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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643832/metasurface-integrated-high-energy-efficient-and-high-linearly-polarized-ingan-gan-light-emitting-diode
#1
Miao Wang, Fuyang Xu, Yu Lin, Bing Cao, Linghua Chen, Chinhua Wang, Jianfeng Wang, Ke Xu
We proposed and demonstrated an integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN green LED grown on (0001) oriented sapphire with combined metasurface polarizing converter and polarizer system. It is different from those conventional polarized light emissions generated with plasmonic metallic grating in which at least 50% high energy loss occurs inherently due to high reflection of the transverse electric (TE) component of an electric field. A reflecting metasurface, with a two dimensional elliptic metal cylinder array (EMCA) that functions as a half-wave plate, was integrated at the bottom of a LED such that the back-reflected TE component, that is otherwise lost by a dielectric/metal bi-layered wire grids (DMBiWG) polarizer on the top emitting surface of the LED, can be converted to desired transverse magnetic (TM) polarized emission after reflecting from the metasurface...
June 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#2
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627365/mitochondria-metabolic-reprogramming-in-the-formation-of-neurons-from-peripheral-cells-cause-or-consequence-and-the-implications-to-their-utility
#3
REVIEW
Gary E Gibson, Ankita Thakkar
The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and their subsequent conversion to neural progenitor cells (NPC) and finally to neurons is intriguing scientifically, and its potential to medicine nearly infinite, but unrealized. A better understanding of the changes at each step of the transformation will enable investigators to use them better to model neurological disease. Each step of conversion from a differentiated cell to an iPSC to a NPC to neurons requires large changes in glycolysis including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose shunt, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the electron transport chain and in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621412/the-not-so-long-history-of-zebrafish-research-in-israel
#4
Janna Blechman, Gil Levkowitz, Yoav Gothilf
The zebrafish has become a model of choice in fundamental and applied life sciences and is widely used in various fields of biomedical research as a human disease model for cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine. The transparency of the zebrafish embryo allows real-time visualization of the development and morphogenesis of practically all of its tissues and organs. Zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, for which innovative genetic and molecular techniques are constantly being introduced...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618993/new-perspectives-on-biomedical-applications-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#5
Massimiliano Magro, Davide Baratella, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Jessica de Almeida Roger, Fabio Vianello
Iron oxide nanomaterials are considered promising tools for improved therapeutic efficacy and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. Accordingly, engineered iron oxide nanomaterials are increasingly proposed in biomedicine, and the interdisciplinary researches involving physics, chemistry, biology (nanotechnology) and medicine have led to exciting developments in the last decades. The progresses of the development of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored physico-chemical and surface properties produced a variety of clinically relevant applications, spanning from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, to in vitro diagnostics...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618985/dendrimers-general-aspects-applications-and-structural-exploitations-as-prodrug-drug-delivery-vehicles-in-current-medicine
#6
Merina Mariyam, Kajal Ghosal, Anne George, Sabu Thomas, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Mahima S Latha
Dendrimers are hyper branched macro molecules with well-defined structure and high degree of functionality on the surface. The dendrimer architecture allows control over properties such as shape, size, density, polarity, reactivity, solubility etc. This can be manipulated to design molecules with desired properties in biomedical applications. Recent advancement in correlating structure to biodegradability and invivo performance opens up new avenue for these molecules in biological applications like drug delivery and tissue engineering...
