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Brain atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#1
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804760/autopsy-case-of-the-c12orf65-mutation-in-a-patient-with-signs-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#2
Hideaki Nishihara, Masatoshi Omoto, Masaki Takao, Yujiro Higuchi, Michiaki Koga, Motoharu Kawai, Hiroo Kawano, Eiji Ikeda, Hiroshi Takashima, Takashi Kanda
OBJECTIVE: To describe the autopsy case of a patient with a homozygous 2-base deletion, c171_172delGA (p.N58fs), in the C12orf65 gene. METHODS: We described the clinical history, neuroimaging data, neuropathology, and genetic analysis of the patients with C12orf65 mutations. RESULTS: The patient was a Japanese woman with a history of delayed psychomotor development, primary amenorrhea, and gait disturbance in her 20s. She was hospitalized because of respiratory failure at the age of 60...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804634/muscle-mri-findings-in-a-one-year-old-girl-with-merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-type-1a-due-to-lama2-mutation-a-case-report
#3
Yingyin Liang, Guidian Li, Songlin Chen, Rongxing He, Xiangxue Zhou, Yingming Chen, Xue Xu, Ronglan Zhu, Cheng Zhang
The objective of the present study was to characterize the muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a 1-year-old girl with merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A). Beginning as an infant, this patient exhibited severe hypotonia and proximal weakness, as well as delays in developmental milestones. Her serum creatine kinase levels at 3 months, 8 months and 1 year were 2,959, 1,621 and 1,659 U/l, respectively. Brain MRI indicated symmetric, mild T1WI low, mild T2WI and FLAIR high radial patterns in the white matter of the Cornu posterius of the ventricular lateral...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801477/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-renal-function-are-associated-with-brain-alterations-and-poststroke-cognitive-decline
#4
Einor Ben Assayag, Roy Eldor, Amos D Korczyn, Efrat Kliper, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Oren Tene, Jeremy Molad, Itzhak Shapira, Shlomo Berliner, Viki Volfson, Ludmila Shopin, Yehuda Strauss, Hen Hallevi, Natan M Bornstein, Eitan Auriel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with diseases of the brain, kidney, and vasculature. However, the relationship between T2DM, chronic kidney disease, brain alterations, and cognitive function after stroke is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the inter-relationship between T2DM, impaired renal function, brain pathology on imaging, and cognitive decline in a longitudinal poststroke cohort. METHODS: The TABASCO (Tel Aviv brain acute stroke cohort) is a prospective cohort of stroke/transient ischemic attack survivors...
August 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801265/fluoxetine-coupled-with-zinc-in-a-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression-providing-a-reservoir-for-optimum-zinc-signaling-and-neuronal-remodeling
#5
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Reham Fathy Tash
BACKGROUND: Recently, depression has been envisioned as more than an alteration in neurotransmitters centered around receptor signaling pathways. Consequently, the precise mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited. Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in the psychopathology and therapy of depression. Zinc has been found to be sequestered and dispensed during stress and inflammation through a family of proteins called metallothioneins (MTs)...
August 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801086/slowly-progressive-leukodystrophy-in-an-adolescent-male-with-phosphoglycerate-kinase-deficiency
#6
Shimpei Baba, Ayumi Kobayashi, Haruna Yokoyama, Kengo Moriyama, Ayako Kashimada, Jun Oyama, Ayako Owada, Shoichi Oyama, Tomohiro Morio, Masatoshi Takagi
We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency who had slowly progressive leukodystrophy during adolescence. The patient had a history of severe neonatal jaundice, hemolytic crisis with rhabdomyolysis triggered by febrile viral infections, dysarthria, and intellectual disability during early childhood. Clumsiness in walking and writing became obvious at ∼10years of age. Evaluations performed by us on the 18-year-old patient confirmed the presence of pyramidal tract signs, increased muscle tone, and generalized dystonia...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800278/the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-ocimum-basilicum-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#7
S S Ali, M G Abd El Wahab, N N Ayuob, M Suliaman
We investigated the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils for treating depression related behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes caused by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice and to explore the mechanism underlying the pathology. Male albino mice were divided into four groups: controls; CUMS; CUMS plus fluoxetine, the antidepressant administered for pharmacological validation of OB; and CUMS plus OB. Behavioral tests included the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT); these tests were performed at the end of the experiment...
