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R Ravikanth Reddy, Ganesh Shanmugam, Balaraman Madhan, B V N Phani Kumar
The interaction of ionic liquid (IL) with protein is now becoming important as it stabilizes the protein due to the selective cation-anion combination of the IL. The binding and dynamics of the green solvents such as imidazole alkyl sulfate based ILs, viz., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium alkyl [where alkyl = hydrogen, methyl, octyl and dodecyl] sulfate, with two distinct model proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and collagen in aqueous solution, have been investigated with the aid of solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andrew L Folpe, Rondell P Graham, Anthony Martinez, David Schembri-Wismayer, Jennifer Boland, Karen J Fritchie
The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a distinctive biphasic malignant neoplasm harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion and consisting of primitive round to spindled cells admixed with foci of relatively mature hyaline cartilage, is usually straightforward by morphological evaluation alone. However, in the setting of a limited biopsy, specimens lacking cartilage generate a broad differential diagnosis, encompassing a variety of other primitive sarcomas, including spindle cell/ sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma...
March 17, 2018: Human Pathology
Catarina Brazão Farinha, Jorge de Brito, Rosário Veiga, J M Fernández, J R Jiménez, A R Esquinas
The production of waste has increased over the years and, lacking a recycle or recovery solution, it is forwarded to landfill. The incorporation of wastes in cement-based materials is a solution to reduce waste deposition. In this regard, some researchers have been studying the incorporation of wastes with different functions: aggregate, binder and addition. The incorporation of wastes should take advantage of their characteristics. It requires a judicious analysis of their particles. This research involves the analysis of seven industrial wastes: biomass ashes, glass fibre, reinforced polymer dust, sanitary ware, fluid catalytic cracking, acrylic fibre, textile fibre and glass fibre...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Alessandro di Luca, Giuseppe Vetrugno, Vincenzo Lorenzo Pascali, Antonio Oliva, Al Ozonoff
OBJECTIVES: Italy is experiencing a crisis of malpractice litigation with important repercussions on the insurance industry (e.g., lower profits), physicians (e.g., defensive medicine), and the courts (e.g., work backlog, lengthy proceedings). We searched for common ground between legal systems in Italy and the United States and considered the implications for international collaborations in patient safety. METHODS: We examined the judicial frameworks of medical malpractice litigation in two countries with different legal foundations: the United States (a public-private system governed by common law) and Italy (a publicly financed healthcare system governed by civil law)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Saraj K Singh, Kapil Jain, Vijendra Kumar Jain
PURPOSE: Purely cystic brain stem epidermoid is a rare diagnosis among all brainstem cystic lesions. Further, it is very rare in pediatric age group. METHODS: Here, we are reporting a rare case of completely cystic brain stem epidermoid in a child. The patient presented with clinical features of brain stem involvement. MRI brain was suggestive of cystic brain stem lesion. RESULTS: Patient went through surgical procedure. Final diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was confirmed on histopathological report...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Gustavo A Silva, Carlos O Petter, Nelson R Albuquerque
Rare earths are increasingly being applied in high-tech industries, such as green energy (e.g. wind power), hybrid cars, electric cars, permanent high-performance magnets, superconductors, luminophores and many other industrial sectors involved in modern technologies. Given that China dominates this market and imposes restrictions on production and exports whenever opportunities arise, it is becoming more and more challenging to develop business ventures in this sector. Several initiatives were taken to prospect new resources and develop the production chain, including the mining of these mineral assets around the world, but some factors of uncertainties, including current low prices, increased the challenge of transforming the current resources into deposits or productive mines...
March 2018: Heliyon
Fei Li, Dabin Lin, Zibin Chen, Zhenxiang Cheng, Jianli Wang, ChunChun Li, Zhuo Xu, Qianwei Huang, Xiaozhou Liao, Long-Qing Chen, Thomas R Shrout, Shujun Zhang
Piezoelectric materials, which respond mechanically to applied electric field and vice versa, are essential for electromechanical transducers. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that high piezoelectricity in perovskite oxides is associated with a flat thermodynamic energy landscape connecting two or more ferroelectric phases. Here, guided by phenomenological theories and phase-field simulations, we propose an alternative design strategy to commonly used morphotropic phase boundaries to further flatten the energy landscape, by judiciously introducing local structural heterogeneity to manipulate interfacial energies (that is, extra interaction energies, such as electrostatic and elastic energies associated with the interfaces)...
