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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220339/emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-proteus-mirabilis-in-a%C3%A2-long-term-care-facility-in-croatia
#1
Branka Bedenić, Nataša Firis, Vesna Elveđi-Gašparović, Marija Krilanović, Krešimir Matanović, Iva Štimac, Josefa Luxner, Jasmina Vraneš, Tomislav Meštrović, Gernot Zarfel, Andrea Grisold
BACKGROUND: An increased frequency of Proteus mirabilis isolates resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was observed recently in a long-term care facility in Zagreb (Godan). The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of resistance mechanisms to new cephalosporins in P. mirabilis isolates from this nursing home. METHODS: Thirty-eight isolates collected from 2013-2015 showing reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution method...
June 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166221/the-use-appropriateness-and-outcomes-of-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy
#2
Kate A Hodgson, Julie Huynh, Laila F Ibrahim, Bronwyn Sacks, Daniel Golshevsky, Michael Layley, Mark Spagnolo, Chin-Mae Raymundo, Penelope A Bryant
OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is increasingly used to treat children at home, but studies in children are scarce. We aimed to describe the use, appropriateness and outcomes of OPAT in children. DESIGN: This was a 12-month prospective observational study. SETTING: The hospital-in-the-home programme of The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. PATIENTS: All patients receiving OPAT. INTERVENTIONS: Data were collected including demographics, diagnosis, type of venous access and antibiotic choice...
October 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803327/outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-in-pediatric-medicaid-enrollees
#3
Jennifer L Goldman, Troy Richardson, Jason G Newland, Brian Lee, Jeffrey S Gerber, Matt Hall, Matthew Kronman, Adam L Hersh
BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is overused in cases where highly bioavailable oral alternatives would be equally effective. However, the scope of OPAT use for children nationwide is poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize OPAT use and clinical outcomes for a large population of pediatric Medicaid enrollees treated with OPAT. METHODS: We analyzed the Truven MarketScan Medicaid claims database between 2009 and 2012. An OPAT episode was identified by capturing children with claims data indicating home infusion therapy for an intravenous antimicrobial...
January 23, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25805996/ceftriaxone-and-cefazolin-attenuate-the-cue-primed-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking
#4
Ana Weiland, Steven Garcia, Lori A Knackstedt
Alcohol consumption and the reinstatement of alcohol-seeking rely on glutamate and GABA transmission. Modulating these neurotransmitters may be a viable treatment strategy to prevent alcohol relapse. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF) alter the glial reuptake and release of glutamate while the antibiotic cefazolin (CEFAZ) modulates GABA signaling without affecting glutamate. Here, we used the extinction-reinstatement model of relapse to test the ability of these compounds to attenuate the reinstatement of alcohol-seeking...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25599131/nursing-home-as-a-reservoir-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#5
Branka Bedenić, Nataša Beader, Karmen Godič-Torkar, Mirna Vranić-Ladavac, Josefa Luxner, Zoran Veir, Andrea J Grisold, Gernot Zarfel
Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly common pathogen in healthcare settings globally. It is frequently resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and there are recent reports on strains that are pandrug resistant. The aim of the study was to characterize the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii strains from a nursing home in Zagreb and to genotype the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
June 2015: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25297012/safety-and-efficacy-of-ceftriaxone-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-multi-stage-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Merit E Cudkowicz, Sarah Titus, Marianne Kearney, Hong Yu, Alexander Sherman, David Schoenfeld, Douglas Hayden, Amy Shui, Benjamin Brooks, Robin Conwit, Donna Felsenstein, David J Greenblatt, Myles Keroack, John T Kissel, Robert Miller, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Ericka Simpson, Nina Tolkoff-Rubin, Lorne Zinman, Jeremy M Shefner
BACKGROUND: Glutamate excitotoxicity might contribute to the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In animal models, decreased excitatory aminoacid transporter 2 (EAAT2) overexpression delays disease onset and prolongs survival, and ceftriaxone increases EAAT2 activity. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of ceftriaxone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a combined phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trial. METHODS: This three-stage randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was done at 59 clinical sites in the USA and Canada between Sept 4, 2006, and July 30, 2012...
