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Manipulative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096221/efficient-crispr-cas9-assisted-gene-targeting-enables-rapid-and-precise-genetic-manipulation-of-mammalian-neural-stem-cells
#1
Raul Bardini Bressan, Pooran Singh Dewari, Maria Kalantzaki, Ester Gangoso, Mantas Matjusaitis, Claudia Garcia-Diaz, Carla Blin, Vivien Grant, Harry Bulstrode, Sabine Gogolok, William C Skarnes, Steven M Pollard
Mammalian neural stem (NS) cell lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NS cells are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable - experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting - so critical for functional studies of embryonic stem cells - has not been exploited to date in NS cells...
January 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092440/molecular-interactions-between-graphene-and-biological-molecules
#2
Xingquan Zou, Shuai Wei, Joshua Jasensky, Minyu Xiao, Qiuming Wang, Charles L Brooks, Zhan Chen
Applications of graphene have extended into areas of nanobio-technology such as nanobio-medicine, nanobio-sensing, as well as nanoelectronics with biomolecules. These applications involve interactions between proteins, peptides, DNA, RNA etc. and graphene, therefore understanding such molecular interactions is essential. For example, many applications based on using graphene and peptides require peptides to interact with (e.g., noncovalently bind to) graphene at one end, while simultaneously exposing the other end to the surrounding medium (e...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087486/enhanced-articular-cartilage-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-enzymatically-mediated-transiently-rgds-functionalized-collagen-mimetic-hydrogels
#3
Paresh A Parmar, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Lesley W Chow, Christopher D Spicer, Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Jerome A Werkmeister, John A M Ramshaw, Molly M Stevens
: Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087007/manipulating-the-microbiome
#4
Tammy L Sirich, Timothy W Meyer
The application of molecular methods has provided a new picture of the colon microbial flora, or microbiome. The microbiome has been found to be a complex ecosystem with multiple influences on its human host. In renal medicine, interest has focused on the microbiome as a source of toxic waste chemicals and a stimulant to unwanted systemic inflammation. Early attempts to manipulate the microbiome have yielded limited benefit, but further research is strongly motivated.
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069469/an-improved-protocol-for-harvesting-bacillus-subtilis-colony-biofilms
#5
Felix Matthias Fuchs, Adam Driks, Peter Setlow, Ralf Moeller
Bacterial biofilms cause severe problems in medicine and industry due to the high resistance to disinfectants and environmental stress of organisms within biofilms. Addressing challenges caused by biofilms requires full understanding of the underlying mechanisms for bacterial resistance and survival in biofilms. However, such work is hampered by a relative lack of systems for biofilm cultivation that are practical and reproducible. To address this problem, we developed a readily applicable method to culture Bacillus subtilis biofilms on a membrane filter...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063225/purification-of-small-molecule-induced-cardiomyocytes-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-reporter-system
#6
Geun Hye Hwang, So Mi Park, Ho Jae Han, Joong Sun Kim, Seung Pil Yun, Jung Min Ryu, Ho Jin Lee, Woochul Chang, Su-Jin Lee, Jeong-Hee Choi, Jin-Sung Choi, Min Young Lee
In order to realize the practical use of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for the purpose of clinical use or cardiovascular research, the generation of large numbers of highly purified cardiomyocytes should be achieved. Here, we show an efficient method for cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in chemically defined conditions and purification of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using a reporter system. Regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in the induction of the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055087/osteopathic-philosophy-and-manipulation-enhancement-program-influence-on-osteopathic-medical-students-interest-in-osteopathic-manipulative-medicine
#7
Mikhail Volokitin, Pavan V Ganapathiraju
CONTEXT: Interest in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) among first- and second-year osteopathic medical students typically declines toward the end of the second year of medical school. An osteopathic philosophy and manipulation enhancement (OPME) program was implemented for osteopathic medical students to gain additional exposure to OMM at the Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine in New York, New York. OBJECTIVE: To assess how additional exposure to OMM through the OPME program influenced first- and second-year students' interest in using OMM...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053071/mouse-models-for-drug-discovery-can-new-tools-and-technology-improve-translational-power