August 11, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800041/influence-of-preeclampsia-and-late-life-hypertension-on-mri-measures-of-cortical-atrophy
#8
Mekala R Raman, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Samantha M Zuk, Matthew L Senjem, Wendy M White, Julie A Fields, Michelle M Mielke, Timothy G Lesnick, Kent R Bailey, Clifford R Jack, Virginia M Miller, Vesna D Garovic, Kejal Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of preeclampsia are at an increased risk of hypertension and structural brain changes. However, the combined effect of both preeclampsia and late-life hypertension on brain structural changes is not known and was investigated in this study. METHODS: Participants were identified from the population-based Rochester Epidemiology Project cohort. Four groups of women were recruited and investigated in this study: first, women with a history of normotensive pregnancy who have late-life hypertension (n = 8, median age = 62), second, women with a history of normotensive pregnancy who do not have late-life hypertension (n = 32, median age = 59), third, women with a history of preeclampsia who have late-life hypertension (n = 24, median age = 60), and fourth, women with a history of preeclampsia who do not have late-life hypertension (n = 16, median age = 57)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799299/a-comparative-study-of-csf-viral-rna-loads-between-hiv-positive-patients-with-neurological-manifestations-and-neurologically-asymptomatic-hiv-patients
#9
A D Mathur, S Devesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794970/agreement-of-msmetrix-with-established-methods-for-measuring-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-brain-atrophy
#10
Martijn D Steenwijk, Houshang Amiri, Menno M Schoonheim, Alexandra de Sitter, Frederik Barkhof, Petra J W Pouwels, Hugo Vrenken
INTRODUCTION: Despite the recognized importance of atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS), methods for its quantification have been mostly restricted to the research domain. Recently, a CE labelled and FDA approved MS-specific atrophy quantification method, MSmetrix, has become commercially available. Here we perform a validation of MSmetrix against established methods in simulated and in vivo MRI data. METHODS: Whole-brain and gray matter (GM) volume were measured with the cross-sectional pipeline of MSmetrix and compared to the outcomes of FreeSurfer (cross-sectional pipeline), SIENAX and SPM...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792103/progression-of-regional-atrophy-in-the-left-hemisphere-contributes-to-clinical-and-cognitive-deterioration-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-5-year-study
#11
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Sarlota Mesaros, Gianna C Riccitelli, Jelena Dackovic, Jelena Drulovic, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the regional patterns of focal lesions accumulation, and gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy progression over a five-year follow-up (FU) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their association with clinical and cognitive deterioration. Neurological, neuropsychological and brain MRI (dual-echo and 3D T1-weighted sequences) assessments were prospectively performed at baseline (T0) and after a median FU of 4.9 years from 66 MS patients (including relapse-onset and primary progressive MS) and 16 matched controls...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791574/heterotopic-purkinje-cells-a-comparative-postmortem-study-of-essential-tremor-and-spinocerebellar-ataxias-1-2-3-and-6
#12
Elan D Louis, Sheng-Han Kuo, William J Tate, Geoffrey C Kelly, Jesus Gutierrez, Etty P Cortes, Jean-Paul G Vonsattel, Phyllis L Faust
Essential tremor (ET) is among the most common neurological diseases. Postmortem studies have noted a series of pathological changes in the ET cerebellum. Heterotopic Purkinje cells (PCs) are those whose cell body is mis-localized in the molecular layer. In neurodegenerative settings, these are viewed as a marker of the progression of neuronal degeneration. We (1) quantify heterotopias in ET cases vs. controls, (2) compare ET cases to other cerebellar degenerative conditions (spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) 1, 2, 3, and 6), (3) compare these SCAs to one another, and (4) assess heterotopia within the context of associated PC loss in each disease...
