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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346825/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-articular-cartilage-within-the-knee
#1
Erin C Argentieri, Alissa J Burge, Hollis G Potter
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an effective and noninvasive means by which to evaluate articular cartilage within the knee. Existing techniques can be utilized to detect and monitor longitudinal changes in cartilage status due to injury or progression of degenerative disease. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) techniques can provide a metric by which to evaluate the efficacy of cartilage repair techniques and offer insight into the composition of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. In this review, we provide background on MR signal generation and decay, the utility of morphologic MRI assessment, and qMRI techniques for the biochemical assessment of cartilage (dGEMRIC, T2, T2*, T1ρ, sodium, gagCEST)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346804/trabodenoson-an-adenosine-mimetic-with-a1-receptor-selectivity-lowers-intraocular-pressure-by-increasing-conventional-outflow-facility-in-mice
#2
Guorong Li, Karen Y Torrejon, Andrea M Unser, Feryan Ahmed, Iris D Navarro, Rudolf A Baumgartner, David S Albers, W Daniel Stamer
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the IOP-lowering effect of trabodenoson and the associated structural and functional changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Methods: Six independent cohorts of young and aged mice were exposed to three different topical once-a-day formulations of trabodenoson and eyes were compared to those treated with placebo drops. IOP was measured daily just before drug administration using rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured in enucleated eyes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346763/derepression-of-the-iroquois-homeodomain-transcription-factor-gene-irx3-confers-differentiation-block-in-acute-leukemia
#3
Tim D D Somerville, Fabrizio Simeoni, John A Chadwick, Emma L Williams, Gary J Spencer, Katalin Boros, Christopher Wirth, Eleni Tholouli, Richard J Byers, Tim C P Somervaille
The Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor gene IRX3 is expressed in the developing nervous system, limb buds, and heart, and transcript levels specify obesity risk in humans. We now report a functional role for IRX3 in human acute leukemia. Although transcript levels are very low in normal human bone marrow cells, high IRX3 expression is found in ∼30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), ∼50% with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and ∼20% with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, frequently in association with high-level HOXA gene expression...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346738/first-record-of-leucocytozoon-haemosporida-leucocytozoidae-in-amazonia-evidence-for-rarity-in-neotropical-lowlands-or-lack-of-sampling-for-this-parasite-genus
#4
Alan Fecchio, Patricia Silveira, Jason Weckstein, Janice Dispoto, Marina Anciães, Mariane Bosholn, Vasyl Tkach, Jeffrey Bell
Birds harbor an astonishing diversity of haemosporidian parasites belonging to the genera Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium. Currently there are over 250 morphologically described avian haemosporidian species and 2828 unique lineages infecting virtually all avian clades and zoogeographic regions, except for Antarctica. Our report is based on PCR and microscopic screening of 1302 individual avian samples from Brazil to detect the underrepresented genus Leucocytozoon. This survey primarily focuses on passerine birds collected from Amazonia, Atlantic Rain Forest, and Pantanal...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346727/bioinspired-pressure-tolerant-asymmetric-slippery-surface-for-continuous-self-transport-of-gas-bubbles-in-aqueous-environment
#5
Chunhui Zhang, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Zhe Li, Xiao Xiao, Yuheng Zhang, Xinyu Cui, Cunming Yu, Moyuan Cao, Lei Jiang
Bio-surfaces with geometry-gradient structures or special wettabilities demonstrate intriguing performance in manipulating the behaviors of versatile fluids. By mimicking natural species, i.e., the cactus spine with a shape-gradient morphology and the Picher plant with a lubricated inner surface, we have successfully prepared an asymmetric slippery surface by following the processes of CO2-laser cutting, superhydrophobic modification, and the fluorinert infusion. The asymmetric morphology will cause the deformation of gas bubbles and subsequently engender an asymmetric driven force on them...