#8
Aamir Zuberi, Cathleen Lutz
The use of mouse models in biomedical research and preclinical drug evaluation is on the rise. The advent of new molecular genome-altering technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 allows for genetic mutations to be introduced into the germ line of a mouse faster and less expensively than previous methods. In addition, the rapid progress in the development and use of somatic transgenesis using viral vectors, as well as manipulations of gene expression with siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, allow for even greater exploration into genomics and systems biology...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#9
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040560/a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-dosage-form-manipulation-to-obtain-required-doses-to-inform-use-of-manipulation-in-paediatric-practice
#10
REVIEW
Roberta H Richey, Clare Hughes, Jean V Craig, Utpal U Shah, James L Ford, Catrin E Barker, Matthew Peak, Anthony J Nunn, Mark A Turner
This study sought to determine whether there is an evidence base for drug manipulation to obtain the required dose, a common feature of paediatric clinical practice. A systematic review of the data sources, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, was used. Studies that considered the dose accuracy of manipulated medicines of any dosage form, evidence of safety or harm, bioavailability, patient experience, tolerability, contamination and comparison of methods of manipulation were included...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038681/nanostructured-scaffold-as-a-determinant-of-stem-cell-fate
#11
REVIEW
Lekshmi Krishna, Kamesh Dhamodaran, Chaitra Jayadev, Kaushik Chatterjee, Rohit Shetty, S S Khora, Debashish Das
The functionality of stem cells is tightly regulated by cues from the niche, comprising both intrinsic and extrinsic cell signals. Besides chemical and growth factors, biophysical signals are important components of extrinsic signals that dictate the stem cell properties. The materials used in the fabrication of scaffolds provide the chemical cues whereas the shape of the scaffolds provides the biophysical cues. The effect of the chemical composition of the scaffolds on stem cell fate is well researched. Biophysical signals such as nanotopography, mechanical forces, stiffness of the matrix, and roughness of the biomaterial influence the fate of stem cells...
December 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035266/simple-and-noninvasive-method-for-assessment-of-digestive-efficiency-validation-of-fecal-steatocrit-in-greenfinch-coccidiosis-model
#12
Richard Meitern, Mari-Ann Lind, Ulvi Karu, Peeter Hõrak
Animals' capability to absorb energy and nutrients from food poses a major internal constraint that affects the amount of resources available for allocation to maintenance, growth, signaling, and reproduction. Intestinal surface is the largest area of contact between immune system and microbial antigens; gut thus appears the main arena where trade-offs between immune function and other components of fitness arise. Assessment of the integrity of digestive machinery should therefore be of high priority in ecophysiological research...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035103/two-closely-related-4-n-substituted-amino-diethoxyphosphoryl-methyl-phenyl-boronic-acids
#13
Rui Zhang, Yundi Zhang, Chunhua Ge, Jinpeng Miao, Xiangdong Zhang
Organic phosphonic acids and organic phosphonic acid esters have been of much interest due to their applications in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industrial chemistry. Boronic acids can act as synthetic intermediates and building blocks and are used in sensing, protein manipulation, therapeutics, biological labelling and separation. The additional introduction of an aminophosphonic acid group into a boronic acid may give new opportunities for application. To study the structure of such multifunctional compounds, we prepared two new derivatives which can be easily converted to the corresponding phosphonic acids...
January 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028248/facile-fabrication-of-tissue-engineered-constructs-using-nanopatterned-cell-sheets-and-magnetic-levitation
#14
Nisa Penland, Eunpyo Choi, Mikael Perla, Jungyul Park, Deok-Ho Kim
We report a simple and versatile method for in vitro fabrication of scaffold-free tissue-engineered constructs with predetermined cellular alignment, by combining magnetic cell levitation with thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) based cell sheet engineering technique. The TNFS based nanotopography provides contact guidance cues for regulation of cellular alignment and enables cell sheet transfer, while magnetic nanoparticles facilitate the magnetic levitation of the cell sheet. The temperature-mediated change in surface wettability of the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, substratum enables the spontaneous detachment of cell monolayers, which can then be easily manipulated through use of a ring or disk shaped magnet...
