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Brain atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149290/discovering-the-3-utr-mediated-regulation-of-alpha-synuclein
#1
Domenica Marchese, Teresa Botta-Orfila, Davide Cirillo, Juan Antonio Rodriguez, Carmen Maria Livi, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Mario Ezquerra, Maria J Martí, Elias Bechara, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia
Recent evidence indicates a link between Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the expression of a-synuclein (SNCA) isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). Yet, the post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating SNCA expression are unknown. Using a large-scale in vitro/in silico screening we identified RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with SNCA 3' UTRs. We identified two RBPs, ELAVL1 and TIAR, that bind with high affinity to the most abundant and translationally active 3' UTR isoform (575 nt)...
November 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147836/effects-of-saffron%C3%A2-and-its-constituents-%C3%A2-crocin-1-crocin-2-and-crocetin-on-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils
#2
Eiji Inoue, Yasuharu Shimizu, Ryo Masui, Tomomi Hayakawa, Tomoe Tsubonoya, Satoko Hori, Keiichi Sudoh
Saffron, the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae family), has been known to inhibit aggregation of β-amyloid, a nerve tissue protein. α-Synuclein (αS) is a 140-amino acid protein found abundantly in various regions of the brain. Its abnormal aggregation and accumulation in nerve tissue are said to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple-system atrophy. This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, and trans, trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146880/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-improves-outcomes-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#3
Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Yaying Song, Yuanyuan Ma, Meijie Qu, Yifan Lu, Xiaosong He, Jieyu Zheng, Zongjie Fu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Striatal GABAergic neuron is known as a key regulator in adult neurogenesis. However, the specific role of striatal GABAergic neuronal activity in the promotion of neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetic approach to investigate these effects and mechanism. METHODS: Laser stimulation was delivered via an implanted optical fiber to inhibit or activate the striatal GABAergic neurons in Gad2-Arch-GFP or Gad2-ChR2-tdTomato mice (n=80) 1 week after 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146095/a-two-year-study-using-cerebral-gray-matter-volume-to-assess-the-response-to-fingolimod-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Fawad Yousuf, Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Renxin Chu, Gloria Kim, Subhash Tummala, Fariha Khalid, Howard L Weiner, Tanuja Chitnis, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
BACKGROUND: Cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy has clinical relevance in multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod has known efficacy on clinical and conventional MRI findings in MS; the effect on GM is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore fingolimod's treatment effect on cerebral GM atrophy over two years in patients with relapsing forms of MS. DESIGN/METHODS: Patients starting fingolimod [n=24, age (mean±SD) 41.2±11.6years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146050/progranulin-plasma-levels-predict-the-presence-of-grn-mutations-in-asymptomatic-subjects-and-do-not-correlate-with-brain-atrophy-results-from-the-genfi-study
#5
Daniela Galimberti, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Chiara Fenoglio, Sara M G Cioffi, Andrea Arighi, Maria Serpente, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Mario Masellis, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, John van Swieten, Lieke Meeter, Caroline Graff, Alexandre de Mendonça, Martina Bocchetta, Jonathan D Rohrer, Elio Scarpini
We investigated whether progranulin plasma levels are predictors of the presence of progranulin gene (GRN) null mutations or of the development of symptoms in asymptomatic at risk members participating in the Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia Initiative, including 19 patients, 64 asymptomatic carriers, and 77 noncarriers. In addition, we evaluated a possible role of TMEM106B rs1990622 as a genetic modifier and correlated progranulin plasma levels and gray-matter atrophy. Plasma progranulin mean ± SD plasma levels in patients and asymptomatic carriers were significantly decreased compared with noncarriers (30...
November 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#6
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145182/pathological-yawning-laughing-and-crying
#7
Olivier Walusinski
Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and crying (PLC) may be encountered in various neurological diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy (cerebellar), cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injuries, mass lesions in the cerebellopontine junction, and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143287/lipoic-acid-stimulates-camp-production-in-healthy-control-and-secondary-progressive-ms-subjects
#8
Sarah E Fiedler, Vijayshree Yadav, Amelia R Kerns, Catherine Tsang, Sheila Markwardt, Edward Kim, Rebecca Spain, Dennis Bourdette, Sonemany Salinthone
Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142089/motor-cognitive-and-functional-declines-contribute-to-a-single-progressive-factor-in-early-hd
#9
Scott A Schobel, Giuseppe Palermo, Peggy Auinger, Jeffrey D Long, Shiyang Ma, Omar S Khwaja, Dylan Trundell, Merit Cudkowicz, Steven Hersch, Cristina Sampaio, E Ray Dorsey, Blair R Leavitt, Karl D Kieburtz, Jeffrey J Sevigny, Douglas R Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi
OBJECTIVE: To identify an improved measure of clinical progression in early Huntington disease (HD) using data from prospective observational cohort studies and placebo group data from randomized double-blind clinical trials. METHODS: We studied Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and non-UHDRS clinical measures and brain measures of progressive atrophy in 1,668 individuals with early HD followed up prospectively for up to 30 to 36 months of longitudinal clinical follow-up...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142087/no-evidence-of-disease-activity-is-associated-with-reduced-rate-of-axonal-retinal-atrophy-in-ms
#10
Marco Pisa, Simone Guerrieri, Giovanni Di Maggio, Stefania Medaglini, Lucia Moiola, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
OBJECTIVE: To explore, in a longitudinal study, the usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in monitoring people with multiple sclerosis (MS) by testing the association between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and clinical and brain MRI criteria of no evidence of disease activity (NEDA). METHODS: OCT, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), and disability, using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), were tested at baseline and after 2 years in 72 patients, 63 with routine yearly brain MRI...
