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Congenital cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081328/cytomegalovirus-hepatitis-in-49-pediatric-patients-with-normal-immunity
#1
Hasan Tezer, Saliha Kanık Yüksek, Belgin Gülhan, Aslı Nur Özkaya Parlakay, Ceyda Tuna Kırsaçlıoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis is generally asymptomatic or rarely can lead to severe complications in immunocompetent hosts. This study aims to evaluate CMV hepatitis in immunocompetent young children, which is discussed relatively rarely in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 49 pediatric patients with CMV hepatitis from January 2005 to December 2010 was performed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 5...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079836/symptomatic-cytomegalovirus-infections-in-the-first-year-of-life-when-is-antiviral-therapy-conceived-to-be-justified
#2
Katharina Schuster, Rangmar Goelz, Carsten Speckmann, Philipp Henneke
All infants treated with antiviral medication for symptomatic congenital (diagnosis <3 weeks) and probably postnatal (>3 weeks) cytomegalovirus infection were characterized with the help of a survey covering all German Pediatric hospitals between 2012 and 2013. We found that >50% of infants treated for cytomegalovirus were classified as probably postnatal cytomegalovirus infection, which was associated with preterm birth and underlying diseases of the immune system, heart or lung.
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079113/congenital-hearing-loss
#3
Anna M H Korver, Richard J H Smith, Guy Van Camp, Mark R Schleiss, Maria A K Bitner-Glindzicz, Lawrence R Lustig, Shin-Ichi Usami, An N Boudewyns
Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss...
January 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077654/neutralization-of-diverse-human-cytomegalovirus-strains-conferred-by-antibodies-targets-viral-gh-gl-pul128-131-pentameric-complex
#4
Sha Ha, Fengsheng Li, Matthew C Troutman, Daniel C Freed, Aimin Tang, John W Loughney, Dai Wang, I-Ming Wang, Josef Vlasak, David C Nickle, Richard R Rustandi, Melissa Hamm, Pete A DePhillips, Ningyan Zhang, Jason S McLellan, Hua Zhu, Stuart P Adler, Michael A McVoy, Zhiqiang An, Tong-Ming Fu
: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection and developing a prophylactic vaccine is of high priority to public health. We recently reported a replication-defective human cytomegalovirus with restored pentameric complex gH/gL/pUL128-131 for prevention of congenital HCMV infection. While the quantity of vaccine-induced antibody responses can be measured in a viral neutralization assay, assessing the quality of such responses, including the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to cross neutralize the field strains of HCMV, remains a challenge...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077639/identification-of-a-continuous-neutralizing-epitope-within-ul128-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#5
Flavia Chiuppesi, Teodora Kaltcheva, Meng Zhuo, Peter A Barry, Don J Diamond, Felix Wussow
: As human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common infectious cause of fetal anomalies during pregnancy, developing a vaccine that prevents HCMV infection is considered a global health priority. Although HCMV immune correlates of protection are only poorly defined, neutralizing antibodies (NAb) targeting the envelope pentamer complex (PC) composed of subunits gH, gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A are thought to contribute in preventing HCMV infection. Here, we describe a continuous target sequence within UL128 that is recognized by a previously isolated potent PC-specific NAb, termed 13B5...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074532/pathogenesis-of-developmental-anomalies-of-the-central-nervous-system-induced-by-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Kosugi, Shiori Meguro, Toshihide Iwashita
In humans, the herpes virus family member cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent mediator of intrauterine infection-induced congenital defect. Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is a distinguishing symptom of CMV infection, and characterized by ventriculoencephalitis and microglial nodular encephalitis. Reports on the initial distribution of CMV particles and its receptors on the blood brain barrier (BBB) are rare. Nevertheless, several factors are suggested to affect CMV etiology. Viral particle size is the primary factor in determining the pattern of CNS infections, followed by the expression of integrin β1 in endothelial cells, pericytes, meninges, choroid plexus, and neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), which are the primary targets of CMV infection...
