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Congenital cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343580/advancing-our-understanding-of-protective-maternal-immunity-as-a-guide-for-development-of-vaccines-to-reduce-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infections
#1
Sallie R Permar, Mark R Schleiss, Stanley A Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336640/novel-rnaset2-pathogenic-variants-in-an-east-asian-child-with-delayed-psychomotor-development
#2
Yan Sun, Xuyun Hu, Jiqing Song, Yanyan Hu, Caihong Liu, Guimei Li
INTRODUCTION: RNASET2 mutation has been reported in patients with cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly and the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. Both disorders are Mendelian mimics of congenital cytomegalovirus infection with overlapping features, including leukoencephalopathy, white matter alterations, intracranial calcification, delayed psychomotor development, intelligence disability and seizures. Only eight families with RNASET2 mutation have been previously reported. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed and copy number variants were described by read-depth strategy...
January 16, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328469/human-cytomegalovirus-ul141-protein-interacts-with-celf5-and-affects-viral-dna-replication
#3
Fei Zou, Zhi-Tao Lu, Shuang Wang, Si Wu, Ying-Ying Wu, Zheng-Rong Sun
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the primary viral cause of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation in newborns. The HCMV UL141‑encoded glycoprotein has been previously revealed to inhibit the cell‑surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)155, CD122, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand death (TRAIL)‑receptor 1 (R1) and TRAIL‑receptor 2 (R2), thus protecting virally‑infected cells by allowing them to escape natural killer cell‑mediated cytotoxicity...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321306/digitoxin-suppresses-human-cytomegalovirus-replication-via-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-1-subunit-dependent-ampk-and-autophagy-activation
#4
Rupkatha Mukhopadhyay, Rajkumar Venkatadri, Jenny Katsnelson, Ravit Arav-Boger
Host-directed therapeutics for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) requires elucidation of cellular mechanisms that inhibit HCMV. We report on a novel pathway used by cardiac glycosides to inhibit HCMV replication: induction of AMPK activity and autophagy flux through the Na+, K+/ATPase α1 subunit. Our data illustrate an intricate balance between autophagy regulators AMPK, mTOR and ULK1 during infection and treatment with the cardiac glycoside, digitoxin. Both infection and digitoxin induced AMPK phosphorylation, but ULK1 was differentially phosphorylated at unique sites leading to opposing effects on autophagy...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304083/combined-evaluation-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-infant-hiv-transmission
#5
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Nava Yeganeh, Margaret Camarca, Mariza G Morgado, D Heather Watts, Lynne M Mofenson, Valdilea G Veloso, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Mariana Ceriotto, Daisy Maria Machado, Yvonne J Bryson, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jack Moye, Jeffrey D Klausner, Claire C Bristow, Ruth Dickover, Mark Mirochnick, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287989/immune-responses-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#6
Ilija Brizić, Lea Hiršl, William J Britt, Astrid Krmpotić, Stipan Jonjić
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of viral infection acquired in utero. Even though the infection has been studied for several decades, immune determinants important for virus control and mechanisms of long-term sequelae caused by infection are still insufficiently characterized. Animal models of congenital HCMV infection provide unique opportunity to study various aspects of human disease. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of immune system in congenital CMV infection, with emphasis on lessons learned from mouse model of congenital CMV infection...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286014/symptomatic-congenital-cytomegalovirus-deafness-the-impact-of-a-six-week-course-of-antiviral-treatment-on-hearing-improvement
#7
Fulvia Mazzaferri, Maddalena Cordioli, Michela Conti, Silvia Storato, Giorgia Be, Paolo Biban, Ercole Concia, Mara Merighi
Congenital Cytomegalovirus infection is the leading non-genetic cause of neurosensory deafness. We compared the outcomes of a treated group of children to an untreated group. The effect of antiviral therapy on hearing improvement between baseline and 2-year follow-up was statistically significant. These results suggest that the benefit of 6-week therapy is not limited to preventing further hearing deterioration.
