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Brain atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108207/cognitive-impairment-is-very-common-in-elderly-patients-with-syncope-and-unexplained-falls
#1
Susanne C de Ruiter, Jos F M de Jonghe, Tjeerd Germans, Jaap H Ruiter, René W M M Jansen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI), including mild CI and dementia, in elderly patients with syncope and unexplained falls. In this population, we compared the use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with a cognitive screening test that assesses executive dysfunction typical of subcortical (vascular) CI, that is, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient fall and syncope clinic...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107446/amygdala-atrophy-and-its-functional-disconnection-with-the-cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-circuit-in-major-depressive-disorder-in-females
#2
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Connie Svob, Jun Long, Xiaofu He, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Jian Dong, Zuping Zhang, Zhishun Wang, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in females than males. Furthermore, female patients with MDD tend to manifest comorbid anxiety. Few studies have explored the potential anatomical and functional brain changes associated with MDD in females. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and functional changes underlying MDD in females, especially within the context of comorbid anxiety. METHODS: In this study, we recruited antidepressant-free females with MDD (N = 35) and healthy female controls (HC; N = 23)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106554/recovery-from-proactive-semantic-interference-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-normal-aging-relationship-to-atrophy-in-brain-regions-vulnerable-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Clinton Wright, Xiaoyan Sun, Noam Alperin, Elzabeth Crocco, Sara J Czaja, Arlene Raffo, Ailyn Penate, Jose Melo, Kimberly Capp, Monica Gamez, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. METHODS: Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105773/exosomal-biomarkers-of-brain-insulin-resistance-associated-with-regional-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Roger J Mullins, Maja Mustapic, Edward J Goetzl, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
: Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. CONTROLS: Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ42 )...
January 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104720/when-dizziness-becomes-sinister-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-presenting-as-a-paraneoplastic-neurological-disorder
#5
Li Yong, Panagiotis Asimakopoulos, Colin Mumford, Ioanna Fragkandrea Nixon
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are uncommon presentations of head and neck cancers. We present a case of a 68-year-old male patient who presented with dizziness, nausea and memory problems. MRI of his brain showed bilateral cerebellar leptomeningeal enhancing signal abnormality with cervical lymphadenopathy. CT imaging of his neck raised the suspicion of a tonsillar primary, which was later confirmed on biopsy. His poorly differentiated HPV positive squamous cell carcinoma was treated with chemoradiotherapy...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102636/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-tourette-syndrome-clinical-evidence-for-increasing-disbalance-of-therapeutic-effects-and-side-effects-at-long-term-follow-up
#6
Anouk Y J M Smeets, Annelien A Duits, Albert F G Leentjens, Koen Schruers, Vivianne van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
OBJECTIVE: Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in reducing tics in patients with refractory Tourette syndrome at the short-term. Here, we report on the long-term outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients underwent bilateral DBS between 2001 and 2008. The target was the centromedian nucleus, substantia periventricularis and nucleus ventro-oralis internus cross point of the thalamus. The effect on tics and side effects were evaluated with a variable follow-up duration of 12 to 78 months...
January 19, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101102/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-serum-levels-and-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-disease
#7
Ericksen Mielle Borba, Juliana Avila Duarte, Giovana Bristot, Ellen Scotton, Ana Luiza Camozzato, Márcia Lorena Fagundes Chaves
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). METHODS: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099507/correlations-of-behavioral-deficits-with-brain-pathology-assessed-through-longitudinal-mri-and-histopathology-in-the-hdhq150-q150-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#9
Ivan Rattray, Edward J Smith, William R Crum, Thomas A Walker, Richard Gale, Gillian P Bates, Michel Modo
A variety of mouse models have been developed that express mutant huntingtin (mHTT) leading to aggregates and inclusions that model the molecular pathology observed in Huntington's disease. Here we show that although homozygous HdhQ150 knock-in mice developed motor impairments (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip strength) by 36 weeks of age, cognitive dysfunction (swimming T maze, fear conditioning, odor discrimination, social interaction) was not evident by 94 weeks. Concomitant to behavioral assessments, T2-weighted MRI volume measurements indicated a slower striatal growth with a significant difference between wild type (WT) and HdhQ150 mice being present even at 15 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096879/association-between-mitofusin-2-gene-polymorphisms-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-korean-population
#10
Young Jong Kim, Jin Kyung Park, Won Sub Kang, Su Kang Kim, Changsu Han, Hae Ri Na, Hae Jeong Park, Jong Woo Kim, Young Youl Kim, Moon Ho Park, Jong-Woo Paik
