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Manipulative medicine

Jen Tarr, Flora Cornish, Elena Gonzalez-Polledo
Pain is difficult to communicate and translate into language, yet most social research on pain experience uses questionnaires and semi-structured interviews that rely on words. In addition to the mind/body dualism prevalent in pain medicine in these studies pain communication is characterised by further value-laden binaries such as real/unreal, visible/invisible, and psychological/physical. Starting from the position that research methods play a role in constituting their object, this article examines the potential of participatory arts workshops for developing different versions of pain communication...
February 13, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Sandro Hodel, Björn-Christian Link, Reto Babst, W H Mallee, Philippe Posso, Frank J P Beeres
INTRODUCTION: Despite the frequent use of external fixation, various regimes of antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical technique and postoperative pin care exist and underline the lack of current evidence. The aim of the study was to assess the variability or consensus in perioperative protocols to prevent implant-associated infections for temporary external fixation in closed fractures of the extremities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 26-question survey was sent to 170 members of the Traumaplatform...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Haribabu Palneedi, Jung Hwan Park, Deepam Maurya, Mahesh Peddigari, Geon-Tae Hwang, Venkateswarlu Annapureddy, Jong-Woo Kim, Jong-Jin Choi, Byung-Dong Hahn, Shashank Priya, Keon Jae Lee, Jungho Ryu
Recent technological advances in developing a diverse range of lasers have opened new avenues in material processing. Laser processing of materials involves their exposure to rapid and localized energy, which creates conditions of electronic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium. The laser-induced heat can be localized in space and time, enabling excellent control over the manipulation of materials. Metal oxides are of significant interest for applications ranging from microelectronics to medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the synthesis, manipulation, and patterning of metal oxide films and nanostructures...
February 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Lorenzo Alibardi
Appendage regeneration occurs by a sequence of events resembling those that take place during development in the embryo. This requires embryonic conditions such as hydration and hyaluronate content where Wnt and other signaling pathways, together with non- coding RNAs, can be re-expressed. These conditions among vertebrates are fully met only in amputated limbs of amphibians, likely because they are neotenic and maintain larval characteristics, including immaturity of their immune system and permanence of numerous stem cells...
February 3, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Bret H Clough, Suzanne Zeitouni, Ulf Krause, Christopher D Chaput, Lauren M Cross, Akhilesh K Gaharwar, Carl A Gregory
Non-union defects of bone are a major problem in orthopedics, especially for patients with a low healing capacity. Fixation devices and osteoconductive materials are used to provide a stable environment for osteogenesis and an osteogenic component such as autologous human bone marrow (hBM) is then used, but robust bone formation is contingent on the healing capacity of the patients. A safe and rapid procedure for improvement of the osteoanabolic properties of hBM is, therefore, sought after in the field of orthopedics, especially if it can be performed within the temporal limitations of the surgical procedure, with minimal manipulation, and at point-of-care...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Ran-Ran Zhang, Yun-Wen Zheng, Bin Li, Yun-Zhong Nie, Yasuharu Ueno, Tomonori Tsuchida, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Mature human hepatocytes are critical in preclinical research and therapy for liver disease, but are difficult to manipulate and expand in vitro. Hepatic stem cells (HpSCs) may be an alternative source of functional hepatocytes for cell therapy and disease modeling. Since these cells play an import role in regenerative medicine, the precise characterization that determines specific markers used to isolate these cells as well as whether they contribute to liver regeneration still remain to be shown...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
John C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Surgical metabolism has been a founding field of investigation in surgery without which the boundaries of critical care, trauma, and surgical oncology could not have advanced. Traditionally, understanding the shifts in electrolytes, carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids that could explain the rapidly evolving proteolysis after catabolic stress and tumor growth has been a major focus of research that led to our current approach to maintaining homeostasis over the course of major surgical intervention and injury...
February 2, 2018: Surgical Infections
Mahesh Devarasetty, Andrea R Mazzocchi, Aleksander Skardal
Over the past decade, advances in biomedical and tissue engineering technologies, such as cell culture techniques, biomaterials, and biofabrication, have driven increasingly widespread use of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture platforms and, subsequently, the use of organoids in a variety of research endeavors. Given the 3D nature of these organoid systems, and the frequent inclusion of extracellular matrix components, these constructs typically have more physiologically accurate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions than traditional 2D cell cultures...
January 30, 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Leonardo Viniegra-Velázquez
This paper begins with a statement: It is necessary to characterize the respective society to be able to understand the education's core. Distinctive features of the present-day world lead us to define it as the ruin of a civilization based on limitless financial gain, where education has a passive quality, responsible of maintaining the status quo as well as preserving the degrading attributes of actual societies: individualism, passivity, competitiveness, consumerism and high vulnerability to control and manipulation...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Xiaochuan Dai, Guosong Hong, Teng Gao, Charles M Lieber
Nanobioelectronics represents a rapidly developing field with broad-ranging opportunities in fundamental biological sciences, biotechnology, and medicine. Despite this potential, seamless integration of electronics has been difficult due to fundamental mismatches, including size and mechanical properties, between the elements of the electronic and living biological systems. In this Account, we discuss the concept, development, key demonstrations, and future opportunities of mesh nanoelectronics as a general paradigm for seamless integration of electronics within synthetic tissues and live animals...