November 2014: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25186790/outcomes-of-ceftriaxone-use-compared-to-standard-of-therapy-in-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcal-aureus-mssa-bloodstream-infections
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ursula C Patel, Erin L McKissic, Douglas Kasper, Joseph R Lentino, Constance T Pachucki, Todd Lee, Bert K Lopansri
BACKGROUND: Standard of care therapy (SOCT) for the treatment of methicillin susceptible staphylococcal aureus (MSSA) infections requires multiple daily infusions. Despite questionable efficacy due to high protein binding, ceftriaxone (CTX) is frequently used for treatment of MSSA at Hines VA Hospital. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with MSSA bacteremia treated with CTX compared to SOCT. SETTING: This retrospective study was conducted at the Edward Hines, Jr...
December 2014: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25098316/gastroenteritis-due-to-typhoidal-salmonella-a-decade-of-observation-at-an-urban-and-a-rural-diarrheal-disease-hospital-in-bangladesh
#8
Sumon Kumar Das, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Mohammad Abdul Malek, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Farzana Ferdous, Fahmida Dil Farzana, Jui Das, K M Shahunja, Farzana Afroze, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Peter John Baker, Abdullah Al Mamun
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to compare the socio-demographic, host and clinical characteristics, seasonality and antimicrobial susceptibility of Typhoidal Salmonella (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi) (TS) with diarrhea between urban and rural Bangladesh. METHODS: Relevant information of 77/25,767 (0.30%) and 290/17,622 (1.65%) patients positive with TS (in stool) were extracted from the data archive of Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of icddr,b (urban Dhaka and rural Matlab Hospitals respectively) during 2000-2012...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25041573/case-report-failure-under-azithromycin-treatment-in-a-case-of-bacteremia-due-to-salmonella-enterica-paratyphi-a
#9
Tetsuro Kobayashi, Kayoko Hayakawa, Momoko Mawatari, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Nozomi Takeshita, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yoshihiro Fujiya, Shuzo Kanagawa, Norio Ohmagari, Yasuyuki Kato, Masatomo Morita
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available regarding the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of enteric fever due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi among travelers returning to their home countries. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 52-year-old Japanese man who returned from India, who developed a fever of 39°C with no accompanying symptoms 10 days after returning to Japan from a 1-month business trip to Delhi, India...
2014: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24661557/gram-negative-bacteremia-which-empirical-antibiotic-therapy
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
M Shoai Tehrani, D Hajage, V Fihman, J Tankovic, S Cau, N Day, C Visseaux, E Carbonnelle, A Kouatchet, V Cattoir, T X Nhan, S Corvec, H Jacquier, F Jauréguy, A Le Monnier, P Morand, J R Zahar
PURPOSE: Given the increasing frequency of cefotaxime-resistant strains, third-generation cephalosporins (3GC e.g. cefotaxime, ceftriaxone) might not be recommended any longer as empirical antibiotic therapy for community-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia (CA-GNB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter prospective descriptive study including patients with CA-GNB. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen patients were included. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species in 63% (n=138) and 11% (n=24) of the cases, respectively...
April 2014: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24060586/a-novel-automated-test-battery-reveals-enduring-behavioural-alterations-and-cognitive-impairments-in-survivors-of-murine-pneumococcal-meningitis
#11
L K Too, H J Ball, I S McGregor, N H Hunt
Pneumococcal meningitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, is a major form of lethal bacterial meningitis. Survivors are predisposed to developing lifelong disabling sequelae, including cognitive impairment, psychological problems and motor deficits. In our experimental model, ventricular inoculation of 10(5) colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae type 3 caused 90% of mice to develop life-threatening meningitis within 48 h. Antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone 20 h post infection reduced the incidence of severe meningitis to <10%...
January 2014: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23736174/clinical-outcomes-of-a-veterans-affairs-outpatient-antimicrobial-treatment-program
#12
Shahrzad Mohammadi, Kimberly MacKay, Thomas T Ward, Graeme N Forrest
OBJECTIVES: The outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) program of the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center (PVAMC), which has a self-administration model, is staffed by visiting nurses from a specialist infusion company. This study evaluates the clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review of 262 patients at PVAMC who had received OPAT between 2007 and 2009. Patients were included only if they received ongoing care at PVAMC...
June 2013: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23602223/outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-principles-and-practice
#13
REVIEW
R A Seaton, D A Barr
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) refers to the administration of a parenteral antimicrobial in a non inpatient or ambulatory setting with the explicit aim of facilitating admission avoidance or early discharge. Whilst OPAT has predominantly been the domain of the infection specialist, the internal medicine specialist has a key role in service development and delivery as a component of broader ambulatory care initiatives such as "hospital at home". Main drivers for OPAT are patient welfare, reduction of risk of health care associated infection and cost-effective use of hospital resources...
