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Brain atrophy

David H Miller, Fred D Lublin, Maria Pia Sormani, Ludwig Kappos, Özgür Yaldizli, Mark S Freedman, Bruce A C Cree, Howard L Weiner, Catherine Lubetzki, Hans-Peter Hartung, Xavier Montalban, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, David G MacManus, Tarek A Yousry, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Bingbing Li, Norman Putzki, Martin Merschhemke, Dieter A Häring, Jerry S Wolinsky
Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain volume and disability worsening over ≥3 years in the natural history of primary progressive multiple sclerosis using data from the placebo group of the INFORMS trial ( n  = 487; NCT00731692). Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected annually. Brain volume loss was determined using SIENA. Patients were stratified by baseline normalized brain volume after adjusting for demographic and disease-burden covariates...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Tatsuhiro Ayabe, Rena Ohya, Keiji Kondo, Yasuhisa Ano
Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD)...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sae Min Kwon, Kyu-Sun Choi, Hyeong-Joong Yi, Yong Ko, Young-Soo Kim, Koang-Hum Bak, Hyoung-Joon Chun, Young-Jun Lee, Ji Young Lee
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of brain atrophy on the functional outcome of patients with moderate-volume basal ganglia hemorrhage. Of 1003 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, 124 with moderate-volume basal ganglia hemorrhage (hematoma volume of 20-50 mL) were enrolled. The intercaudate distance (ICD) and sylvian fissure ratio (SFR) were used as linear brain atrophy parameters. The patients were divided into groups with favorable and unfavorable outcomes, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale score, 90 days after symptom onset...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Conor Owens-Walton, David Jakabek, Xiaozhen Li, Fiona A Wilkes, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Danielle van Westen, Jeffrey C L Looi, Oskar Hansson
We sought to investigate morphological and resting state functional connectivity changes to the striatal nuclei in Parkinson disease (PD) and examine whether changes were associated with measures of clinical function. Striatal nuclei were manually segmented on 3T-T1 weighted MRI scans of 74 PD participants and 27 control subjects, quantitatively analysed for volume, shape and also functional connectivity using functional MRI data. Bilateral caudate nuclei and putamen volumes were significantly reduced in the PD cohort compared to controls...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Aziza Alrafiah, Evangelia Karyka, Ian Coldicott, Kayleigh Iremonger, Katherin E Lewis, Ke Ning, Mimoun Azzouz
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating childhood motor neuron disease. SMA is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene ( SMN1 ), leading to reduced levels of SMN protein in the CNS. The actin-binding protein plastin 3 (PLS3) has been reported as a modifier for SMA, making it a potential therapeutic target. Here, we show reduced levels of PLS3 protein in the brain and spinal cord of a mouse model of SMA. Our study also revealed that lentiviral-mediated PLS3 expression restored axonal length in cultured Smn-deficient motor neurons...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Mathieu Verdurand, Elise Levigoureux, Sophie Lancelot, Waël Zeinyeh, Thierry Billard, Isabelle Quadrio, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Luc Zimmer, Fabien Chauveau
The accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein ( α -syn) in multiple brain regions is a neuropathological hallmark of synucleinopathies. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy characterized by the predominant cerebral accumulation of aggregated α -syn as cytoplasmic glial inclusions (CGI). A premortem diagnosis tool would improve early diagnosis and help monitoring disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. One Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study suggested [11 C]BF-227 as a promising radiotracer for monitoring intracellular α -syn deposition in MSA patients...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Russell Ouellette, Åsa Bergendal, Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Caterina Mainero, Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg, Sten Fredrikson, Tobias Granberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term progression of cognitive dysfunction and its neuroanatomical correlates and predictors in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort of 37 MS patients reflecting five decades of disease duration and all subtypes was followed over 17.5 years. Matched controls were recruited at the last follow-up. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using a principal component cognitive index based on comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Mahsa Dadar, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins
INTRODUCTION: Linear registration to a standard space is one of the major steps in processing and analyzing magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain. Here we present an overview of linear stereotaxic MRI registration and compare the performance of 5 publicly available and extensively used linear registration techniques in medical image analysis. METHODS: A set of 9693 T1-weighted MR images were obtained for testing from 4 datasets: ADNI, PREVENT-AD, PPMI, and HCP, two of which have multi-center and multi-scanner data and three of which have longitudinal data...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Nelly Siller, Jens Kuhle, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Christian Barro, Timo Uphaus, Sergiu Groppa, Ludwig Kappos, Frauke Zipp, Stefan Bittner