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281927/neonatal-screening-for-congenital-cmv-infection-stresses-the-importance-of-maternal-nonprimary-infection-even-in-an-area-where-prenatal-serology-testing-is-common
#8
Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Zoi Christoni, Christianna Vliora, Christine Kottaridi, Aikaterini Fotiou, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner, Andreas Mentis, Petros Karakitsos, Angeliki Syggelou
AIM AND METHODS: Dried blood spots from 2149 newborns were examined to diagnose congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV). RESULTS: Prenatal CMV-IgG antibodies had been measured during prenatal care in 1287 (60.3%) of mothers and 980 (76.1%) of them were found seropositive. cCMV incidence was 0.47%. All newborns were asymptomatic; 9/10 were born post nonprimary maternal infection; two developed sensorineural hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: In a country where prenatal CMV testing is common and therefore a false sense of control might prevail, nonprimary maternal infection should not be overlooked...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276699/zika-virus-an-emerging-global-health-threat
#9
REVIEW
Rahul Mittal, Desiree Nguyen, Luca H Debs, Amit P Patel, George Liu, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In S Kay, Jeenu Mittal, Emmalee S Bandstra, Ramzi T Younis, Prem Chapagain, Dushyantha T Jayaweera, Xue Zhong Liu
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237429/using-theory-based-messages-to-motivate-u-s-pregnant-women-to-prevent-cytomegalovirus-infection-results-from-formative-research
#10
Denise M Levis, Christina L Hillard, Simani M Price, Erika Reed-Gross, Erika Bonilla, Minal Amin, Jennifer D Stowell, Rebekah Clark, Delaney Johnson, Karen Mask, Cynthia Carpentieri, Michael J Cannon
BACKGROUND: An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U...
December 14, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228551/human-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex-type-i-virus-can-engage-rna-polymerase-i-for-transcription-of-immediate-early-genes
#11
Ourania N Kostopoulou, Vanessa Wilhelmi, Sina Raiss, Sharan Ananthaseshan, Mikael S Lindström, Jiri Bartek, Cecilia Söderberg-Naucler
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes RNA polymerase II to transcribe viral genes and produce viral mRNAs. It can specifically target the nucleolus to facilitate viral transcription and translation. As RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription is active in the nucleolus, we investigated the role of Pol I, along with relative contributions of the human Pol II and Pol III, to early phases of viral transcription in HCMV infected cells, compared with Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226181/a-bioreactor-method-to-generate-high-titer-genetically-stable-clinical-isolate-human-cytomegalovirus
#12
Victoria R Saykally, Luke I Rast, Jeff Sasaki, Seung-Yong Jung, Cynthia Bolovan-Fritts, Leor S Weinberger
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and a leading cause of congenital birth defects (Saint Louis, 2016). Vaccination and therapeutic studies often require scalable cell culture production of wild type virus, represented by clinical isolates. Obtaining sufficient stocks of wild-type clinical HCMV is often labor intensive and inefficient due to low yield and genetic loss, presenting a barrier to studies of clinical isolates. Here we report a bioreactor method based on continuous infection, where retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells adhered to microcarrier beads are infected in a bioreactor and used to produce high-titers of clinical isolate HCMV that maintain genetic integrity of key viral tropism factors and the viral genome...
November 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217314/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-the-occurrence-of-cystic-periventricular-leukomalacia
#13
Philip N D Elders, Josine In 't Veld, Jacqueline Termote, Linda S de Vries, Marieke A C Hemels, Henrica L M van Straaten, Jacqueline van der Sluijs, René F Kornelisse, Katja C Wolthers, Moniek van de Loo, Dasja Pajkrt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216741/annals-express-evaluation-of-cellulose-pads-as-a-method-to-detect-cytomegalovirus-dna-in-neonatal-urine
#14
Florian Kipfmueller, Kira Jungbluth, Anna-Maria Eis-Hübinger, Ulrike Reber, Stefan Holdenrieder, Ulrich Gembruch, Peter Bartmann, Andreas Mueller
BACKGROUND: Several approaches exist to screen neonates for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We here describe a new method using cellulose pads for urine collection and its evaluation in an experimental and a clinical setting. METHODS: We systematically tested the effect of storage duration of the pads after exposure to CMV-positive urine, meconium contamination and specimen handling on the CMV load and the detection rate. Further, the method was tested in clinical practice in a cohort of 500 neonates...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204910/who-is-the-patient-at-risk-of-cmv-recurrence-a-review-of-the-current-scientific-evidence-with-a-focus-on-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Jan Styczynski
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an agent of global infection, and its acquisition in a population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity. After primary infection, CMV remains in the host cells in latent form, and it can reactivate in the case of immune suppression. The risk of CMV recurrence is dependent on the level of incompetency of the immune system, manifested as an impairment of T-cell immunity, including the presence and function of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This article presents data on the incidence of CMV recurrence in groups of immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and other groups of patients, based on a summary of reported data...