August 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782342/-hummingbird-sign-in-a-patient-with-guam-parkinsonism-dementia-complex
#13
Tianrong Yeo, Louis Cs Tan
We present a case of a 71-year-old male Chamorro patient from Guam who presented with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)-Richardson's syndrome. Considering his strong family history of parkinsonism and a PSP phenotype, he was clinically diagnosed with Guam parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed prominent midbrain atrophy with preserved pontine volume, forming the 'hummingbird' sign, which has not been described before in Guam PDC. Molecular analysis of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene (C9orf72) showed only 6 GGGGCC repeats...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781028/hypoplastic-hippocampus-in-atypical-rett-syndrome-with-a-novel-foxg1-mutation
#14
Kotoha Harada, Mayumi Yamamoto, Yukihiko Konishi, Kaori Koyano, Satoru Takahashi, Masanori Namba, Takashi Kusaka
The forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene encodes a brain-specific transcription factor and is associated with a congenital variant of atypical Rett syndrome (RTT); several FOXG1 mutations have been identified. The congenital variant of RTT shows a hypoplastic corpus callosum, delayed myelination, and frontal and temporal atrophy. Although no report has described a hippocampal abnormality in humans, the current study suggests that FOXG1 also regulates neurogenesis in the postnatal hippocampus. In the present case, severe developmental delay was observed in a patient with a congenital variant of RTT from about 4months, in conjunction with acquired microcephaly, hypotonia, limited motor function, absent purposeful hand use, and repetitive jerky movements of the upper limbs...
August 3, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780216/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-cytomegalovirus-and-zika-virus-infections-a-comparison-of-three-cases
#15
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are among the common infectious agents that may infect the fetuses vertically. Clinical presentations of these congenital infections overlap significantly, and it is usually impossible to determine the causative agent clinically. The objective was the comparison of neuroimaging findings in three fetuses who underwent intrauterine infection by toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV. METHODS: Three confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV infections were included in the study over 7 months prospectively...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771723/-prion-like-propagation-of-the-synucleinopathy-of-m83-transgenic-mice-depends-on-the-mouse-genotype-and-type-of-inoculum
#16
Dorian Sargent, Jérémy Verchere, Corinne Lazizzera, Damien Gaillard, Latifa Lakhdar, Nathalie Streichenberger, Eric Morignat, Dominique Bétemps, Thierry Baron
The M83 transgenic mouse is a model of human synucleinopathies that develops severe motor impairment correlated with accumulation of the pathological Ser129-phosphorylated α-synuclein (α-syn(P) ) in the brain and spinal cord. M83 disease can be accelerated by intracerebral inoculation of brain extracts from sick M83 mice. This has also recently been described using peripheral routes, injecting recombinant preformed α-syn fibrils into the muscle or the peritoneum. Here, we inoculated homozygous and/or hemizygous M83 neonates via the intraperitoneal and/or intracerebral routes with two different brain extracts: one from sick M83 mice inoculated with brain extract from other sick M83 mice, and the other derived from a human multiple system atrophy (MSA) source passaged in M83 mice...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#17
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768849/brain-imaging-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Kees Okkersen, Darren G Monckton, Nhu Le, Anil M Tuladhar, Joost Raaphorst, Baziel G M van Engelen
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review brain imaging studies in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). METHODS: We searched Embase (index period 1974-2016) and MEDLINE (index period 1946-2016) for studies in patients with DM1 using MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), functional MRI (fMRI), CT, ultrasound, PET, or SPECT. From 81 studies, we extracted clinical characteristics, primary outcomes, clinical-genetic correlations, and information on potential risk of bias...
August 2, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768549/intranasal-insulin-reverts-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-diabetic-mother-offspring
#19
Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Daniel Sanchez-Sotano, Alberto Doblas-Marquez, Carmen Infante-Garcia, Simon Lubian-Lopez, Monica Garcia-Alloza
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects in diabetic mothers offspring (DMO) are a major concern of increasing incidence. Among these, chronic central complications in DMO remain poorly understood, and in extreme cases, diabetes can essentially function as a gestational brain insult. Nevertheless, therapeutic alternatives for DMO are limited. METHODS: Therefore, we have analyzed the central long-term complications in the offspring from CD1 diabetic mothers treated with streptozotozin, as well as the possible reversion of these alterations by insulin administration to neonates...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766174/discriminant-analysis-of-intracranial-volumetric-variables-in-patients-with-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-and-brain-atrophy
#20
Leszek Czerwosz, Ewa Szczepek, Krzysztof Nowiński, Beata Sokołowska, Jerzy Jurkiewicz, Zbigniew Czernicki, Waldemar Koszewski
A method was developed for the computerized volumetric assessment of the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) distribution. The study involved 62 patients differentiated into two groups: with CSF resorption disorders (normal pressure hydrocephalus - 30 patients) and without CSF resorption disorders (various types of brain atrophy - 32 patients). The goal of the study was to ascertain whether the assessment, depending on the linear discriminant analysis of volumetric brain features, could be an effective tool differentiating the two groups...
August 2, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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