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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149393/challenges-in-minor-tbi-and-indications-for-head-ct-in-pediatric-tbi-an-update
#1
Navneet Singh, Ash Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric head trauma is one of the commonest presentations to emergency departments. Over 90% of such head injuries are considered mild, but still present risk acute clinical deterioration and longer term morbidity. Identifying which children are at risk of clinically important brain injuries remains challenging and much of the data on minor head injuries is based on the adult population. CHALLENGES IN PEDIATRICS: Children, however, are different, both anatomically and in terms of mechanism of injury, to adults and, even within the pediatric group, there are differences with age and stage of development...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148050/the-pharmacokinetics-of-morphine-and-codeine-in-human-plasma-and-urine-after-oral-administration-of-qiangli-pipa-syrup
#2
Bin-Bin Guo, Yu-Qiao Zhang, Sheng-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Ding, Wen-Hu Zhou
Papaveris pericarpium, a natural source of morphine and codeine, is the principal active component in many antitussive traditional Chinese medicines. We herein report the first PK study of papaveris pericarpium in human plasma and urine following oral administration of single (15, 30, 60 mL) and multiple dose (15 mL) of Qiangli Pipa Syrup (MOR 0.1 mg/mL, COD 0.028 mg/mL) by monitoring morphine and codeine using a HPLC-MS/MS method. Their Tmax and t1/2 values are independent of dosages, while the AUC0-t linearly increased with higher dosages, indicating linear PK characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147519/multi-functional-bis-alkynyl-gold-iii-n%C3%A2-c-complexes-with-distinct-mechanochromic-luminescence-and-electroluminescence-properties
#3
Ben Yiu-Wing Wong, Hok-Lai Wong, Yi-Chun Wong, Vonika Ka-Man Au, Mei-Yee Chan, Vivian Wing-Wah Yam
A new class of donor-acceptor type luminescent bis(alkynyl)gold(iii) N⁁C complexes has been synthesized and characterized. These gold(iii) complexes not only exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 0.81, but also interesting mechanochromic luminescence behaviors that are reversible. Upon grinding, a dramatic luminescence color change from green to red can be observed in solid samples of the gold(iii) complexes, and the mechanochromic luminescence can be readily tuned via a judicious selection of substituents on the pyridine ring...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146929/excavating-hidden-adsorption-sites-in-metal-organic-frameworks-using-rational-defect-engineering
#4
Sanggyu Chong, Günther Thiele, Jihan Kim
Metal-organic frameworks are known to contain defects within their crystalline structures. Successful engineering of these defects can lead to modifications in material properties that can potentially improve the performance of many existing frameworks. Herein, we report the high-throughput computational screening of a large experimental metal-organic framework database to identify 13 frameworks that show significantly improved methane storage capacities with linker vacancy defects. The candidates are first identified by focusing on structures with methane-inaccessible pores blocked away from the main adsorption channels...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146622/refusal-of-treatment-of-childhood-cancer-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Amy E Caruso Brown, Amy R Slutzky
CONTEXT: Refusal of treatment for childhood cancer engenders much discussion. No systematic study of this phenomenon exists in countries where access to treatment is readily available. OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe all published cases of treatment refusal for childhood cancer in the contemporary era. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, LexisNexis Academic, personal database, and secondary bibliographies...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140802/characterization-with-scanning-electron-microscopy-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectrometry-of-microtraces-from-the-ligature-mean-in-hanging-mechanical-asphyxia-a-series-of-forensic-cases
#6
Francesca Maghin, Salvatore Ambrogio Andreola, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Riccardo Zoja
The authors applied scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry to the furrow derived from hanging means. The study was conducted with the purpose to detect possible extraneous microtraces, deriving from the ligature, that could have had an interaction with the cutaneous biological matrix, thanks to a transfert mechanism, in the proximities of the lesion.Fifteen cutaneous samples of the furrow and an equal number of fragments of graphite tape, directly positioned on the lesion produced by the ligature mean and used as a "conductor" of possible traces, were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140605/highly-transparent-and-integrable-surface-texture-change-device-for-localized-tactile-feedback
#7
Ankit, Naveen Tiwari, Mayank Rajput, Nguyen Anh Chien, Nripan Mathews
Human-machine haptic interaction is typically detected by variations in friction, roughness, hardness, and temperature, which combines to create sensation of surface texture change. Most of the current technologies work to simulate changes in tactile perception (via electrostatic, lateral force fields, vibration motors, etc.) without creating actual topographical transformations. This makes it challenging to provide localized feedback. Here, a new concept for on-demand surface texture augmentation that is capable of physically forming local topographic features in any predesigned pattern is demonstrated...