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#11
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137891/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-gulf-war-illness-gwi-hla-drb1-13-02-spares-subcortical-atrophy-in-gulf-war-veterans
#12
Lisa M James, Peka Christova, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. We reported previously on the protective role of six Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in GWI (Georgopoulos et al., 2016) and their association with regional brain function (James et al., 2016). More recently, we reported on the presence of subcortical brain atrophy in GWI (Christova et al...
November 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135998/multivariate-regression-analysis-of-structural-mri-connectivity-matrices-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Javier Rasero, Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Sabina Tangaro, Roberto Bellotti, Sebastiano Stramaglia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people and increasing longevity ensures its prevalence will rise even further. Whether AD originates by disconnecting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. An important related challenge is to predict whether a given subject, with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), will convert or not to AD. Here, our aim is to characterize the structural connectivity pattern of MCI and AD subjects using the multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) analysis, and to compare it to those of healthy subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134725/reproducibility-of-brain-mri-segmentation-algorithms-empirical-comparison-of-local-map-pstaple-freesurfer-and-fsl-first
#14
Clemente Velasco-Annis, Alireza Akhondi-Asl, Aymeric Stamm, Simon K Warfield
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmentation of human brain structures is crucial for the volumetric quantification of brain disease. Advances in algorithmic approaches have led to automated techniques that save time compared to interactive methods. Recently, the utility and accuracy of template library fusion algorithms, such as Local MAP PSTAPLE (PSTAPLE), have been demonstrated but there is little guidance regarding its reproducibility compared to single template-based algorithms such as FreeSurfer and FSL-FIRST...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132765/cortical-thinning-correlates-of-changes-in-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-4-year-follow-up
#15
A I Garcia-Diaz, B Segura, H C Baggio, C Uribe, A Campabadal, A Abos, M J Marti, F Valldeoriola, Y Compta, N Bargallo, C Junque
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence highlights the relevance of posterior cortically-based cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) as possible biomarkers of the evolution to dementia. Cross-sectional correlational studies have established a relationship between the degree of atrophy in posterior brain regions and visuospatial and visuoperceptual (VS/VP) impairment. The aim of this study is to address the progressive cortical thinning correlates of VS/VP performance in PD. METHODS: Forty-four PD patients and 20 matched healthy subjects were included in this study and followed for 4 years...
November 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132389/advances-challenges-and-future-directions-for-stem-cell-therapy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Yuri Ciervo, Ke Ning, Xu Jun, Pamela J Shaw, Richard J Mead
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative condition where loss of motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord leads to muscle atrophy, weakness, paralysis and ultimately death within 3-5 years from onset of symptoms. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying the disease pathology are not fully understood and neuroprotective treatment options are minimally effective. In recent years, stem cell transplantation as a new therapy for ALS patients has been extensively investigated, becoming an intense and debated field of study...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132035/brain-volume-in-early-ms-patients-with-and-without-igg-oligoclonal-bands-in-csf
#17
G Fenu, L Lorefice, V Sechi, L Loi, F Contu, F Cabras, G Coghe, J Frau, M A Secci, C Melis, L Schirru, G Costa, V Melas, M Arru, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Oligoclonal bands of IgG (OB) are proposed as an early prognostic factor of the disease. Growing attention is directed towards brain volume evaluation as a possible marker of the severity of MS. Previous studies found that MS patients lacking OB have less brain atrophy. AIM: to evaluate a possible relationship between OB and cerebral volume in a cohort of early MS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS; CSF analysis and MRI acquired simultaneously and within 12 months from clinical onset...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#18
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127484/progress-in-developing-transgenic-monkey-model-for-huntington-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Brooke R Snyder, Anthony W S Chan
Huntington's disease (HD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that has no cure. Although treatments can often be given to relieve symptoms, the neuropathology associated with HD cannot be stopped or reversed. HD is characterized by degeneration of the striatum and associated pathways that leads to impairment in motor and cognitive functions as well as psychiatric disturbances. Although cell and rodent models for HD exist, longitudinal study in a transgenic HD nonhuman primate (i.e., rhesus macaque; HD monkeys) shows high similarity in its progression with human patients...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125489/word-and-picture-version-of-the-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-fcsrt-is%C3%A2-there-any-difference
#20
Andrea Arighi, Tiziana Carandini, Matteo Mercurio, Giovanni Carpani, Anna Margherita Pietroboni, Giorgio Fumagalli, Laura Ghezzi, Paola Basilico, Alberto Calvi, Marta Scarioni, Milena De Riz, Chiara Fenoglio, Elisa Scola, Fabio Triulzi, Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini
The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the most commonly used neuropsychological test to evaluate episodic memory. Two variants of FCSRT exist, using the recall of words (FCSRT-w) or pictures (FCSRT-p). Fourteen patients with mild cognitive impairment underwent neuropsychological evaluation and brain magnetic resonance. We found differences in FCSRT-w and FCSRT-p variants scores. FCSRT-p was correlated with atrophy in areas involved in visual stimuli processing while FCSRT-w was correlated to hippocampal atrophy...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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