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Brain atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434160/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-is-not-associated-with-volumetric-differences-in-former-high-school-football-players
#1
Douglas P Terry, L Stephen Miller
We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40-65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2-15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432988/comprehension-of-concrete-and-abstract-words-in-semantic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-study
#2
Sven Joubert, Guillaume T Vallet, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Jr Laforce, Isabelle Rouleau, Simona M Brambati
The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between...
April 19, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431612/xeroderma-pigmentosum-complementation-group-f-a-rare-cause-of-cerebellar-ataxia-with-chorea
#3
G Carré, C Marelli, M Anheim, C Geny, M Renaud, H R Rezvani, M Koenig, C Guissart, C Tranchant
The complementation group F of Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-F) is rare in the Caucasian population, and usually devoid of neurological symptoms. We report two cases, both Caucasian, who exhibited progressive cerebellar ataxia, chorea, a mild subcortical frontal cognitive impairment, and in one case severe polyneuropathy. Brain MRI demonstrated cerebellar (2/2) and cortical (1/2) atrophy. Both patients had only mild sunburn sensitivity and no skin cancer. Mini-exome sequencing approach revealed in ERCC4, two heterozygous mutations, one of which was never described (c...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#4
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431289/klotho-apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-cognitive-ability-brain-size-atrophy-and-survival-a-study-in-the-aberdeen-birth-cohort-of-1936
#5
Clarisse F de Vries, Roger T Staff, Sarah E Harris, Dorota Chapko, Daniel S Williams, Polina Reichert, Trevor Ahearn, Christopher J McNeil, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
A single copy of klotho allele KL-VS is associated with longevity, better health, increased cognition, and bigger regional brain volume. However, its longitudinal effects on cognition and brain volumes, both global and regional, in late life are unclear. In this study we show that, relative to noncarriers, KL-VS heterozygotes had (1) shorter survival; (2) smaller white matter volumes; (3) slower cognitive decline; and (4) greater right frontal lobe volumes. The KL-VS heterozygote survival and white matter volume disadvantages were unexpected...
March 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431288/longitudinal-whole-brain-atrophy-and-ventricular-enlargement-in-nondemented-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Elijah Mak, Li Su, Guy B Williams, Michael J Firbank, Rachael A Lawson, Alison J Yarnall, Gordon W Duncan, Brit Mollenhauer, Adrian M Owen, Tien K Khoo, David J Brooks, James B Rowe, Roger A Barker, David J Burn, John T O'Brien
We investigated whole-brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement over 18 months in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) and examined their associations with clinical measures and baseline CSF markers. PD subjects (n = 100) were classified at baseline into those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; PD-MCI, n = 36) and no cognitive impairment (PD-NC, n = 64). Percentage of whole-brain volume change (PBVC) and ventricular expansion over 18 months were assessed with FSL-SIENA and ventricular enlargement (VIENA) respectively...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430875/progressive-atrophy-of-the-globus-pallidus-primary-atrophy-of-the-pallidal-system-a-system-disease-of-the-paralysis-agitans-type-characterized-by-atrophy-of-the-motor-cells-of-the-corpus-striatum-a-contribution-to-the-function-of-the-corpus-striatum-by-j-ramsay
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430857/repurposed-drugs-targeting-eif2%C3%AE-p-mediated-translational-repression-prevent-neurodegeneration-in-mice
#8
Mark Halliday, Helois Radford, Karlijn A M Zents, Collin Molloy, Julie A Moreno, Nicholas C Verity, Ewan Smith, Catharine A Ortori, David A Barrett, Martin Bushell, Giovanna R Mallucci
Signalling through the PERK/eIF2α-P branch of the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in controlling protein synthesis rates in cells. This pathway is overactivated in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for these currently untreatable conditions. Thus, in mouse models of neurodegenerative disease, prolonged overactivation of PERK/eIF2α-P signalling causes sustained attenuation of protein synthesis, leading to memory impairment and neuronal loss...
April 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429241/pharmacological-approaches-to-the-management-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
A Nandoskar, J Raffel, A S Scalfari, T Friede, R S Nicholas
It is well recognised that the majority of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS), both personal and societal, arises in the progressive phase where disability accumulates inexorably. As such, progressive MS (PMS) has been the target of pharmacological therapies for many years. However, there are no current licensed treatments for PMS. This stands in marked contrast to relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) where trials have resulted in numerous licensed therapies. PMS has proven to be a more difficult challenge compared to RRMS and this review focuses on secondary progressive MS (SPMS), where relapses occur before the onset of gradual, irreversible disability, and not primary progressive MS where disability accumulation occurs without prior relapses...