March 19, 2018: Nature Materials
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael M Goodin
Protein interaction and localization studies in plants are a fundamental component of achieving mechanistic understanding of virus:plant interactions at the systems level. Many such studies are conducted using transient expression assays in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, the most widely used experimental plant host in virology, examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. This chapter provides a workflow for protein interaction and localization experiments, with particular attention to the many control and supporting assays that may also need to be performed...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Saad Yalouz, Vincent Pouthier
A tight-binding model is introduced for describing the dynamics of an exciton on an extended star graph whose central node is occupied by a trap. On this graph, the exciton dynamics is governed by two kinds of eigenstates: many eigenstates are associated with degenerate real eigenvalues insensitive to the trap, whereas three decaying eigenstates characterized by complex energies contribute to the trapping process. It is shown that the excitonic population absorbed by the trap depends on the size of the graph, only...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The dependence of fringe contrast on the state of polarization (SOP) can be altered when more than two beams interfere, and it is possible to achieve high contrast fringes. We use a six-pinhole interferometer, in which a judicious choice (but not unique) of SOPs for the interfering beams is made to realize the lattice of C points at intensity nulls. These dark C points occur due to overlapping of singularities. These are not simply a minor variation of bright C points, in which the intensity dims to zero, but are poorly understood, unusual objects in their own right...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Zongbi Bao, Danyan Xie, Ganggang Chang, Hui Wu, Liangying Li, Wei Zhou, Hailong Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Huabin Xing, Qiwei Yang, Michael J Zaworotko, Qilong Ren, Banglin Chen
Research on HOFs has been developed for quite a long time; however, those with both established permanent porosities and functional properties are extremely rare due to weak hydrogen-bonding interactions among molecular organic linkers which are much more fragile and difficult to stabilize. Herein, through judiciously combining the superiority of both the moderately stable coordination bonds in MOFs and hydrogen bonds, we have realized a microporous hydrogen-bonded organometallic framework HOF-21, which not only shows permanent porosity but also exhibits highly selective separation performance of C2H2/C2H4 at room temperature...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Katie Conover, Sarah Romero
Drowning contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population but it is largely preventable through judicious use of safety measures. To affect outcomes surrounding drowning, pediatricians need to understand the most updated terminology, the basic resuscitation protocols, and the assessment and management of a drowning victim. Most importantly, pediatricians must appreciate the importance of properly counseling patients and families about drowning prevention. Effective preventive measures supported by the literature include constant and reliable adult supervision, swim instruction for most children older than age 4 years, pool isolation fencing, and the proper use of personal floatation devices...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Dylan Kneale, Antonio Rojas-García, James Thomas
As evidence generators, we need to respond to the changes in the health delivery landscape if we are to continue to support public health decision-makers to make informed and judicious evidence-based choices. This study employs documentary analysis to (i) explore the extent of research evidence use in public health decision-making; (ii) to analyse occurrences of research evidence use in decision-making and (iii) to ascertain whether patterns of evidence use overlap with other area characteristics. Health and Wellbeing Strategies constitute the main source of documentary evidence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jamie L Fleet, Stephanie N Dixon, Paul John Kuwornu, Varun K Dev, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jorge Burneo, Amit X Garg
Gabapentin is an effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain but may cause dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion in some older adults. The goal of this study was to assess the association between gabapentin dosing and adverse outcomes by obtaining estimates of the 30-day risk of hospitalization with altered mental status and mortality in older adults (mean age 76 years) in Ontario, Canada initiated on high dose (>600 mg/day; n = 34,159) compared to low dose (≤600 mg/day; n = 76,025) oral gabapentin in routine outpatient care...
2018: PloS One
Bruce F Sabath, David E Ost
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review describes the latest evidence regarding the use of stents for malignant airway obstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic bronchoscopy, including stenting, can restore patency in up to 93% of patients with malignant central airway obstruction. The patients that benefit the most are those with worse baseline dyspnea, higher American Society of Anesthesiology score, poorer functional status, and central obstruction (rather than lobar)...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Justin P Jahnke, Matthew N Idso, Sunyia Hussain, Matthias J N Junk, Julia M Fisher, David D Phan, Songi Han, Bradley F Chmelka
A versatile synthetic protocol is reported that allows high concentrations of functionally active membrane proteins to be incorporated in mesostructured silica materials. Judicious selections of solvent, surfactant, silica precursor species, and synthesis conditions enable membrane proteins to be stabilized in solution and during subsequent coassembly into silica-surfactant composites with nano- and mesoscale order. This was demonstrated by using a combination of nonionic ( n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside or Pluronic P123), lipid-like (1,2-diheptanoyl- s n-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and perfluoro-octanoate surfactants under mild acidic conditions to coassemble the light-responsive transmembrane protein proteorhodopsin at concentrations up to 15 wt % into the hydrophobic regions of worm-like mesostructured silica materials in films...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Molly A Hartzler, Matthew P Abdel, Peter K Sculco, Michael J Taunton, Mark W Pagnano, Arlen D Hanssen
BACKGROUND: Dislocation is one of the most common complications after revision THA. Dual-mobility constructs and large femoral heads (ie, 40 mm) are two contemporary, nonconstrained bearing options used in revision THA to minimize the risk of dislocation; however, it is not currently established if there is a clear benefit to using dual-mobility constructs over large femoral heads in the revision setting. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine if dual-mobility constructs would provide a reduction in dislocation, rerevision for dislocation, and reoperation or other complications as compared with large femoral heads in revision THA...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Fabrizio Giordano, Shaik M Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel
The solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has recently reached 22.7 % exceeding that of competing thin film photovoltaics and the market leader polycrystalline silicon. Further augmentation of the PCE towards the Shockley-Queisser limit of 33.5 % warrants suppression of radiationless carrier recombination by judicious engineering of the interface between the light harvesting perovskite and the charge carrier extraction layers. Here, we introduce a mesoscopic oxide double layer as electron selective contact consisting of a scaffold of TiO2 nanoparticles covered by a thin film of SnO2, either in amorphous (a-SnO2), crystalline (c-SnO2) or nanocrystalline (quantum dot) form (SnO2-NC)...
March 12, 2018: Nano Letters
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