BACKGROUND: Monitoring neuronal injury remains one key challenge in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Upon axonal damage, neurofilament - a major component of the neuro-axonal cytoskeleton - is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subsequently peripheral blood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) for acute and chronic axonal damage in early RRMS. METHODS: sNfL levels were determined in 74 patients (63 therapy-naive) with recently diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or RRMS using Single Molecule Array technology...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Woojin Scott Kim, Eve Jary, Russell Pickford, Ying He, Rebekah M Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most prevalent form of FTD syndromes. bvFTD is characterized clinically by changes in behavior and cognition and pathologically by focal brain atrophy and concomitant loss of lipids. bvFTD is further characterized by eating abnormalities that result in dyslipidemia. Although dyslipidemia is apparent in bvFTD, very little is known about global lipid changes in bvFTD and lipid dysregulation underlying bvFTD. Here, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of blood plasma from patients with bvFTD, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the aim of understanding lipid dysregulation in bvFTD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Maria Luíza de Medeiros Rêgo, Daniel Aranha Rego Cabral, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
Heart Failure is a clinical syndrome prevalent throughout the world and a major contribution to mortality of cardiac patients in Brazil. In addition, this pathology is strongly related to cerebral dysfunction, with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Many mechanisms may be related to cognitive loss, such as cerebral hypoperfusion, atrophy and loss of gray matter of the brain, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. The literature is clear regarding the benefits of aerobic physical activity in healthy populations in the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and in brain functions...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Erdem Karadeniz, Mehmet Nuri Kocak, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Kemal Alp Nalci, Sevilay Ozmen, Mufide Nuran Akcay, Nazan Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Hypofunctioning breasts are typically considered a dysfunction of higher brain centers that regulate hormonal feedback, and olfactory information has been proposed as a triggering factor for lactation in the maternal body. However, there are no substantive studies regarding whether olfaction disorders and/or loss of olfactory sense may result in breast gland atrophy by causing diminished olfactory stimulation. To fill this gap in the literature, we studied the histologic features of breast glands as a sample model in animals that had undergone an olfactory bulb lesion (OBL)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Jingjie Ge, Jianjun Wu, Shichun Peng, Ping Wu, Jian Wang, Huiwei Zhang, Yihui Guan, David Eidelberg, Chuantao Zuo, Yilong Ma
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder and often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) in early phases. In this study, we report reproducible disease-related topographies of brain network and regional glucose metabolism associated with PSP in clinically-confirmed independent cohorts of PSP, MSA, and PD patients and healthy controls in the USA and China. Using18 F-FDG PET images from PSP and healthy subjects, we applied spatial covariance analysis with bootstrapping to identify a PSP-related pattern (PSPRP) and estimate its reliability, and evaluated the ability of network scores for differential diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Christiane Graetz, Adriane Gröger, Felix Luessi, Anke Salmen, Daniela Zöller, Janine Schultz, Nelly Siller, Vinzenz Fleischer, Barbara Bellenberg, Achim Berthele, Viola Biberacher, Joachim Havla, Michael Hecker, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Jan S Kirschke, Tania Kümpfel, Ralf Linker, Friedemann Paul, Steffen Pfeuffer, Philipp Sämann, Gerrit Toenges, Frank Weber, Uwe K Zettl, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher, Gisela Antony, Sergiu Groppa, Heinz Wiendl, Bernhard Hemmer, Mark Mühlau, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold, Christina M Lill, Frauke Zipp
BACKGROUND: The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) shows substantial inter-individual variability. The underlying determinants of disease severity likely involve genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of APOE and HLA polymorphisms as well as smoking and body mass index (BMI) in the very early MS course. METHODS: Untreated patients ( n = 263) with a recent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS or clinically isolated syndrome underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Masataka Tanaka, Naoki Tani, Tomoyuki Maruo, Satoru Oshino, Koichi Hosomi, Youichi Saitoh, Haruhiko Kishima
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative delirium (POD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We analyzed the preoperative T1-weigthed magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 PD patients who underwent DBS surgery. Multiple regression analysis was done with age, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, laterality of the surgery, target regions, number of electrode trajectories tried, grey matter (GM) volume, and white matter (WM) volume as explanatory variables and the duration (number of days) of POD as the response variable...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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