January 30, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
David D Boehr, Rebecca N D'Amico, Kathleen F O'Rourke
Enzymes undergo a range of internal motions from local, active site fluctuations to large-scale, global conformational changes. These motions are often important for enzyme function, including in ligand binding and dissociation and even preparing the active site for chemical catalysis. Protein engineering efforts have been directed towards manipulating enzyme structural dynamics and conformational changes, including targeting specific amino acid interactions and creation of chimeric enzymes with new regulatory functions...
January 30, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Ranit Kedmi, Nuphar Veiga, Srinivas Ramishetti, Meir Goldsmith, Daniel Rosenblum, Niels Dammes, Inbal Hazan-Halevy, Limor Nahary, Shani Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Michael Harlev, Mark Behlke, Itai Benhar, Judy Lieberman, Dan Peer
Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred...
January 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Nicolas Canu, Pascal Belin, Robert Thai, Isabelle Correia, Olivier Lequin, Jérôme Seguin, Mireille Moutiez, Muriel Gondry
The manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways is a powerful means of expanding the chemical diversity of bioactive molecules. 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs) have been widely developed by medicinal chemists, but their biological production is yet to be exploited. We introduce here an in vivo method to incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into 2,5-DKPs using cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs), the enzymes responsible for scaffold assembly in many 2,5-DKP biosynthetic pathways. CDPSs use aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates...
January 29, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Gilbert Santiago Cañón Bermúdez, Dmitriy D Karnaushenko, Daniil Karnaushenko, Ana Lebanov, Lothar Bischoff, Martin Kaltenbrunner, Jürgen Fassbender, Oliver G Schmidt, Denys Makarov
Electronic skins equipped with artificial receptors are able to extend our perception beyond the modalities that have naturally evolved. These synthetic receptors offer complimentary information on our surroundings and endow us with novel means of manipulating physical or even virtual objects. We realize highly compliant magnetosensitive skins with directional perception that enable magnetic cognition, body position tracking, and touchless object manipulation. Transfer printing of eight high-performance spin valve sensors arranged into two Wheatstone bridges onto 1...
January 2018: Science Advances
Hao-Hua Deng, Xiao-Qiong Shi, Hua-Ping Peng, Quanquan Zhuang, Yu Yang, Ai-Lin Liu, Xing-Hua Xia, Wei Chen
The development of simple yet powerful methods for monitoring enzyme activity is of great significance. Herein, a facile, convenient, cost-effective, and continuous fluorescent method for the detection of arginase and its inhibitor has been reported based on a host-guest interaction- and enzymatic hydrolysis-controlled luminescent nanoswitch. The fluorescence intensity of 6-aza-2-thiothymine-stabilized gold nanoparticle (ATT-AuNP) is enhanced by L-arginine, owing to the formation of supramolecular host-guest assembly between the guanidine group of L-arginine and ATT molecules capped on AuNP surface...
January 26, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
I Ostash, B Kolvenbach, P F-X Corvini, V Fedorenko, B Ostash, Danuta Cichocka
The wide application of sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine contributes to the accumulation of these antibiotics in the environment and the corresponding onset of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Microbacterium sp. BR1 is capable of mineralizing sulfamethoxazole and other SAs via a novel mechanism. The genetic basis of SA elimination by BR1 remains unknown. Development of an efficient plasmid transfer protocol for Microbacterium sp. BR1 is highly desirable, as it would open the door to genetic analysis and manipulation of its genome...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Christopher A Neal, Jennifer G Nelson-Brantley, Michael S Detamore, Hinrich Staecker, Adam J Mellott
In mammals, mechanosensory hair cells that facilitate hearing lack the ability to regenerate, which has limited treatments for hearing loss. Current regenerative medicine strategies have focused on transplanting stem cells or genetic manipulation of surrounding support cells in the inner ear to encourage replacement of damaged stem cells to correct hearing loss. Yet, the extracellular matrix (ECM) may play a vital role in inducing and maintaining function of hair cells, and has not been well investigated. Using the cochlear ECM as a scaffold to grow adult stem cells may provide unique insights into how the composition and architecture of the extracellular environment aids cells in sustaining hearing function...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Reza Zamani, Sedigheh Fekri Aval, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Kazem Nejati-Koshki, Nosratollah Zarghami
The progression of nanotechnology provides opportunities to manipulate synthetic and natural materials to mimic the natural structure for tissue engineering applications. The electrospinning technique applies electrostatic principle to fabricate electrospun nanofibers. Nanofiber scaffolds are precisely similar to the native extracellular matrix (ECM) and support cell proliferation, adhesion, tendency to preserve their phenotypic shape and directed growth according to the nanofiber direction. This study reviewed both the natural and synthetic type of nanofibers and described the different properties used to trigger certain process in the tissue development...
January 22, 2018: Drug Research
Gregory R Steinberg
The survival of all cells is dependent on the constant challenge to match energetic demands with nutrient availability, a task that is mediated through a highly conserved network of metabolic fuel sensors that orchestrate both cellular and whole-organism energy balance. A mismatch between cellular energy demand and nutrient availability is a key factor contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes; thus, understanding the fundamental mechanisms by which cells sense nutrient availability and demand may lead to the development of new treatments...
February 2018: Diabetes
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