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Motivational states and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733248/pupil-dilations-induced-by-barely-conscious-reward-goal-priming
#1
Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki
The topic of unconscious influences on behavior has long been explored as a way of understanding human performance and the neurobiological correlates of intention, motivation and action. Previous research using transcranial magnetic stimulation has demonstrated that barely visible priming of an action concept, when combined with reward in the form of a consciously perceived positive stimulus, can alter the state of the motor system and enhance the maximal voluntary force level. One possible explanation is that positive stimulus-induced reward signals are processed by the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia, motivating individuals to increase the effort they invest in particular behaviors, or to recruit the resources necessary for maintaining those behaviors...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717716/breast-cancer-and-african-ancestry-lessons-learned-at-the-10-year-anniversary-of-the-ghana-michigan-research-partnership-and-international-breast-registry
#2
Evelyn Jiagge, Joseph Kwaku Oppong, Jessica Bensenhaver, Francis Aitpillah, Kofi Gyan, Ishmael Kyei, Ernest Osei-Bonsu, Ernest Adjei, Michael Ohene-Yeboah, Kathy Toy, Karen Eubanks Jackson, Marian Akpaloo, Dorcas Acheampong, Beatrice Antwi, Faustina Obeng Agyeman, Zainab Alhassan, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Osei Owusu-Afriyie, Robert Newman Brewer, Amma Gyamfuah, Barbara Salem, Timothy Johnson, Max Wicha, Sofia Merajver, Celina Kleer, Judy Pang, Emmanuel Amankwaa-Frempong, Azadeh Stark, Francis Abantanga, Lisa Newman, Baffour Awuah
Women with African ancestry in western, sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States represent a population subset facing an increased risk of being diagnosed with biologically aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer that are negative for the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor, and the HER2/neu marker. These tumors are commonly referred to as triple-negative breast cancer. Disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome related to racial or ethnic identity motivated the establishment of the International Breast Registry, on the basis of partnerships between the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715638/marcus-theory-of-ion-pairing
#3
Santanu Roy, Marcel D Baer, Christopher J Mundy, Gregory K Schenter
We present a theory for ion pair dissociation and association, motivated by the concepts of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Despite the extensive research on ion-pairing in many chemical and biological processes, much can be learned from the exploration of collective reaction coordinates. To this end, we explore two reaction coordinates, ion pair distance and coordination number. The study of the correlation between these reaction coordinates provides a new insight into the mechanism and kinetics of ion pair dissociation and association in water...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683032/increasing-nurse-confidence-in-patient-teaching-using-motivational-interviewing
#4
Patricia J Stoffers, Carol Hatler
This article describes a pilot study that involves nurses learning motivational interviewing techniques as a way to enhance confidence in educating patients about diabetes. The pilot study took place in the medical telemetry unit of a large teaching hospital in southwest United States. The intervention included a 2-hour session that involved didactic and role-playing components. Presurvey and postsurvey results indicated that the intervention significantly improved nurses' confidence in teaching patients (t = -7...
July 2017: Journal for Nurses in Professional Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665045/extraction-of-dynamic-functional-connectivity-from-brain-grey-matter-and-white-matter-for-mci-classification
#5
Xiaobo Chen, Han Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Celina Shen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Brain functional connectivity (FC) extracted from resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has become a popular approach for diagnosing various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current studies mainly construct the FC networks between grey matter (GM) regions of the brain based on temporal co-variations of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, which reflects the synchronized neural activities. However, it was rarely investigated whether the FC detected within the white matter (WM) could provide useful information for diagnosis...