May 11, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616042/cerebral-mechanism-of-puncturing-at-he-mu-point-combination-for-functional-dyspepsia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-parallel-trial
#7
Shuai Yin, Yuan Chen, Du Lei, Rui-Rui Sun, Ting-Ting Ma, Pei-Min Feng, Zhao-Xuan He, Xue-Ling Suo, Pei-Hong Ma, Yu-Zhu Qu, Ke Qiu, Miao-Miao Jing, Qi-Yong Gong, Fan-Rong Liang, Jiao Chen, Fang Zeng
Acupuncture is widely used to treat functional dyspepsia with satisfactory outcomes. Combination of the He and Mu acupoints is commonly used and has a synergistic effect on functional dyspepsia; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, a randomized controlled parallel clinical trial is currently underway at Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China. This trial is designed to explore the efficacy of and central responses to the He-Mu point combination in patients with functional dyspepsia using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614379/microbiome-restoration-diet-improves-digestion-cognition-and-physical-and-emotional-wellbeing
#8
Kate Lawrence, Jeannette Hyde
Manipulating gut bacteria in the microbiome, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, has been found to have an influence on both physical and emotional wellbeing. This study uses a dietary manipulation 'The Gut Makeover' designed to elicit positive changes to the gut bacteria within the microbiome. 21 healthy participants undertook 'The Gut Makeover' for a four week period. Weight and various aspects of health were assessed pre and post intervention using the Functional Medicine Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609787/molecular-structures-guide-the-engineering-of-chromatin
#9
Stefan J Tekel, Karmella A Haynes
Chromatin is a system of proteins, RNA, and DNA that interact with each other to organize and regulate genetic information within eukaryotic nuclei. Chromatin proteins carry out essential functions: packing DNA during cell division, partitioning DNA into sub-regions within the nucleus, and controlling levels of gene expression. There is a growing interest in manipulating chromatin dynamics for applications in medicine and agriculture. Progress in this area requires the identification of design rules for the chromatin system...
June 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589077/application-of-crispr-cas9-in-plant-biology
#10
REVIEW
Xuan Liu, Surui Wu, Jiao Xu, Chun Sui, Jianhe Wei
The CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) system was first identified in bacteria and archaea and can degrade exogenous substrates. It was developed as a gene editing technology in 2013. Over the subsequent years, it has received extensive attention owing to its easy manipulation, high efficiency, and wide application in gene mutation and transcriptional regulation in mammals and plants. The process of CRISPR/Cas is optimized constantly and its application has also expanded dramatically...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579598/rabbit-models-for-biomedical-research-revisited-via-genome-editing-approaches
#11
Arata Honda, Atsuo Ogura
Although the laboratory rabbit has long contributed to many paradigmatic studies in biology and medicine, it is often considered to be a "classical animal model" because in the last 30 years, the laboratory mouse has been more often used, thanks to the availability of embryonic stem cells that have allowed the generation of gene knockout (KO) animals. However, recent genome-editing strategies have changed this unrivaled condition; so far, more than 10 mammalian species have been added to the list of KO animals...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565781/design-and-implementation-of-fast-allergy-skin-test-detector-for-traditional-chinese-medicine-injections
#12
Ying Xiao, Yubin Zhao, Yanming Xie
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections are prepared from active substances extracted from TCMs and other natural medicines to establish scientific and technological methods, based on TCM hypotheses and experiences. A device was designed to provide a fast allergy skin test detector for TCM injections that could be applied to drugs of a single component or complex components. A novel fast allergy skin test detector for TCM injections was developed combining direct-current main, drug solution permeation devices of various shape that were compatible with the skin test electrode, nano-sponge patch adsorption, and flexible liposome coverage technologies with high-amplitude pulse...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558161/-printability-of-candidate-biomaterials-for-extrusion-based-3d-printing-state-of-the-art
#13
REVIEW
Stuart Kyle, Zita M Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Iain S Whitaker
Regenerative medicine has been highlighted as one of the UK's 8 'Great Technologies' with the potential to revolutionize patient care in the 21st Century. Over the last decade, the concept of '3D bioprinting' has emerged, which allows the precise deposition of cell laden bioinks with the aim of engineering complex, functional tissues. For 3D printing to be used clinically, there is the need to produce advanced functional biomaterials, a new generation of bioinks with suitable cell culture and high shape/print fidelity, to match or exceed the physical, chemical and biological properties of human tissue...