October 2013: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23505506/use-of-population-based-surveillance-to-define-the-high-incidence-of-shigellosis-in-an-urban-slum-in-nairobi-kenya
#14
Henry N Njuguna, Leonard Cosmas, John Williamson, Dhillon Nyachieo, Beatrice Olack, John B Ochieng, Newton Wamola, Joseph O Oundo, Daniel R Feikin, Eric D Mintz, Robert F Breiman
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Shigella causes an estimated 160 million infections and >1 million deaths annually. However, limited incidence data are available from African urban slums. We investigated the epidemiology of shigellosis and drug susceptibility patterns within a densely populated urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya through population-based surveillance. METHODS: Surveillance participants were interviewed in their homes every 2 weeks by community interviewers...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23211533/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-the-commensal-flora-in-dutch-nursing-homes
#15
Mirjam Hoogendoorn, Martin Smalbrugge, Ellen E Stobberingh, Saskia V van Rossum, Bart J Vlaminckx, Steven F Thijsen
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and multiresistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes and to determine which factors are associated with this prevalence. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Residents of long-stay somatic care wards and rehabilitation patients were recruited from five nursing homes and two rehabilitation wards in hospitals in the central region of the Netherlands...
May 2013: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22480797/the-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-treat-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-young-children-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
J Picot, D Hartwell, P Harris, D Mendes, A J Clegg, A Takeda
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a person's body fat and wasting of their skeletal muscle. Many of those affected are already undernourished and are often susceptible to disease. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable as they require extra nutrition for growth and development, have comparatively limited energy reserves and depend on others. Undernutrition can have drastic and wide-ranging consequences for the child's development and survival in the short and long term...
2012: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22441775/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-toxin-positive-diarrhea-a-population-based-prospective-case-control-study
#17
I Vesteinsdottir, S Gudlaugsdottir, R Einarsdottir, E Kalaitzakis, O Sigurdardottir, E S Bjornsson
Increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) is of major concern. However, by minimizing known risk factors, the incidence can be decreased. The aim of this investigation was to calculate the incidence and assess risk factors for CDI in our population. A 1-year prospective population-based nationwide study in Iceland of CDIs was carried out. For risk factor evaluation, each case was matched with two age- and sex-matched controls that tested negative for C. difficile toxin. A total of 128 CDIs were identified...
October 2012: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22346377/in-vitro-activity-of-cefepime-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-viridans-group-streptococci-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-a-cross-canada-surveillance-study
#18
D E Low, J de Azavedo, R Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro activity of cefepime against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci obtained from an ongoing cross-Canada surveillance study. DESIGN: Clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-negative bacilli with inducible and constitutive chromosomally mediated cephalosporinases, viridans group streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from laboratories serving hospitals, nursing homes and physician offices in the community from across Canada during 1996 and 1997...
March 1999: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21325012/ambulatory-intravenous-ceftriaxone-in-paediatric-a-e-a-useful-alternative-to-hospital-admission
#19
Jennifer K Smith, Saji Alexander, Ed Abrahamson
BACKGROUND: Treatment of children with intravenous ceftriaxone on an ambulatory basis is described. This allows a child to remain at home, but also be reviewed regularly when attending the Emergency Department for antibiotics. METHODS: Indications for, and length of, treatment and laboratory parameters were recorded. Also, a survey of children's parents was undertaken to ascertain opinions regarding ambulatory treatment. RESULTS: 36 patients were treated with ambulatory ceftriaxone over 4 months...
October 2011: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20235302/antibiotic-prescription-patterns-in-hospitalized-patients-with-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Ali A El-Solh, Misha Peter, Ziad Alfarah, Morohunfolu E Akinnusi, Abbas Alabbas, Lilibeth A Pineda
BACKGROUND: Considerable research has increased our understanding of antibiotic prescribing practices in hospital settings when it comes to nosocomial pneumonia. Much less is known about the antibiotic prescribing patterns for hospitalized non-critically ill patients with nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP). OBJECTIVE: As part of a multisite quality improvement project, we sought to examine patterns of antibiotic prescription among healthcare providers as a function of underlying comorbid, functional, and clinical factors...
March 2010: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
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