December 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185251/ultrasound-indications-for-maternal-storch-testing-in-pregnancy
#16
Cora Alexandra Voekt, Therese Rinderknecht, Hans Hellmuth Hirsch, Annette Blaich, Irene Mathilde Hösli
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Fetal abnormalities found on ultrasonography lead to a variety of diagnostic procedures, including a panel of serologies to detect possible maternal STORCH infections encompassing syphilis, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and others (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, parvovirus B19, enterovirus, varicella zoster, and Leptospira interrogans). The value of indiscriminate testing for infections upon the detection of fetal ultrasound abnormalities has been questioned...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185167/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Kaori Maeyama, Kazumi Tomioka, Hiroaki Nagase, Mieko Yoshioka, Yasuko Takagi, Takeshi Kato, Masami Mizobuchi, Shinji Kitayama, Satoshi Takada, Masashi Nagai, Nana Sakakibara, Masahiro Nishiyama, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima, Noriyuki Nishimura
Association of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with autism spectral disorder (ASD) has been suggested since 1980s. Despite the observed association, its role as a risk factor for ASD remains to be defined. In the present review, we systematically evaluated the available evidence associating congenital CMV infection with ASD using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Any studies on children with CMV infection and ASD were evaluated for eligibility and three observational studies were included in meta-analysis...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173793/antiviral-drugs-in-newborn-and-children
#18
REVIEW
Claudette L Poole, David W Kimberlin
This article focuses on the clinically relevant approved antiviral medications available for the treatment of infants and children. A brief overview of drug categories, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, and side effects is provided for the more commonly prescribed antivirals. The patient categories addressed are treatment and prophylaxis of influenza, neonatal herpes simplex virus and congenital cytomegalovirus, treatment and prophylaxis of viral disease in the immunocompromised host, and a brief introduction to the antivirals available to treat hepatitis B and hepatitis C in children...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164089/pulmonary-hypoplasia-caused-by-fetal-ascites-in-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-despite-fetal-therapy
#19
Kazumichi Fujioka, Ichiro Morioka, Kosuke Nishida, Mayumi Morizane, Kenji Tanimura, Masashi Deguchi, Kazumoto Iijima, Hideto Yamada
We report two cases of pulmonary hypoplasia due to fetal ascites in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections despite fetal therapy. The patients died soon after birth. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia in our cases might be thoracic compression due to massive fetal ascites as a result of liver insufficiency. Despite aggressive fetal treatment, including multiple immunoglobulin administration, which was supposed to diminish the pathogenic effects of CMV either by neutralization or immunomodulatory effects, the fetal ascites was uncontrollable...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162597/prevalence-and-clinical-profile-of-microcephaly-in-south-america-pre-zika-2005-14-prevalence-and-case-control-study
#20
Iêda M Orioli, Helen Dolk, Jorge S Lopez-Camelo, Daniel Mattos, Fernando A Poletta, Maria G Dutra, Flavia M Carvalho, Eduardo E Castilla
Objective To describe the prevalence and clinical spectrum of microcephaly in South America for the period 2005-14, before the start of the Zika epidemic in 2015, as a baseline for future surveillance as the Zika epidemic spreads and as other infectious causes may emerge in future.Design Prevalence and case-control study.Data sources ECLAMC (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) database derived from 107 hospitals in 10 South American countries, 2005 to 2014. Data on microcephaly cases, four non-malformed controls per case, and all hospital births (all births for hospital based prevalence, resident within municipality for population based prevalence)...
November 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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