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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637311/whole-woman-s-health-v-hellerstedt-the-empirical-case-against-trap-laws
#1
Michele Goodwin
This commentary examines the US Supreme Court case Whole Woman's Health v Hellerstedt.1 This comment synthesizes the case, focusing primarily on its legislative and appellate history as well as the Supreme Court's analysis. The comment finds that while Whole Woman's Health represented a judicial victory for those who seek to safeguard and preserve abortion rights, it nevertheless further rooted the primacy of the Supreme Court's flawed framework in Planned Parenthood v Casey2, which rests on perpetuating the notion of abortion as a threat against women's physical and mental health...
June 13, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636288/the-first-total-synthesis-of-ovafolinin-a-and-b-unique-polycyclic-benzoxepin-lignans-via-a-cascade-cyclization
#2
Samuel James Davidson, David Barker
Ovafolinins A and B, isolated from Lyonia ovalifolia var. elliptica, are lignans which contain a unique penta- and tetracyclic benzoxepin bridged aryl tetralin structure. We report the first total synthesis of these natural products initially utilizing an acyl-Claisen rearrangement to construct the lignan backbone with correct relative stereochemistry. Judicious use of a bulky protecting group placed reactive moieties in the correct orientation resulting in a cascade reaction forming the benzoxepin bridged aryl tetralin from a linear precursor in a single step...
June 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635354/the-effects-of-food-on-opioid-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-and-pharmacological-parameters-a-systematic-review
#3
Robert B Raffa, Robert Colucci, Joseph V Pergolizzi
Opioids remain the standard of care for treating moderate to severe pain resulting from surgery or injury in cases of acute pain, and are recommended for patients who have not responded to nonopioid analgesics. Effective management of pain has an impact on clinical course and often depends on achieving an acceptable balance between opioid efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Common opioid-related adverse events such as nausea and vomiting are associated with an overall lower achievement of effective pain management and patient satisfaction...
June 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634092/alarmingly-high-rate-of-implant-fractures-in-one-modular-femoral-stem-design-a-comparison-of-two-implants
#4
Ritesh R Shah, Jeffrey M Goldstein, Nancy E Cipparrone, Alexander C Gordon, Matthew L Jimenez, Wayne M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Reports of implant fracture at the modular junction have been seen in modular neck designs, stem-sleeve modular femoral stems, and diaphyseal engaging bi-body modular stems. To date, however, there has never been a direct comparison between 2 different implant designs from the same modular family. The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of implant failure of 2 such stem-sleeve modular femoral stem designs, the S-ROM and Emperion, to further identify factors which increase the risk of this mode of failure...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#5
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632830/-declaration-of-the-chilean-academy-of-medicine-of-law-20-850-on-clinical-trials-of-pharmaceutical-products-and-medical-devices-and-of-the-bylaw-that-will-regulate-its-application
#6
Gloría López, Gloría Valdés, Emilio Roessler, Vicente Valdivieso
In Chile, high cost treatments required by selected medical conditions are financed by the State, according to Law 20.850. A bylaw under discussion by the Senate regulates clinical trials, posing complex issues that will endanger local interest in front-line research: 1) The exclusive and mandatory control bestowed to the Institute of Public Health during all stages of the trials and also the surveillance of institutions performing clinical trials, overriding their Clinical Research Review Boards; 2) The 10 year period during which any adverse event is assumed to have been caused by the medication or devise evaluated by the trial, unless the contrary is proven in a judicial process; 3) Individuals submitted to the trials are entitled to free post trial access to the treatment received during the study, financed by the trial supporting entities and as long as the drug or devise is considered to be useful...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631634/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-cefotaximases-temoniera-and-sulfhydryl-variable-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-pseudomonas-and-acinetobacter-isolates-in-an-indian-tertiary-health-care-center
#7
Sana Jamali, Mohammed Shahid, Farrukh Sobia, Anuradha Singh, Haris M Khan