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The morphologic changes observed in the AD brain could be caused by a failure of mitochondrial fusion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of two genes involved in mitochondrial fusion mechanisms, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2), were associated with AD in the Korean population by analyzing genotypes and allele frequencies. METHODS: One coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MFN2, rs1042837, and two coding SNPs in the OPA1, rs7624750 and rs9851685, were compared between 165 patients with AD (83 men and 82 women, mean age 72...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096524/a-case-of-seronegative-limbic-encephalitis-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-possible-overlapping-syndrome
#11
Zerrin Karaaslan, Özlem Mercan, Erdem Tüzün, Handan Mısırlı, Recai Türkoğlu
BACKGROUND Autoimmune encephalitis might coexist in patients with autoimmune demyelinating disorders. CASE REPORT We report on a case of a 45-year-old female multiple sclerosis (MS) patient presenting with acute onset short-term memory loss, altered mental status, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and an MRI lesion on the left temporal lobe. An extensive panel for neuronal autoantibodies proved negative. Neuropsychological symptoms gave a prompt response to immunotherapy but nevertheless control MRI showed left hippocampal atrophy...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095463/brain-parenchymal-fraction-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
Mattias Vågberg, Gabriel Granåsen, Anders Svenningsson
Brain atrophy is an important feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. It can be described in terms of change in the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). In order to interpret the BPF in disease, knowledge on the BPF in healthy individuals is required. The aim of this study was to establish a normal range of values for the BPF of healthy individuals via a systematic review of the literature. The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched and 95 articles, including a total of 9269 individuals, were identified including the required data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095425/relationship-between-clinical-parameters-and-brain-structure-in-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-according-to-onset-type-a-voxel-based-morphometric-study
#14
Hee-Jin Kim, Mony de Leon, Xiuyuan Wang, Hyun Young Kim, Young-Jun Lee, Yeon-Ha Kim, Seung Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing, phenotypically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly the motor neuron system. The present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study investigated whether patterns of brain atrophy differ among sporadic ALS subtypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sporadic ALS patients (n = 62) with normal cognition and age-matched healthy controls (n = 57) were included in the study. ALS patients were divided into limb- and bulbar-onset groups according to clinical manifestations at symptom onset (n = 48 and 14, respectively)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094824/structural-neuroimaging-in-polysubstance-users
#15
COMMENT
Dieter J Meyerhoff
The simultaneous and/or concurrent use of licit and illicit substances (polysubstance use, PSU) is most common today. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied extensively to study individuals ostensibly using a single substance. These studies have produced a picture of regional gray matter and white matter alterations with each substance or class of substances. Very few studies measured regional brain morphometry in today's polysubstance users. This limited data suggest morphometric alterations with PSU that are not simply additive but often different from those of monosubstance users...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091863/fast-progression-of-cerebellar-atrophy-in-pla2g6-associated-infantile-neuronal-axonal-dystrophy
#16
Mario Mascalchi, Francesco Mari, Beatrice Berti, Emanuele Bartolini, Matteo Lenge, Andrea Bianchi, Laura Antonucci, Filippo M Santorelli, Barbara Garavaglia, Renzo Guerrini
Infantile neuronal axonal dystrophy (INAD) is characterized by progressive cerebellar atrophy. MRI has been recommended as a marker of disease progression in cerebellar diseases. We performed a longitudinal brain volumetry study in a couple of bicorial twins with PLA2G6-positive INAD. Brain volumetry was calculated with FreeSurfer software on 3T T1-weighted images acquired at age 28 (t 0) and 36 months (t 1) in patient 1 and at age 22 (t 0) and 31 months (t 1) in patient 2. Data at t 0 were compared to those obtained in 18 control children aged 14-44 months with normal MRI...
January 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089351/longitudinal-association-between-hippocampus-atrophy-and-episodic-memory-decline
#17
Tetiana Gorbach, Sara Pudas, Anders Lundquist, Greger Orädd, Maria Josefsson, Alireza Salami, Xavier de Luna, Lars Nyberg
There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions...
December 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088313/q-space-myelin-map-imaging-for-longitudinal-analysis-of-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-fingolimod-a-preliminary-study
#18
Mariko Tanikawa, Jin Nakahara, Junichi Hata, Shigeaki Suzuki, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hirokazu Fujiwara, Suketaka Momoshima, Masahiro Jinzaki, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Shinichi Takahashi, Norihiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod (FTY) is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator that reduces relapse and slows brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In addition, FTY has been shown to enhance remyelination in certain animal models. OBJECTIVE: To analyze feasibility of a novel q-space Myelin Map imaging to monitor demyelination and remyelination under FTY treatment in MS patients. METHODS: Treatment outcomes of 24 consecutive MS patients treated with FTY were analyzed...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077719/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#19
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
: Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and l-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#20
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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