varies by haplotypes and promoter region methylation in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS encoded by NOS2). We hypothesized that PM2...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Adam M Leventhal, Robert Urman, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Nicholas I Goldenson, Katia Gallegos, Chih Ping Chou, Kejia Wang, Kiros Berhane, Tess Boley Cruz, Mary Ann Pentz, Jennifer Unger, Rob S McConnell
Perceived stress-an endophenotype indicative of the tendency to appraise stress as frequent, unpredictable and unmanageable-is associated with adolescent cigarette smoking. It is unclear whether this association: (1) extends to alternative tobacco products, like electronic cigarettes and hookah (tobacco water pipe), which are increasingly popular among youth, and (2) differs by gender. In this report, data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal cohort of youth in Southern California. Perceived stress was assessed at baseline (7th or 8th grade; 2010)...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Inna L Soroka, Nadezda V Tarakina, Anton Hermansson, Lukas Bigum, Rickard Widerberg, Mikael S Andersson, Roland Mathieu, Alagar R Paulraj, Yohannes Kiros
A facile synthesis of 3d-metal based electro-catalysts directly incorporated into a carbon support was carried out by γ-radiation. Transition metals of period 4, i.e. Ni and Co, were precipitated and reduced from their respective salt solutions. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, SQUID and the BET methods. Thereafter, the electrodes for fuel cells were fabricated out of synthesized material and their electrochemical performance for the oxygen reduction reaction in 6 M KOH was measured. Although the concentrations of Co and Ni in the electrode material were low (3...
July 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
N E Kiro, M R Hamblin, H Abrahamse
Breast and cervical cancers are dangerous threats with regard to the health of women. The two malignancies have reached the highest record in terms of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Despite the use of novel strategies with the aim to treat and cure advanced stages of cancer, post-therapeutic relapse believed to be caused by cancer stem cells is one of the challenges encountered during tumor therapy. Therefore, further attention should be paid to cancer stem cells when developing novel anti-tumor therapeutic approaches...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Thabiso E Motaung, Kiro R Petrovski, Inge-Marie Petzer, Oriel Thekisoe, Toi J Tsilo
Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent...
June 13, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
Snezana Pesevska, Icko Gjorgoski, Kiro Ivanovski, Nikolaos K Soldatos, Nikola Angelov
Adjunctive treatments to scaling and root planing (SRP) such as lasers, have been utilized in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, mainly aiming to suppress and eliminate the bacteria, as well as enhancing the healing response. Eighty gingival papilla biopsy samples were obtained from 60 patients diagnosed with chronic advanced periodontitis; randomly assigned to three treatment groups (n = 20), as well as 20 subjects with no periodontal disease [group A]. Group B received SRP on a single quadrant/day for four consecutive days...
September 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Deepti Saigal, Pragati Ganjoo, Madhumita Tetarway, Kiranlata Kiro
Venous air embolism (VAE) is a well-known complication of sitting position neurosurgery which most characteristically manifests as mild to severe hemodynamic alterations. Development of pulmonary edema is a known, though infrequent, manifestation of VAE. We report here the occurrence of acute pulmonary edema without accompanying hemodynamic changes in a patient undergoing retromastoid craniotomy and tumor decompression in the sitting position. The patient required supportive treatment and elective ventilation for 11 days before the edema resolved...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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