April 20, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428194/detrimental-effects-of-centrally-administered-angiotensin-ii-are-enhanced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-independently-of%C3%A2-blood-pressure
#11
Koki Takane, Yu Hasegawa, Bowen Lin, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Cheng Cao, Takashi Yokoo, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND: The significance of brain angiotensin II in Alzheimer disease (AD) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the role of brain angiotensin II in AD, intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion was performed on 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of AD, and wild-type mice, and the detrimental effects of brain angiotensin II was compared between the 2 strains of mice. Intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion significantly impaired cognitive function in 5XFAD mice but not in wild-type mice...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#12
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427704/comparison-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-patients-with-or-without-aquaporin-4-antibody
#13
Moli Fan, Ying Fu, Lei Su, Yi Shen, Kristofer Wood, Li Yang, Yaou Liu, Fu-Dong Shi
BACKGROUND: The spinal cord and brain measurements are rarely investigated in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with and without antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4), directly compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of both brain and spinal cord in NMO patients with and without antibodies to AQP4, compared with MS patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We recruited 55 NMO including 30 AQP4 (+) and 25 AQP4 (-), 25 MS and 25 HC...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426696/heritability-of-brain-volume-on-mri-in-middle-to-advanced-age-a-twin-study-of-japanese-adults
#14
Matthew W Lukies, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hisashi Tanaka, Hiroto Takahashi, Soshiro Ogata, Kayoko Omura, Shiro Yorifuji, Noriyuki Tomiyama
Brain atrophy is part of the aging process and accelerated by neurodegenerative diseases, so an understanding of the background heritability of brain volume is essential. The purpose of this study was to determine the heritability of brain volume in middle to advanced age East Asian adults, an age group less studied and an ethnicity not previously studied. 3T magnetic resonance images were obtained and volumetric analyses conducted for a total of 74 individuals, 20 monozygotic twin pairs (mean age 61y min 41y max 75y) and 17 dizygotic twin pairs (mean age 64y min 41y max 85y)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426417/neuropathological-lesions-of-clinical-and-sub-clinical-coenurosis-coenurus-cerebralis-in-organized-goat-farms-in-india
#15
Nayakwadi Shivasharanappa, Nitika Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rajveer Singh Pawaiya, Beena Vamadevan, Anil Kumar Mishra, Souvik Paul
Clinical and sub clinical cases of Coenurosis due to Coenurus cerebralis in goats were documented based on clinical, post mortem examination, identification of parasitic stages, gross and histopathological lesions in brain of animals died due to abnormal neurological symptoms. The most prominent site of predilection of coenuri cysts in brain was cerebral hemispheres and multiple cysts were found in majority of the cases. Generalized congestion, thinning of brain parenchyma due to pressure atrophy, gliosis, neuronal degeneration, protoscolices in brain parenchyma and inflammatory cell reactions predominantly comprised of lymphocytes and macrophages were prominent neuropathological lesions observed in brain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424595/gray-matter-atrophy-is-primarily-related-to-demyelination-of-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-study
#16
Eszter Tóth, Nikoletta Szabó, Gergõ Csete, András Király, Péter Faragó, Tamás Spisák, Krisztina Bencsik, László Vécsei, Zsigmond T Kincses
Objective: Cortical pathology, periventricular demyelination, and lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) are related (Hypothesis 1). Factors in the cerebrospinal fluid close to these compartments could possibly drive the parallel processes. Alternatively, the cortical atrophy could be caused by remote axonal transection (Hypothesis 2). Since MRI can differentiate between demyelination and axon loss, we used this imaging modality to investigate the correlation between the pattern of diffusion parameter changes in the periventricular- and deep white matter and the gray matter atrophy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424420/vitexin-protects-against-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-via-inhibiting-ca2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-and-apoptosis-signaling-in-the-neonatal-mouse-brain
#17
Jia-Wei Min, Wei-Lin Kong, Song Han, Nageeb Bsoul, Wan-Hong Liu, Xiao-Hua He, Russell M Sanchez, Bi-Wen Peng
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. In this study, we suggest for the first time that pretreatment with vitexin may suppress a pro-apoptotic signaling pathway in hypoxic-ischemic neuronal injury in neonates by inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Here we found that vitexin pretreatment reduced brain infarct volume in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, vitexin decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and brain atrophy...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422761/topological-length-of-white-matter-connections-predicts-their-rate-of-atrophy-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#18
Peter McColgan, Kiran K Seunarine, Sarah Gregory, Adeel Razi, Marina Papoutsi, Jeffrey D Long, James A Mills, Eileanoir Johnson, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, Julie C Stout, Rachael I Scahill, Chris A Clark, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi, The Track-On Hd Investigators
We lack a mechanistic explanation for the stereotyped pattern of white matter loss seen in Huntington's disease (HD). While the earliest white matter changes are seen around the striatum, within the corpus callosum, and in the posterior white matter tracts, the order in which these changes occur and why these white matter connections are specifically vulnerable is unclear. Here, we use diffusion tractography in a longitudinal cohort of individuals yet to develop clinical symptoms of HD to identify a hierarchy of vulnerability, where the topological length of white matter connections between a brain area and its neighbors predicts the rate of atrophy over 24 months...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420950/metallothionein-copper-and-alpha-synuclein-in-alpha-synucleinopathies
#19
REVIEW
Yuho Okita, Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Michael Goulding, Roger S Chung, Peter Faller, Dean L Pountney
Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that function by metal exchange to regulate the bioavailability of metals, such as zinc and copper. Copper functions in the brain to regulate mitochondria, neurotransmitter production, and cell signaling. Inappropriate copper binding can result in loss of protein function and Cu(I)/(II) redox cycling can generate reactive oxygen species. Copper accumulates in the brain with aging and has been shown to bind alpha-synuclein and initiate its aggregation, the primary aetiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD), and other alpha-synucleinopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420817/association-of-kidney-dysfunction-with-asymptomatic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-japanese-population-with-health-checkups
#20
Kaori Hayashi, Michiyo Takayama, Takeshi Kanda, Kazuhiro Kashiwagi, Akihito Hishikawa, Yasushi Iwao, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in stroke patients. This study evaluated the correlation between kidney dysfunction and asymptomatic findings on carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a Japanese population with health checkups.Methods and Results:In total, 1,716 subjects aged 40-80 years, who received health checkups from January 1 to December 31, 2015, were included...
April 14, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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