November 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140436/-%C3%A2-what-god-and-the-angels-know-of-us-character-autonomy-and-best-interests-in-minimally-conscious-state
#8
Giles Birchley
Determining the best interests of incapacitated patients has been observed to be an opaque area of the law, and this is no less so in decisions about the (non-)treatment of patients in the minimally conscious state. A systematic examination of the way best interests are used in judgments relating to this population suggests that narratives involving the character of the patient frequently form an important plank of judicial reasoning. Since insights into the concept of best interests may be gained by an engagement with the philosophy of well-being, I identify the court's character-based approach with perfectionist theories of well-being...
November 13, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140086/applications-of-oxygenases-in-the-chemoenzymatic-total-synthesis-of-complex-natural-products
#9
Emma King-Smith, Christian R Zwick, Hans Renata
Nature has evolved a diverse range of oxygenases for the modification of secondary metabolites with selectivity profiles that are unmatched by conventional man-made catalysts. In the past two decades, organic chemists have begun to harness the synthetic potential of these biocatalysts to develop efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of complex natural products. Judicious combination of synthetic and enzymatic transformations in multi-step synthesis can often result in powerful disconnections that compare favorably with contemporary chemical strategies to access the target natural products, while at the same time, presenting opportunities to innovate...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136874/a-rapid-detection-method-for-policy-sensitive-amines-real-time-supervision
#10
Haixu Zhang, Jinian Shu, Bo Yang, Peng Zhang, Pengkun Ma
Many organic amines that comprise a benzene ring are policy-sensitive because of their toxicity and links to social harm. However, to date, detection of such compounds mainly relies on offline methods. This study proposes an online pptv (parts per trillion by volume) level of detection method for amines, using the recently-built vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) combined with a new doping technique. Thus, the dichloromethane doping-assisted photoionization mass spectra of aniline, benzylamine, phenethylamine, amphetamine, and their structural isomers were recorded...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136823/use-of-a-small-molecule-as-an-initiator-for-interchain-staudinger-reaction-a-new-atp-sensing-platform-using-product-fluorescence
#11
Huan Yu, Jing Zheng, Sheng Yang, Abdullah M Asiri, Khalid A Alamry, Mingtai Sun, Kui Zhang, Suhua Wang, Ronghua Yang
We demonstrated that a small molecule induced interchain Staudinger reaction can be employed for highly selective detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an important energy-storage biomolecule. A designed ATP split aptamer (A1) was first functionalized with a weakly fluorescent coumarin derivative due to an azide group (azido-coumarin). The second DNA strand (A2) was covalently linked with triphenylphosphine, which could selectively and efficiently reduce azido to amino group through the Staudinger reaction...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136686/-clinicopathologic-and-molecular-characteristics-of-malignant-gastrointestinal-neuroectodermal-tumors
#12
M Zhao, T W Zhao, J Ma, C Y Wu, L Chen, G Q Ru, X L He
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics, diagnostic, differential diagnostic and prognostic features of malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor. Methods: Two cases of malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor were retrieved; the clinical and radiologic features, histomorphology, immunophenotype, molecular genetics and prognosis were analyzed and the relevant literature reviewed. Results: Case 1 was a 57-year-old male, presented with recurrent abdominal pain and melena...
