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Manipulative medicine

Peter Kieseberg, Bernd Malle, Peter Frühwirt, Edgar Weippl, Andreas Holzinger
The "doctor in the loop" is a new paradigm in information-driven medicine, picturing the doctor as authority inside a loop supplying an expert system with information on actual patients, treatment results, and possible additional (side-)effects, including general information in order to enhance data-driven medical science, as well as giving back treatment advice to the doctor himself. While this approach can be very beneficial for new medical approaches like P4 medicine (personal, predictive, preventive, and participatory), it also relies heavily on the authenticity of the data and thus increases the need for secure and reliable databases...
March 19, 2016: Brain Informatics
Efficient N Ncube, Paul A Steenkamp, Ntakadzeni E Madala, Ian A Dubery
Centella asiatica is a perrenial herb that grows in tropical regions with numerous medicinal properties mostly attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids. Interestingly, this plant also possess a significant amount of phenylpropanoid-derived chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. In a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of CGA-derivatives in cultured Centella cells, acibenzolar-S-methyl was applied as a xenobiotic inducer in combination with quinic acid and shikimic acid as precursor molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Avinash DeSousa
Over-the-counter use of medication via chemists, including the use of psychiatric medication, has always been a cause of worry in the Indian subcontinent. Over the last two years, the rules on dispensing psychiatric medication have become stringent and chemists have to dispense the exact amount of medicine written on the prescription for the time duration mentioned. The chemist also stamps the prescription with the amount of medicine dispensed so that the patient does not use the prescription at another chemist's or counter to obtain more than the amount prescribed...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Asako Tajima, Isha Pradhan, Xuehui Geng, Massimo Trucco, Yong Fan
One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the development of therapeutics that can modulate immune responses, especially the adaptive arm of immunity, for disease intervention and prevention. While tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, manipulating the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and education of T lymphocytes, remains a challenge. One of the major obstacles is the difficulty to reproduce its unique extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that is essential for maintaining the function and survival of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), the predominant population of cells in the thymic stroma...
October 12, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jeffrey S Stein, A George Wilson, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Michael C Judd, Warren K Bickel
RATIONALE: Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures...
October 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Timothy Alexander Hore, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Mirunalini Ravichandran, Martin Bachman, Gabriella Ficz, David Oxley, Fátima Santos, Shankar Balasubramanian, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Wolf Reik
Epigenetic memory, in particular DNA methylation, is established during development in differentiating cells and must be erased to create naïve (induced) pluripotent stem cells. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes can catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidized derivatives, thereby actively removing this memory. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the TET enzymes are regulated, and the extent to which they can be manipulated, are poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Benedetta Mazzanti, Serena Urbani, Simone Dal Pozzo, Paola Bufano, Lara Ballerini, Alessia Gelli, Irene Sodi, Irene Donnini, Massimo Di Gioia, Stefano Guidi, Julien Camisani, Riccardo Saccardi
BACKGROUND: Clinical grade processing of harvested bone marrow is required in various clinical situations, particularly in the management of ABO mismatching in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and in regenerative medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a single-centre experience using a fully automated, clinical grade, closed system (Sepax, Biosafe, Switzerland). From 2003 to 2015, 125 procedures were performed in our laboratory, including buffy-coat production for HSCT (n=58), regenerative medicine in an orthopaedic setting (n=54) and density-gradient separation in a trial for treatment of critical limb ischaemia (n=13)...
September 27, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Daniel M Ventre, Abigail N Koppes
For the greater part of the last century, ultrasound (US) has seen widespread use in applications ranging from materials science to medicine. The history of US in medicine has also seen promising success in clinical diagnostics and regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that US is able to manipulate the nervous system, leading toward potential treatment for various neuropathological conditions, a phenomenon known as ultrasonic neuromodulation (NM). Ultrasonic NM is a promising alternative to pharmaceuticals and surgery, due to high spatiotemporal resolution combined with the potentially noninvasive means of application...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Jolyn Fernandes, Li Hao, Kaiser M Bijli, Joshua D Chandler, Michael Orr, Xin Hu, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
Manganese (Mn) is an abundant redox-active metal with well-characterized mitochondrial accumulation and neurotoxicity due to excessive exposures. Mn is also an essential co-factor for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein, superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and the range for adequate intake established by the Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board is 20% of the interim guidance value for toxicity by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, leaving little margin for safety. To study toxic mechanisms over this critical dose range, we treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a series of MnCl2 concentrations (from 0 to 100 μM) and measured cellular content to compare to human brain Mn content...
October 4, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jakub Novotný, František Foret
Fluid manipulation on the micro-scale (microfluidics) is bringing new potential applications in a number of fields, including, chemistry, biology and medicine. At sub-millimeter channel scale, some phenomena, unimportant at the macroscale, become an important force to consider when designing a microfluidics system. For example, the decrease in fluid mass causes the effects of viscosity to overcome the influence of inertia. Turbulent flow cannot be achieved at any realistic fluid velocity, making mixing a challenging task...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
A Chaibi, J Š Benth, P J Tuchin, M B Russell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs. METHODS: This was a prospective three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 17 months duration including 104 migraineurs with at least one migraine attack per month. The RCT was conducted at Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Active treatment consisted of CSMT, whereas placebo was a sham push manoeuvre of the lateral edge of the scapula and/or the gluteal region...