December 28, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025465/myocardial-regeneration-for-humans%C3%A3-modifying-biology-and-manipulating-evolution
#15
Kathleen M Broughton, Mark A Sussman
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide and developing novel therapies to treat and cure the disease remains a high priority in the healthcare research community. Adult stem cells were successful in entering numerous clinical trials over the past 15 years in attempts to regenerate the heart. First-generation adult stem cell therapies for myocardial regeneration were highly promising in small animal models but realized benefits in humans were far more modest. Consequently, second-generation therapeutic approaches in early implementation phases have focused on enhancing cellular properties with higher survival and regenerative potential...
December 27, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017488/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-the-school-age-child-with-autism
#16
Debdeep Nath
This case study examines some common complementary and alternative treatments used in the management of behavioral and gastrointestinal symptoms associated with autism including food selectivity, abdominal pain, nausea, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, and diarrhea. The current literature on the safety and efficacy of these treatments for pediatric patients is reviewed. This study examines therapies including gluten-free and casein-free diet, probiotics, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, chelation therapy, acupuncture, and chiropractic manipulations used in treating these core symptoms of autism...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011142/cell-matrix-mechanical-interaction-in-electrospun-polymeric-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-implications-for-scaffold-design-and-performance
#17
REVIEW
Kelsey M Kennedy, Archana Bhaw-Luximon, Dhanjay Jhurry
: Engineered scaffolds produced by electrospinning of biodegradable polymers offer a 3D, nanofibrous environment with controllable structural, chemical, and mechanical properties that mimic the extracellular matrix of native tissues and have shown promise for a number of tissue engineering applications. The microscale mechanical interactions between cells and electrospun matrices drive cell behaviors including migration and differentiation that are critical to promote tissue regeneration...
December 21, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995785/dearomatizing-radical-cyclizations-and-cyclization-cascades-triggered-by-electron-transfer-reduction-of-amide-type-carbonyls
#18
Huan-Ming Huang, David J Procter
Highly selective dearomatizing radical cyclizations and cyclization cascades, triggered by single electron transfer to amide-type carbonyls by SmI2-H2O-LiBr, provide efficient access to unprecedented spirocyclic scaffolds containing up to five stereocenters with high diastereocontrol. The first dearomatizing radical cyclizations involving radicals derived from amide carbonyls by single electron transfer take place under mild conditions and engage a range of aromatic and heteroaromatic systems present in the barbiturate substrates...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994479/transsacrococcygeal-approach-to-ganglion-impar-radiofrequency-application-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-intractable-coccydynia
#19
Cemil Adas, Ugur Ozdemir, Huseyin Toman, Nurettin Luleci, Emel Luleci, Hilal Adas
OBJECTIVE: Coccydynia is defined as pain in the coccygeal region. Among the many causes of coccydynia, the most common cause is trauma as a result of falling on the buttocks, repetitive microtrauma, or childbirth. Several methods are currently used for the treatment of coccydynia, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intrarectal manipulation, epidural injections, ganglion impar blocks, and radiofrequency treatment (RFT). Wemm and Saberski used the transacrococcygeal methods to reduce tissue trauma...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993012/rational-design-of-small-molecules-targeting-oncogenic-noncoding-rnas-from-sequence
#20
Matthew D Disney, Alicia J Angelbello
The discovery of RNA catalysis in the 1980s and the dissemination of the human genome sequence at the start of this century inspired investigations of the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs in biology. In fact, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has shown that only 1-2% of the human genome encodes protein, yet 75% is transcribed into RNA. Functional studies both preceding and following the ENCODE project have shown that these noncoding RNAs have important roles in regulating gene expression, developmental timing, and other critical functions...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
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