November 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136524/anticancer-metal-n-heterocyclic-carbene-complexes-of-gold-platinum-and-palladium
#13
REVIEW
Taotao Zou, Chun-Nam Lok, Pui-Ki Wan, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Sin-Ki Fung, Chi-Ming Che
Transition metal compounds are a rich source for anticancer drug development. Judicious application of coordination ligands is a critical success factor in the design of effective anti-tumor compounds. N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are stable ligands that have strong donor strengths in stabilizing metal ions and versatility in structural modifications to provide diverse scaffolds for biological molecular targeting. Remarkable advances have been achieved in the development of metal NHC complexes as anticancer as well as theranostic agents...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136383/a-combined-td-dft-sos-cis-d-study-of-bophy-derivatives-with-potential-application-in-biosensing
#14
Miguel Ponce-Vargas, Cloé Azarias, Denis Jacquemin, Boris Le Guennic
A set of thirteen BOPHY dyes is studied through a hybrid TD-DFT-SOS-CIS(D) approach accounting for solvent effects, in order to shed light onto the structure-property relationships of these recently developed chromophores. In a first step, we calculate the absorption fluorescence crossing points with refined TD-DFT models considering the influences of both vibrational and solvent contributions. We found that the systematic overestimation of the 0-0 energies is effectively reduced by combining PCM-TD-DFT with a scaled opposite spin-configuration interaction singles with a double correction [SOS-CIS(D)]...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132790/ulnar-thumb-pulp-reconstruction-using-the-anterograde-homodigital-neurovascular-island-flap
#15
REVIEW
Valeriy Shubinets, River M Elliott
The thumb ulnar pulp is a critical component of key pinch and precision manipulation. Injuries to this area should be reconstructed with robust, sensate tissue that restores bulk and contour. The existing reconstructive options, however, have substantial risks and drawbacks. We describe an anterograde homodigital neurovascular island flap that provides both sensate and durable coverage of the ulnar thumb pulp. The flap uses innervated glabrous tissue, limits donor site morbidity to the thumb and first web space, and does not require microvascular anastomoses or nerve coaptation...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131919/breast-feeding-friendly-but-not-formula-averse
#16
Juanita Lewis
Breast-feeding is the optimal source of newborn nutrition in term infants and is associated with multiple short- and long-term health benefits. Establishment of breast-feeding may be difficult in a small subset of mothers, which can lead to adverse consequences in the newborn. Some of the consequences of suboptimal nutritional provision to the newborn, such as severe hyperbilirubinemia and breast-feeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration, can have devastating and long-lasting sequelae. Timely identification of mothers and newborns at risk for developing these complications is necessary to avoid significant morbidity and mortality...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131148/structure-guided-chemical-modification-of-guide-rna-enables-potent-non-viral-in-vivo-genome-editing
#17
Hao Yin, Chun-Qing Song, Sneha Suresh, Qiongqiong Wu, Stephen Walsh, Luke Hyunsik Rhym, Esther Mintzer, Mehmet Fatih Bolukbasi, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kevin Kauffman, Haiwei Mou, Alicia Oberholzer, Junmei Ding, Suet-Yan Kwan, Roman L Bogorad, Timofei Zatsepin, Victor Koteliansky, Scot A Wolfe, Wen Xue, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson
Efficient genome editing with Cas9-sgRNA in vivo has required the use of viral delivery systems, which have limitations for clinical applications. Translational efforts to develop other RNA therapeutics have shown that judicious chemical modification of RNAs can improve therapeutic efficacy by reducing susceptibility to nuclease degradation. Guided by the structure of the Cas9-sgRNA complex, we identify regions of sgRNA that can be modified while maintaining or enhancing genome-editing activity, and we develop an optimal set of chemical modifications for in vivo applications...
November 13, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128540/electrospun-thermosensitive-hydrogel-scaffold-for-enhanced-chondrogenesis-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Alexander R Brunelle, Christopher B Horner, Karen Low, Gerardo Ico, Jin Nam
Hydrogels have shown great potential for cartilage tissue engineering applications due to their capability to encapsulate cells within biomimetic, 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. However, the multi-step fabrication process that is necessary to produce cell/scaffold constructs with defined dimensions, limits their off-the-shelf translational usage. In this study, we have developed a hybrid scaffolding system which combines a thermosensitive hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEG-PNIPAAm), with a biodegradable polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), into a composite, electrospun microfibrous structure...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128016/extracorporeal-life-support-in-lung-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Darryl Abrams, Daniel Brodie, Selim M Arcasoy
Extracorporeal life support in lung transplantation has been associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. However, recent advances have resulted in more favorable posttransplant outcomes. The increased use of this technology must be weighed against the risks inherent in its use, especially when complications arising in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-dependent patients result in loss of transplant candidacy, leaving them with no viable alternative for long-term support. Existing and emerging data support the judicious use of this technology in carefully selected patients at high-volume transplant and ECMO centers that prioritize minimization of sedation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation, and early mobilization...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126116/c-621-15-w-and-others-v-sanofi-pasteur-an-example-of-judicial-distortion-and-indifference-to-science
#20
Laura R Smillie, Mark R Eccleston-Turner, Sarah L Cooper
This case commentary examines the CJEU's recent decision in C-621/15 W and Others v Sanofi Pasteur MSD SNC [2017] ECR I. This commentary critically examines the decision through the lens of the cultural conflict between law and science. We argue that the CJEU's decision reflects both a distortion of scientific knowledge and an improper indifference to the legitimate methods by which scientific knowledge is generated in the context of vaccines. These judicial approaches may, the authors argue, inadvertently fuel the vaccine scepticism that is growing across the developed world, and in particular in Europe...
November 8, 2017: Medical Law Review
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