January 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346719/a-tunable-molten-salt-route-for-scalable-synthesis-of-ultrathin-amorphous-carbon-nanosheets-as-high-performance-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#6
Yixian Wang, Wei Tian, Luhai Wang, Haoran Zhang, Jialiang Liu, Tingyue Peng, Lei Pan, Xiaobo Wang, Mingbo Wu
Amorphous carbon is regarded as a promising alternative to commercial graphite as the lithium-ion battery anode due to its capability to reversibly store more lithium ions. However, the structural disorder with a large number of defects can lead to low electrical conductivity of the amorphous carbon, thus limiting its application for high power output. Herein, ultrathin amorphous carbon nanosheets were prepared from petroleum asphalt through tuning the carbonization temperature in a molten-salt medium. The amorphous nanostructure with expanded carbon interlayer spacing can provide substantial active sites for lithium storage while the two-dimensional (2D) morphology can facilitate fast electrical conductivity...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346707/tuning-high-temperature-wetting-behavior-of-metal-toward-ultrafine-nanoparticles
#7
Yubing Zhou, Bharath Natarajan, Yanchen Fan, Hua Xie, Chunpeng Yang, Shaomao Xu, Yonggang Yao, Feng Jiang, Qianfan Zhang, Jeffrey W Gilman, Liangbing Hu
The interaction between the metal nanoparticles and their substrate plays a critical role in determining the particle morphology, distribution, and properties. Here we present the pronounced impact of a thin oxide coating to the dispersion of metal nanoparticles on a carbon matrix. We employ Al2O3-supported Pt nanoparticles in comparison with direct synthesis of Pt nanoparticles on bare carbon surfaces. Pt nanoparticles with an average size of ≈2 nm and a size distribution ranging between 0.5 nm and 4.0 nm are synthesized on the Al2O3 coated carbon nanofiber, significantly improved compared to those directly synthesized on bare carbon surface...
January 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346603/homologous-stress-adaptation-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-heidelberg-atcc8326-on-different-food-contact-surfaces-following-exposure-to-sublethal-chlorine-concentrations
#8
Tomi Obe, Rama Nannapaneni, Chander Shekhar Sharma, Aaron Kiess
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up to 400 ppm. In addition, the chlorine stressed cells displayed rugose morphology on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates at 37°C...
January 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346565/apigenin-induces-cell-shrinkage-in-candida-albicans-by-membrane-perturbation
#9
Heejeong Lee, Eun-Rhan Woo, Dong Gun Lee
Apigenin, a natural flavone, has been well characterized for its their anticarcinogenic property; however, its bioactivity against pathogenic fungi has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the antifungal activity and mode of action of apigenin. Apigenin inhibited the growth of fungal pathogens, which induced superficial infection and reduced biofilm mass. Three-dimensional flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that apigenin induced morphological changes, especially cell shrinkage, in Candida albicans...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346529/echocardiographic-criteria-to-detect-unicuspid-aortic-valve-morphology
#10
Sebastian Ewen, Irem Karliova, Petra Weber, Stephan H Schirmer, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Jakob Schöpe, Felix Mahfoud, Hans-Joachim Schäfers
Aims: Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare congenital malformation associated with severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation. This study aimed to systematically determine echocardiographic criteria to identify UAV. Methods and results: All patients underwent a preoperative baseline examination, including echocardiography. A total of 69 patients with intraoperatively confirmed UAV underwent an aortic valve repair procedure between August 2001 and May 2011. To compare the findings of UAV cases with those of other valve morphologies, we examined 99 consecutive patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and 103 consecutive patients with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) undergoing isolated aortic valve surgery before May 2016...
January 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346426/proliferation-and-survival-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-during-their-hepatic-differentiation
#11
Julieta L Maymó, Rodrigo Riedel, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Marta Magatti, Bernardo Maskin, José Luis Dueñas, Ornella Parolini, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet, Cecilia L Varone
Stem cells derived from placental tissues are an attractive source of cells for regenerative medicine. Amniotic epithelial cells isolated from human amnion (hAECs) have desirable and competitive characteristics that make them stand out between other stem cells. They have the ability to differentiate toward all three germ layers, they are not tumorigenic and they have immunosuppressive properties. Although liver transplantation is the best way to treat acute and chronic hepatic failure patients, there are several obstacles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346406/shea-vitellaria-paradoxa-gaertn-c-f-fruit-yield-assessment-and-management-by-farm-households-in-the-atacora-district-of-benin
#12
Koutchoukalo Aleza, Grace B Villamor, Benjamin Kofi Nyarko, Kperkouma Wala, Koffi Akpagana
Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346404/bio-fortification-potential-of-global-wild-annual-lentil-core-collection
#13
Sandeep Kumar, Anil Kumar Choudhary, Kuldeep Singh Rana, Ashutosh Sarker, Mohar Singh