June 30, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649770/precepting-nurse-practitioner-students-a-new-view-results-of-two-national-surveys-of-nurse-practitioner-preceptors
#6
Mary Ellen Roberts, Kathy J Wheeler, Diane O Tyler, Diane L Padden
PURPOSE: The aim of two national studies was to identify characteristics of nurse practitioners (NPs) who precept and the benefits, incentives, and barriers associated with the NP preceptor role. METHODS: Stratified randomized sampling was used to invite a representative number of NPs from each state to participate in a 2015 survey and a follow-up survey in 2016. These descriptive, exploratory studies distributed electronic questionnaires to 5000 randomly selected NPs in the 2015 survey and 40,000 NPs in the 2016 survey...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647048/-resident-as-teacher-in-pediatric-surgery-innovation-is-overdue-in-central-europe
#7
REVIEW
S Zundel, M Stocker, P Szavay
PURPOSE: We set out to evaluate how residents in pediatric surgery learn and how they teach. We hypnotized that European residents learn as much from their peers and teach as much as their fellows worldwide, but that they receive comparably less educational training. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to the participants of the combined annual meeting for German, Swiss and Austrian residents in pediatric surgery. Participants were asked whom they learn from in different workplace environments (ward, operating room, emergency department), how, when and why they adopt the role of teacher and how they were prepared for this role...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641271/joint-attributes-and-event-analysis-for-multimedia-event-detection
#8
Zhigang Ma, Xiaojun Chang, Zhongwen Xu, Nicu Sebe, Alexander G Hauptmann
Semantic attributes have been increasingly used the past few years for multimedia event detection (MED) with promising results. The motivation is that multimedia events generally consist of lower level components such as objects, scenes, and actions. By characterizing multimedia event videos with semantic attributes, one could exploit more informative cues for improved detection results. Much existing work obtains semantic attributes from images, which may be suboptimal for video analysis since these image-inferred attributes do not carry dynamic information that is essential for videos...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620026/learning-to-read-and-write-in-evolution-from-static-pseudoenzymes-and-pseudosignalers-to-dynamic-gear-shifters
#9
REVIEW
Abulikemu Abudukelimu, Thierry D G A Mondeel, Matteo Barberis, Hans V Westerhoff
We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613236/a-framework-for-learning-analytics-using-commodity-wearable-devices
#10
Yu Lu, Sen Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Wendong Xiao, Shengquan Yu
We advocate for and introduce LEARNSense, a framework for learning analytics using commodity wearable devices to capture learner's physical actions and accordingly infer learner context (e.g., student activities and engagement status in class). Our work is motivated by the observations that: (a) the fine-grained individual-specific learner actions are crucial to understand learners and their context information; (b) sensor data available on the latest wearable devices (e.g., wrist-worn and eye wear devices) can effectively recognize learner actions and help to infer learner context information; (c) the commodity wearable devices that are widely available on the market can provide a hassle-free and non-intrusive solution...
June 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609143/use-of-videoconferencing-for-lactation-consultation-an-online-cross-sectional-survey-of-mothers-acceptance-in-the-united-states
#11
Mona F Habibi, Cary M Springer, Marsha L Spence, Melissa B Hansen-Petrik, Katherine F Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates are a public health concern. Therefore, there is a need for identifying effective tools for use in interventions targeting specific barriers to optimal breastfeeding outcomes. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the relationship between acceptance of remote lactation consultation using videoconferencing and (a) maternal demographic factors, (b) technology acceptance subscales, (c) maternal learning style preferences, and (d) other potentially explanatory maternal factors...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600868/deep-bipolar-identifying-genomic-mutations-for-bipolar-disorder-via-deep-learning
#12
Sundaram Laksshman, Rajendra Rana Bhat, Vivek Viswanath, Xiaolin Li
Bipolar disorder (BD), also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression and over-excitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from BD. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to conventional lengthy and costly post-symptom clinical diagnosis...
June 10, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585017/laboratory-induced-learned-helplessness-attenuates-approach-motivation-as-indexed-by-posterior-versus-frontal-theta-activity
#13
Samantha J Reznik, Robin Nusslock, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Lyn Y Abramson, James A Coan, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Research suggests that midline posterior versus frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA) may reflect a novel neurophysiological index of approach motivation. Elevated PFTA has been associated with approach-related tendencies both at rest and during laboratory tasks designed to enhance approach motivation. PFTA is sensitive to changes in dopamine signaling within the fronto-striatal neural circuit, which is centrally involved in approach motivation, reward processing, and goal-directed behavior...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580192/fast-component-pursuit-for-large-scale-inverse-covariance-estimation
#14
Lei Han, Yu Zhang, Tong Zhang
The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for the Gaussian graphical model, which is also known as the inverse covariance estimation problem, has gained increasing interest recently. Most existing works assume that inverse covariance estimators contain sparse structure and then construct models with the ℓ1 regularization. In this paper, different from existing works, we study the inverse covariance estimation problem from another perspective by efficiently modeling the low-rank structure in the inverse covariance, which is assumed to be a combination of a low-rank part and a diagonal matrix...