BACKGROUND: Cefotaximases (CTX-M), temoniera (TEM), and sulfhydryl variable (SHV) constitute a rapidly growing cluster of enzymes that have disseminated geographically. They are spreading to species other than Enterobacteriaceae and might be responsible for the presence of blaCTX-M,blaTEM, and blaSHVgenes in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. The present study was designed to characterize CTX-M, TEM, and SHV phenotypically and genotypically in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 isolates (73 Pseudomonas and 17 Acinetobacter spp...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630560/mechanisms-of-accountability-for-the-realization-of-the-right-to-health-in-china
#8
Shengnan Qiu, Gillian Macnaughton
China ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 2001. It thus bears obligations under Article 12 of the covenant to take appropriate measures at the domestic level to realize the right to health in China. Accountability is an important component of the right to health. This article examines whether the Western concept of accountability, recently imported into China, has the potential to improve the protection of the right to health within China's existing political, legal, and cultural framework...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630547/abortion-rights-legal-mobilization-in-the-peruvian-media-1990-2015
#9
Camila Gianella
State and non-state actors engaged in disputes to expand and limit abortion rights have engaged in legal mobilization-in other words, strategies using rights and law as a central tool for advancing contested political goals. Peru, like other Latin American countries, has experienced an increase in abortion rights legal mobilization in recent years, including litigation before national and international courts. This paper centers on societal legal mobilization, or the legal mobilization that occurs outside the legislative and judicial branches and that includes strategies promoted by the executive branch, political actors, and non-partisan organizations and individuals...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630546/the-battle-over-abortion-rights-in-brazil-s-state-arenas-1995-2006
#10
Marta Rodriguez De Assis Machado, Débora Alves Maciel
This article proposes a relational approach to the study of abortion law reform in Brazil. It focuses on the interaction of pro-choice and anti-abortion movements in different state arenas and political contexts. It details the emergence of a strategic action field on abortion during the Brazilian re-democratization process and the National Constituent Assembly. We offer analysis on pro-choice and anti-abortion mobilization in state arenas-mainly in the executive and legislative powers-during the two terms of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC), 1995-1998 and 1999-2002, and the first term of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula), 2003-2006...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630543/pregnancy-and-the-40-year-prison-sentence-how-abortion-is-murder-became-institutionalized-in-the-salvadoran-judicial-system
#11
Jocelyn Viterna, Jose Santos Guardado Bautista
Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase "abortion is murder" can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related "crimes." Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of "aggravated homicide" and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629607/post-operative-management-of-perforated-appendicitis-can-clinical-pathways-improve-outcomes
#12
Robert R Gerard, Barrett A Kielhorn, Laurence E McCahill, Brent Petersen, Andrew J Mullard
BACKGROUND: We sought to decrease organ space infection (OSI) following appendectomy for perforated acute appendicitis (PAA) by minimizing variation in clinical management. OBJECTIVE: A postoperative treatment pathway was developed and four recommendations were implemented: 1) clear documentation of post-operative diagnosis, 2) patients with unknown perforation status to be treated as perforated pending definitive diagnosis, 3) antibiotic therapy to be continued post operatively for 4-7 days after SIRS resolution, and 4) judicious use of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning prior to post-operative day 5...
June 10, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628894/small-molecule-probes-for-cellular-death-machines
#13
REVIEW
Ying Li, Lihui Qian, Junying Yuan
The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627249/astrology-in-court-the-spanish-inquisition-authority-and-expertise
#14
Tayra M C Lanuza-Navarro
Astrology, its legitimacy, and the limits of its acceptable practice were debated in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. Many of the related arguments were mediated by the work of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and the responses to it. Acknowledging the complexities of the relationship between astrological ideas and Christian teachings, this paper focuses on the Catholic debates by specifically considering the decisions about astrology taken by the Spanish Inquisition. The trials of astrologers are examined with the aim of understanding the role of experts in astrology in early modern Spain...