January 10, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056855/symptomatic-congenital-cytomegalovirus-disease-following-non-primary-maternal-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Eran Hadar, Elizabeta Dorfman, Ron Bardin, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Jacob Amir, Joseph Pardo
BACKGROUND: Scarce data exist about screening, diagnosis and prognosis of non-primary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy. We aimed to examine antenatal diagnosis of maternal non-primary CMV infection and to identify risk factors for congenial CMV disease. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of 107 neonates with congenital symptomatic CMV infection, following either primary (n = 95) or non-primary (n = 12) maternal CMV infection. We compared the groups for the manifestations and severity of congenial CMV disease, as well as for possible factors associated with the risk of developing CMV related infant morbidity...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049114/a-targeted-approach-for-congenital-cytomegalovirus-screening-within-newborn-hearing-screening
#8
Karen B Fowler, Faye P McCollister, Diane L Sabo, Angela G Shoup, Kris E Owen, Julie L Woodruff, Edith Cox, Lisa S Mohamed, Daniel I Choo, Suresh B Boppana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection remains a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Currently universal CMV screening at birth does not exist in the United States. An alternative approach could be testing infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screening (NHS) for cCMV. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a targeted approach will identify infants with CMV-related sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). METHODS: Infants born at 7 US medical centers received NHS and were also screened for cCMV while in the newborn nursery...
January 3, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034524/maternal-immunoglobulin-g-avidity-as-a-diagnostic-tool-to-identify-pregnant-women-at-risk-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#9
Masatoki Kaneko, Masanao Ohhashi, Toshio Minematsu, Junsuke Muraoka, Kazumi Kusumoto, Hiroshi Sameshima
BACKGROUND: The immunoglobulin (Ig) G avidity index (AI) is useful to detect primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. However, because IgG matures with time, this index is not useful to detect a primary infection, unless measured at an appropriate time. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify the difference between using IgG AI and IgM positivity according to the stage of pregnancy to identify congenital CMV infection risk. STUDY DESIGN: We collected the serum samples from 1115 pregnant women who underwent maternal screening for primary infection (n = 956) and were referred to our hospital because of CMV IgM positivity (n = 155) or had abnormal fetal ultrasonography findings (n = 4)...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033238/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-permanent-hearing-loss-in-rural-north-indian-children
#10
Lalit Dar, Divya Namdeo, Pankaj Kumar, Alok Thakar, Shashi Kant, Sanjay Rai, Pawan K Singh, Madhulika Kabra, Karen B Fowler, Suresh B Boppana
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is a leading non-genetic cause of permanent congenital or early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL). Although cCMV rates are high despite near-universal seroimmunity, the contribution of cCMV to PCEHL in the developing world is unclear. METHODS: Neonates at a rural north Indian hospital were screened for cCMV by saliva PCR and hearing by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. CMV positive infants and those not passing newborn hearing screening (NHS) were evaluated by auditory brainstem response to confirm PCEHL...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032284/baseline-antibody-level-may-help-predict-the-risk-of-active-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-hcmv-seropositive-population
#11
T-D Li, J-J Li, X Huang, H Wang, X-Y Guo, S-X Ge, J Zhang
Recurrent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection during pregnancy could lead to congenital HCMV infection and permanent sequelae. However, knowledge regarding the risk factors associated with recurrent HCMV infection is limited. In the present study, 1,659 paired serum samples from the natural population were collected in Guangxi Province, China, from 2003 to 2004 with a 1-year interval. The serum anti-pp150 titre was quantitatively determined using a homemade recombinant pp150-based ELISA, and the IgG titre that increased at least 4-fold was defined as a recurrent infection...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012878/viral-posterior-uveitis
#12
REVIEW
Joanne H Lee, Aniruddha Agarwal, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Cecilia S Lee, Vishali Gupta, Carlos E Pavesio, Rupesh Agrawal
The causes of posterior uveitis can be divided into infectious, autoimmune, or masquerade syndromes. Viral infections. a significant cause of sight-threatening ocular diseases in the posterior segment,, include human herpesviruses, measles, rubella, and arboviruses such as dengue, West Nile, and chikungunya virus. Viral posterior uveitis may occur as an isolated ocular disease in congenital or acquired infections or as part of a systemic viral illness. Many viruses remain latent in the infected host with a risk of reactivation that depends on various factors, including virulence and host immunity, age, and comorbidities...
December 21, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009139/neonatal-gastrointestinal-involvement-and-congenital-cytomegalovirus
#13
Alessandro Porta, Adriana Avanzini, Marta Bellini, Rosa Maria Crossignani, Stefano Fiocchi, Stefano Martinelli, Luciana Parola
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital viral infection, affecting 0.2 to 2.3% of all live births in developed countries. Very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight newborns are at higher risk of symptomatic CMV infection, most commonly secondary and acquired through breast milk. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in acquired CMV infections, but it could be an important manifestation of postnatal infection in preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Early onset of CMV gastrointestinal signs/symptoms is very rare...