August 2016: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549952/drug-target-interaction-prediction-using-ensemble-learning-and-dimensionality-reduction
#15
Ali Ezzat, Min Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Chee-Keong Kwoh
Experimental prediction of drug-target interactions is expensive, time-consuming and tedious. Fortunately, computational methods help narrow down the search space for interaction candidates to be further examined via wet-lab techniques. Nowadays, the number of attributes/features for drugs and targets, as well as the amount of their interactions, are increasing, making these computational methods inefficient or occasionally prohibitive. This motivates us to derive a reduced feature set for prediction. In addition, since ensemble learning techniques are widely used to improve the classification performance, it is also worthwhile to design an ensemble learning framework to enhance the performance for drug-target interaction prediction...
May 24, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541893/sequential-optimization-for-efficient-high-quality-object-proposal-generation
#16
Ziming Zhang, Yun Liu, Xi Chen, Yanjun Zhu, Ming-Ming Cheng, Venkatesh Saligrama, Philip H S Torr
We are motivated by the need for a generic object proposal generation algorithm which achieves good balance between object detection recall, proposal localization quality and computational efficiency. We propose a novel object proposal algorithm, BING++, which inherits the virtue of good computational efficiency of BING [1] but significantly improves its proposal localization quality. At high level we formulate the problem of object proposal generation from a novel probabilistic perspective, based on which our BING++ manages to improve the localization quality by employing edges and segments to estimate object boundaries and update the proposals sequentially...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541201/palmprint-recognition-based-on-complete-direction-representation
#17
Wei Jia, Bob Zhang, Jingting Lu, Yihai Zhu, Yang Zhao, Wangmeng Zuo, Haibin Ling
Direction information serves as one of the most important features for palmprint recognition. In the past decade, many effective direction representation (DR)-based methods have been proposed and achieved promising recognition performance. However, due to an incomplete understanding for DR, these methods only extract DR in one direction level and one scale. Hence, they did not fully utilized all potentials of DR. In addition, most researchers only focused on the DR extraction in spatial coding domain, and rarely considered the methods in frequency domain...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515060/barriers-and-facilitators-experienced-in-collaborative-prospective-research-in-orthopaedic-oncology-a-qualitative-study
#18
J S Rendon, M Swinton, N Bernthal, M Boffano, T Damron, N Evaniew, P Ferguson, M Galli Serra, W Hettwer, P McKay, B Miller, L Nystrom, W Parizzia, P Schneider, A Spiguel, R Vélez, K Weiss, J P Zumárraga, M Ghert
OBJECTIVES: As tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare, multicentre prospective collaboration is essential for meaningful research and evidence-based advances in patient care. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators encountered in large-scale collaborative research by orthopaedic oncological surgeons involved or interested in prospective multicentre collaboration. METHODS: All surgeons who were involved, or had expressed an interest, in the ongoing Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss their experiences with collaborative research in this area...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507135/parallel-memory-traces-are-built-after-an-experience-containing-aversive-and-appetitive-components-in-the-crab-neohelice
#19
Martín Klappenbach, Ayelén Nally, Fernando Federico Locatelli
The neurobiology of learning and memory has been mainly studied by focusing on pure aversive or appetitive experiences. Here, we challenged this approach considering that real-life stimuli come normally associated with competing aversive and appetitive consequences and that interaction between conflicting information must be intrinsic part of the memory processes. We used Neohelice crabs, taking advantage of two well-described appetitive and aversive learning paradigms and combining them in a single training session to evaluate how this affects memory...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495976/optogenetic-inhibition-of-ventral-pallidum-neurons-impairs-context-driven-salt-seeking
#20
Stephen E Chang, Elizabeth B Smedley, Katherine J Stansfield, Jeffrey J Stott, Kyle S Smith
Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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