May 30, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556861/osteopathic-medical-students-entering-family-medicine-and-attitudes-regarding-osteopathic-manipulative-treatment-preliminary-findings-of-differences-by-sex
#14
Helen H Baker, Machelle Linsenmeyer, Lance C Ridpath, Laurie J Bauer, Robert W Foster
Context: Factors distinguishing osteopathic physicians from their allopathic counterparts include the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), application of osteopathic principles and practice (OPP), and a greater likelihood of entering primary care, specifically family medicine (FM). In the United States, the percentage of entering osteopathic medical students who were female rose from 14.3% in fall 1977 to 44.3% in fall 2015. Objectives: To investigate the perspectives of female osteopathic medical students as they relate to osteopathic distinctiveness...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556610/vegf-release-from-a-polymeric-nanofiber-scaffold-for-improved-angiogenesis
#15
Hadar Zigdon-Giladi, Alaa Khutaba, Rina Elimelech, Eli E Machtei, Samer Srouji
Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study aimed to develop an electrospun fiber scaffold that supports release of recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) to enhance angiogenesis. Scaffolds composed of core-shell fibers were fabricated using co-electrospinning. The core solution was composed of polyethylene oxide and mixed with rhVEGF. The shell solution was composed of polycarpolactone, with 0.25, 1, and 3% of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to manipulate pore size on the shell...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540676/micrornas-biomarkers-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#16
Weili Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (21-23 nucleotides in length) that regulate gene expression at translational or posttranslational levels. The major regulatory mechanisms include translational repression or mRNA degradation (Filipowicz et al., Curr Opin Struct Biol 15:331-341, 2005).Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been found to be associated with a variety of human diseases such as cancers/tumors, diabetes, viral infections, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases (Wang et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537738/a-peptoid-square-helix-via-synergistic-control-of-backbone-dihedral-angles
#17
Benjamin C Gorske, Emily M Mumford, Charles G Gerrity, Imelda Ko
The continued expansion of the fields of macromolecular chemistry and nanoscience has motivated the development of new secondary structures that can serve as architectural elements of innovative materials, molecular machines, biological probes, and even commercial medicines. Synthetic foldamers are particularly attractive systems for developing such elements because they are specifically designed to facilitate synthetic manipulation and functional diversity. However, relatively few predictive design principles exist that permit both rational and modular control of foldamer secondary structure, while maintaining the capacity for facile diversification of displayed functionality...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532888/biological-effects-of-direct-and-indirect-manipulation-of-the-fascial-system-narrative-review
#18
Giovanni Parravicini, Andrea Bergna
INTRODUCTION: Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is effective in improving function, movement and restoring pain conditions. Despite clinical results, the mechanisms of how OMT achieves its' effects remain unclear. The fascial system is described as a tensional network that envelops the human body. Direct or indirect manipulations of the fascial system are a distinctive part of OMT. OBJECTIVE: This review describes the biological effects of direct and indirect manipulation of the fascial system...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532611/hijacked-evidence-based-medicine-stay-the-course-and-throw-the-pirates-overboard
#19
John P A Ioannidis
The article discusses a number of criticisms that have been raised against evidence-based medicine, such as focusing on benefits and ignoring adverse events; being interested in averages and ignoring the wide variability in individual risks and responsiveness; ignoring clinician-patient interaction and clinical judgement; leading to some sort of reductionism; and falling prey to corruption from conflicts of interest. I argue that none of these deficiencies are necessarily inherent to evidence-based medicine...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531126/the-impact-of-halloysite-on-the-thermo-mechanical-properties-of-polymer-composites
#20
REVIEW
Tayser Sumer Gaaz, Abu Bakar Sulong, Abdul Amir H Kadhum, Ahmed A Al-Amiery, Mohamed H Nassir, Ahed Hameed Jaaz
Nanotubular clay minerals, composed of aluminosilicate naturally structured in layers known as halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), have a significant reinforcing impact on polymer matrixes. HNTs have broad applications in biomedical applications, the medicine sector, implant alloys with corrosion protection and manipulated transportation of medicines. In polymer engineering, different research studies utilize HNTs that exhibit a beneficial enhancement in the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites. The dispersion of HNTs is improved as a result of pre-treating HNTs with acids...
May 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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