November 28, 2016: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006975/positive-igm-in-congenital-cmv-infection
#14
Efraim Bilavsky, Salmas Watad, Itzhak Levy, Nehama Linder, Joseph Pardo, Haim Ben-Zvi, Joseph Attias, Jacob Amir
Neonatal serum detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) has low sensitivity in identifying congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV). Several reports have endeavored to associate the presence/absence of IgM to disease severity. Data were collected for all infants with cCMV followed in our clinic. Infant outcome after birth was compared between infants who tested positive or negative. Sensitivity of positive IgM in diagnosing cCMV was 40.7%. The rate of symptomatic disease in those who tested positive was statistically higher (67...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999698/necrotizing-retinitis-secondary-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-associated-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#15
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Hasan Tolga Celik, Kenan Sonmez, Melda Celik
A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995350/cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-causes-degeneration-of-cochlear-vasculature-and-hearing-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Mattia Carraro, Ali Almishaal, Elaine Hillas, Matthew Firpo, Albert Park, Robert V Harrison
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common causes of congenital hearing loss in children. We have used a murine model of CMV infection to reveal functional and structural cochlear pathogenesis. The cerebral cortex of Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) was inoculated with 2000 pfu (plaque forming units) of murine CMV on postnatal day 3. At 6 weeks of age, cochlear function was monitored using auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measures. Histological assessment of cochlear vasculature using a corrosion cast technique was made at 8 weeks...
December 19, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988973/characterizing-human-cytomegalovirus-reinfection-in-congenitally-infected-infants-an-evolutionary-perspective
#17
Cornelia Pokalyuk, Nicholas Renzette, Kristen K Irwin, Susanne P Pfeifer, Laura Gibson, William J Britt, Aparecida Y Yamamoto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Timothy F Kowalik, Jeffrey D Jensen
Given the strong selective pressures often faced by populations when colonizing a novel habitat, the level of variation present on which selection may act is an important indicator of adaptive potential. While often discussed in an ecological context, this notion is also highly relevant in our clinical understanding of viral infection, in which the novel habitat is a new host. Thus, quantifying the factors determining levels of variation is of considerable importance for the design of improved treatment strategies...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986675/prediction-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-high-risk-pregnant-women
#18
Kenji Tanimura, Shinya Tairaku, Yasuhiko Ebina, Ichiro Morioka, Satoshi Nagamata, Kana Deguchi, Mayumi Morizane, Masashi Deguchi, Toshio Minematsu, Hideto Yamada
BACKGROUND: This prospective study aimed to determine maternal clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound findings that effectively predict the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (CCI) in high-risk pregnant women. METHODS: Three hundred CMV immunoglobulin (Ig) M-positive pregnant women were enrolled. The maternal clinical and laboratory findings, including serum CMV IgM and IgG; IgG avidity index (AI); antigenemia assay (C7-HRP); polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMV-DNA in the maternal serum, urine, and uterine cervical secretion; and prenatal ultrasound findings, were evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986666/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-prognostic-value-of-maternal-dnaemia-at-amniocentesis
#19
Giuliana Simonazzi, Francesca Cervi, Alice Zavatta, Laura Pellizzoni, Brunella Guerra, Marianna Mastroroberto, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Liliana Gabrielli, Nicola Rizzo, Tiziana Lazzarotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979823/in-utero-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-development-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
Stephen Starko Francis, Amelia D Wallace, George A Wendt, Linlin Li, Fenyong Liu, Lee W Riley, Scott Kogan, Kyle M Walsh, Adam J de Smith, Gary V Dahl, Xiaomei Ma, Eric Delwart, Catherine Metayer, Joseph L Wiemels
It is widely suspected, yet controversial, that infection plays an etiologic role in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood cancer and a disease with a confirmed prenatal origin in most cases. We investigated infections at diagnosis and then assessed the timing of infection at birth in children with ALL and age, gender, and ethnicity matched controls to identify potential causal initiating infections. Comprehensive untargeted virome and bacterial analyses of pre-treatment bone marrow specimens (n=127 ALL compared to 38 acute myeloid leukemia cases as comparison group) revealed prevalent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection at diagnosis in childhood ALL, demonstrating active viral transcription in leukemia blasts as well as intact virions in serum...
December 15, 2016: Blood
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