October 2, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Gulis Kavadar, Demet Tekdos Demircioğlu, Halil Can, Tuluhan Yunus Emre, Erdinç Civelek, Abdulhalim Senyigit
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has been increasing. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with perceived benefit from CAM methods in back problems. METHODS: The study was conducted on patients who practiced any CAM methods due to complaints of back pain. Social-demographic properties, details of CAM methods employed were questioned. Severity of pain was measured by visual analog scale (VAS); benefits were evaluated by the Likert scale...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Das Joydeep, Yun-Jung Choi, Hideyo Yasuda, Jae Woong Han, Chankyu Park, Hyuk Song, Hojae Bae, Jin-Hoi Kim
The controlled differentiation of stem cells via the delivery of specific genes encoding appropriate differentiation factors may provide useful models for regenerative medicine and aid in developing therapies for human patients. However, the majority of non-viral vectors are not efficient enough to manipulate difficult-to-transfect adult human stem cells in vitro. Herein, we report the first use of 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine-entrapped gold nanoparticles (AuPEINPs) and covalently bound polyethylenimine-gold nanoparticles (AuMUAPEINPs) as carriers for efficient gene delivery into human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
H Ashrafi, M Shariyat
INTRODUCTION: Nano-indentation has recently been employed as a powerful tool for determining the mechanical properties of biological tissues on nano and micro scales. A majority of soft biological tissues such as ligaments and tendons exhibit viscoelastic or time-dependent behaviors. The constitutive characterization of soft tissues is among very important subjects in clinical medicine and especially, biomechanics fields. Periodontal ligament plays an important role in initiating tooth movement when loads are applied to teeth with orthodontic appliances...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Parvaneh Mohammadi, Khalil Kass Youssef, Nasser Aghdami, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Hossein Baharvand
Billions of dollars are annually invested in pharmaceutical industry and cosmetic sector with intent to develop new drugs and treatment strategies for alopecia. Because the hair looks an important characteristic of humans - an effective appendage in perception, expression of beauty, and preservation of self-esteem - the global market for hair loss treatment products is exponentially increasing. However, current methods to treat hair loss endure yet multiple challenges, such as unfavorable outcomes, non-permanent and patient-dependent results as well as unpredictable impacts, which limit their application...
September 21, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Xuejie Fu, Huilin Yang, Hui Zhang, Guichao Wang, Ke Liu, Qiaoli Gu, Yunxia Tao, Guangcun Chen, Xiaohua Jiang, Gang Li, Yanzheng Gu, Qin Shi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cell-based therapy owing to their multilineage potential and low immunogenicity. However, low differentiation efficiency and unpredictable immunogenicity of allogeneic MSCs in vivo limit their success in therapeutic treatment. Herein, we evaluated the differentiation potential and immunogenicity of human placenta-derived MSCs manipulated with osteogenic priming and dedifferentiation process. METHODS: MSCs from human placentas were subjected to osteogenic induction and then cultivated in osteogenic factor-free media; the obtained cell population was termed dedifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells (De-MSCs)...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Natalie E Kelso-Chichetto, Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Jeffrey S Harman, Shantrel S Canidate, Christa L Cook, Robert L Cook
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and to assess the relationships between CAM use and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA viral load suppression among a sample of persons living with HIV (PLWH) engaged in care in the state of Florida. DESIGN: The Florida Medical Monitoring Project (n = 803) collected repeated cross-sectional data for surveillance of clinical outcomes among PLWH from 2009 to 2010...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Keiko Akazawa, Kengo Iwasaki, Mizuki Nagata, Naoki Yokoyama, Hirohito Ayame, Kazumasa Yamaki, Yuichi Tanaka, Izumi Honda, Chikako Morioka, Tsuyoshi Kimura, Motohiro Komaki, Akio Kishida, Yuichi Izumi, Ikuo Morita
For cell-based medicine, to mimic in vivo cellular localization, various tissue engineering approaches have been studied to obtain a desirable arrangement of cells on scaffold materials. We have developed a novel method of cell manipulation called "cell transfer technology", enabling the transfer of cultured cells onto scaffold materials, and controlling cell topology. Here we show that using this technique, two different cell types can be transferred onto a scaffold surface as stable double layers or in patterned arrangements...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aisan Nozad, Mohsen Naseri, Mir Bahram Safari, Azam Abd Al Ahadi, Farzaneh Ghaffari
CONTEXT: Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) is a rich and valuable school of thought that believes medications are not the only effective approach for the treatment of diseases but that nutrition is also important. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Our study includes two parts; the first is a book review of the Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (10th and 11th centuries), in which we focus on finding and understanding Avicenna's point of view. In the second part, we searched for "food reduction" as a key word from 2000 to 2015 in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, and the Iranian search database Iranmedex for principles of food reduction in classical medicine...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Aaron J Rogers, Vladimir G Fast, Palaniappan Sethu
Induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) provide a human source of cardiomyocytes for use in cardiovascular research and regenerative medicine. However, attempts to use these cells in vivo have resulted in drastic cell death caused by mechanical, metabolic, and/or exogenous factors. To explore this issue, we designed a Biomimetic Cardiac Tissue Model (BCTM) where various parameters associated with heart function including heart rate, peak-systolic pressure, end-diastolic pressure and volume, end-systolic pressure and volume, and ratio of systole to diastole can all be precisely manipulated to apply hemodynamic loading to culture cells...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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