June 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626450/microbial-phosphorus-solubilization-and-its-potential-for-use-in-sustainable-agriculture
#15
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Alori, Bernard R Glick, Olubukola O Babalola
The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P) fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se), arsenic (As) in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623816/siderophore-coated-magnetic-iron-nanoparticles-rational-designing-of-water-soluble-nanobiosensor-for-visualizing-al-3-in-live-organism
#16
M Raju, Sakshi Srivastava, Ratish R Nair, Ishan H Raval, Soumya Haldar, Pabitra B Chatterjee
This article aims to establish the judicious use of iron-binding chemistry of microbial chelators in order to functionalize the surface of iron nanoparticles to develop non-toxic nanobiosensor. Anchoring a simple siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylglycine (H3L), which bears catechol and carboxyl functionalities in tandem, on to the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles has developed a unique nanobiosensor HL-FeNPs which showed highly selective and sensitive detection of Al(3+) in 100% water at physiological pH. The biosensor HL-FeNPs, with 20nM limit of detection, behaves reversibly and instantly...
June 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621530/tailoring-the-oxygen-reduction-activity-of-hemoglobin-through-immobilization-within-microporous-organic-polymer%C3%A2-graphene-composite
#17
Ahmed B Soliman, Rana R Haikal, Arwa A Abugable, Mohamed H Hassan, Stavros G Karakalos, Perry J Pellechia, Hamdy H Hassan, Magdi Habeeb Yacoub, Mohamed H Alkordi
A facile one pot, bottom up, approach to construct composite materials of Graphene and a pyrimidine-based porous-organic polymer (PyPOP), as host for immobilizing human hemoglobin (Hb) biofunctional molecules is reported. The graphene was selected due to its excellent electrical conductivity, while the PyPOP was utilized due to its pronounced permanent microporosity and chemical functionality. This approach enabled enclathration of the hemoglobin within the microporous composite through a ship-in-a-bottle process, where the composite of the PyPOP@G was constructed from its molecular precursors, under mild reaction conditions...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619859/criminal-charges-for-child-harm-from-substance-use-in-pregnancy
#18
Cara Angelotta, Paul S Appelbaum
Despite the opposition of medical and public health professionals, several state legislatures are considering laws that permit child abuse charges for substance use during pregnancy. We reviewed legal decisions regarding women charged with a crime against a fetus or child as a result of substance use during pregnancy. We identified 24 judicial opinions published between 1977 and 2015 in cases involving 29 women prosecuted in 19 states. Charges included child endangerment, child abuse, drug delivery, attempted aggravated child abuse, chemical endangerment of a child, child neglect, child mistreatment, homicide, manslaughter, and reckless injury to a child...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617711/addressing-engagement-in-technology-based-behavioural-hiv-interventions-through-paradata-metrics
#19
José A Bauermeister, Jesse M Golinkoff, Kathryn E Muessig, Keith J Horvath, Lisa B Hightow-Weidman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review was to examine how often researchers report participants' online engagement using paradata (i.e. intervention usage metrics) when describing the outcomes of online behavioural HIV prevention and care interventions. We also highlight the utility of paradata collection and analysis in future technology-based trials. RECENT FINDINGS: We focused on studies indexed on PubMed and published between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2017 that reported the development and testing of online behavioural interventions for HIV prevention and/or care...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617447/targeting-the-vasculature-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treatment-starving-versus-normalizing-blood-supply
#20
Ken Liu, Xiang Zhang, Weiqi Xu, Jinbiao Chen, Jun Yu, Jennifer R Gamble, Geoffrey W McCaughan
Traditional treatments for intermediate or advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and anti-angiogenesis therapies were developed to starve tumor blood supply. A new approach of normalizing structurally and functionally abnormal tumor vasculature is emerging. While TACE improves survival in selected patients, the resulting tumor hypoxia stimulates proliferation, angiogenesis, treatment resistance and metastasis, which limits its overall efficacy. Vessel normalization decreases hypoxia and improves anti-tumor immune infiltrate and drug delivery...
June 15, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
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