Lentil, generally known as poor man's' meat due to its high protein value is also a good source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and vitamins along with fast cooking characteristics. It could be used globally as a staple food crop to eradicate hidden hunger, if this nutritionally rich crop is further enriched with essential minerals. This requires identification of essential mineral rich germplasm. So, in the present study, a core set of 96 wild accessions extracted from 405 global wild annual collections comprising different species was analyzed to determine its bio-fortification potential...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346393/computational-study-of-hiv-gp120-as-a-target-for-polyanionic-entry-inhibitors-exploiting-the-v3-loop-region
#14
Louis R Hollingsworth, Anne M Brown, Richard D Gandour, David R Bevan
Multiple approaches are being utilized to develop therapeutics to treat HIV infection. One approach is designed to inhibit entry of HIV into host cells, with a target being the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Polyanionic compounds have been shown to be effective in inhibiting HIV entry, with a mechanism involving electrostatic interactions with the V3 loop of gp120 being proposed. In this study, we applied computational methods to elucidate molecular interactions between the repeat unit of the precisely alternating polyanion, Poly(4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylate-alt-maleic acid) (DCSti-alt-MA) and the V3 loop of gp120 from strains of HIV against which these polyanions were previously tested (IIIb, BaL, 92UG037, JR-CSF) as well as two strains for which gp120 crystal structures are available (YU2, 2B4C)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346306/zinc-tantalum-oxynitride-zntao%C3%A2-n-photoanode-modified-with-cobalt-phosphate-layers-for-the-photoelectrochemical-oxidation-of-alkali-water
#15
Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Maged N Shaddad, Mohamed A Ghanem, Abdullah M Al-Mayouf, Mark T Weller
Photoanodes fabricated by the electrophoretic deposition of a thermally prepared zinc tantalum oxynitride (ZnTaO₂N) catalyst onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates show photoactivation for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solutions. The photoactivity of the OER is further boosted by the photodeposition of cobalt phosphate (CoPi) layers onto the surface of the ZnTaO₂N photoanodes. Structural, morphological, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the modified ZnTaO₂N photoanodes are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques...
January 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346303/micro-spherical-sulfur-graphene-oxide-composite-via-spray-drying-for-high-performance-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#16
Yuan Tian, Zhenghao Sun, Yongguang Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhumabay Bakenov, Fuxing Yin
An efficient, industry-accepted spray drying method was used to synthesize micro-spherical sulfur/graphene oxide (S/GO) composites as cathode materials within lithium sulfur batteries. The as-designed wrapping of the sulfur-nanoparticles, with wrinkled GO composites, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The unique morphological design of this material enabled superior discharge capacity and cycling performance, demonstrating a high initial discharge capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 at 0...
January 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346280/a-multi-band-body-worn-distributed-radio-frequency-exposure-meter-design-on-body-calibration-and-study-of-body-morphology
#17
Reza Aminzadeh, Arno Thielens, Sam Agneessens, Patrick Van Torre, Matthias Van den Bossche, Stefan Dongus, Marloes Eeftens, Anke Huss, Roel Vermeulen, René de Seze, Paul Mazet, Elisabeth Cardis, Hendrik Rogier, Martin Röösli, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
A multi-band Body-Worn Distributed exposure Meter (BWDM) calibrated for simultaneous measurement of the incident power density in 11 telecommunication frequency bands, is proposed. The BDWM consists of 22 textile antennas integrated in a garment and is calibrated on six human subjects in an anechoic chamber to assess its measurement uncertainty in terms of 68% confidence interval of the on-body antenna aperture. It is shown that by using multiple antennas in each frequency band, the uncertainty of the BWDM is 22 dB improved with respect to single nodes on the front and back of the torso and variations are decreased to maximum 8...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346242/prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-pachydrusen-in-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy-multimodal-image-study
#18
Junwon Lee, Suk Ho Byeon
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of a newly defined drusen type, pachydrusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and fellow eyes and the relationship between each drusen type and the choroidal thickness, vascular morphology, and hyperpermeability. METHODS: The 169 eyes of 90 patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of each drusen type was evaluated using color fundus photography and optical coherence tomography...
January 16, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346241/chronic-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-early-and-late-morphological-and-functional-changes-after-verteporfin-photodynamic-therapy
#19
Pierluigi Iacono, Massimiliano Tedeschi, Barbara Boccassini, Adele Chiaravalloti, Monica Varano, Mariacristina Parravano
PURPOSE: To describe early and late morphological and functional changes in subjects receiving photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were prospectively enrolled and received standard PDT. At the baseline examination, each subject underwent complete ophthalmological examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessment, fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and microperimetry...
January 16, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346115/mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-linked-to-air-pollution
#20
REVIEW
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
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