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Motivational states and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764630/faculty-motivations-to-use-active-learning-among-pharmacy-educators
#1
Nicole Rockich-Winston, Brian C Train, Michael J Rudolph, Chris Gillette
INTRODUCTION: Faculty motivations to use active learning have been limited to surveys evaluating faculty perceptions within active learning studies. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the relationship between faculty intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and demographic variables and the extent of active learning use in the classroom. METHODS: An online survey was administered to individual faculty members at 137 colleges and schools of pharmacy across the United States...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757732/person-re-identification-with-metric-learning-using-privileged-information
#2
Xun Yang, Meng Wang, Dacheng Tao
Despite the promising progress made in recent years, person re-identification remains a challenging task due to complex variations in human appearances from different camera views. This paper presents a logistic discriminant metric learning method for this challenging problem. Different with most existing metric learning algorithms, it exploits both original data and auxiliary data during training, which is motivated by the new machine learning paradigm-learning using privileged information. Such privileged information is a kind of auxiliary knowledge, which is only available during training...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747094/determining-the-opinions-of-the-first-year-nursing-students-about-clinical-practice-and-clinical-educators
#3
Emine Kol, Serpil İnce
The clinical experience prepares nursing students to become competent and professional practitioners. The evaluation of the clinical learning environment is important to determine if the clinical experience and clinical instructor provide essential learning opportunities as well as a supportive environment. This study aimed to determine the opinions of first-year nursing students about their instructors and clinical practice in the clinical education setting. The sample of the study consists of 227 students from Akdeniz University Nursing Faculty enrolled in the 'Nursing Basics' course...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744047/cinemedicine-using-movies-to-improve-students-understanding-of-psychosocial-aspects-of-medicine
#4
Maliheh Kadivar, Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz, Azim Mirzazadeh, Zeinab Jannat
Background: There are rising concerns about how to teach psychosocial aspects of medicine to students. The aim of the study was the use of "cinemedicine" as a tool and technique in teaching psychosocial aspects of medicine to medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods: This was an educational study with quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Two hundred seventy medical students participated in this study. Nine sessions were held to teach psychosocial subjects in medicine using movies...
April 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727320/creating-a-quality-improvement-course-for-undergraduate-medical-education-practice-what-you-teach
#5
Tamala S Bradham, Kelly C Sponsler, Scott C Watkins, Jesse M Ehrenfeld
PROBLEM: More than half of U.S. medical schools have implemented curricula addressing quality improvement (QI); however, the evidence on which pedagogical methods are most effective is limited. APPROACH: As of January 2015, students at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine are required to take a QI course consisting of three 1-month-long (4 hours per week) blocks during their third or fourth year, in which student-identified faculty sponsors are paired with highly trained QI professionals from Vanderbilt University Medical Center...
May 2, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724008/emotional-intelligence-motivational-climate-and-levels-of-anxiety-in-athletes-from-different-categories-of-sports-analysis-through-structural-equations
#6
Manuel Castro-Sánchez, Félix Zurita-Ortega, Ramón Chacón-Cuberos, Carlos Javier López-Gutiérrez, Edson Zafra-Santos
(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team) by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2) 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), emotional intelligence (SSRI) and levels of anxiety (STAI)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713268/lateral-hypothalamus-as-a-motivation-cognition-interface-in-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Gorica D Petrovich
Converging evidence for an essential function of the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) in the control of feeding behavior has been accumulating since the classic work conducted almost 80 years ago. The LHA is also important in reward and reinforcement processes and behavioral state control. A unifying function for the LHA across these processes has not been fully established. Nonetheless, it is considered to integrate motivation with behavior. More recent work has demonstrated that the LHA is also required when cognitive processes, such as associative learning and memory control feeding behavior, suggesting it may serve as a motivation-cognition interface...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704600/effects-of-internal-and-external-factors-on-the-budgeting-between-defensive-and-non-defensive-responses-in-aplysia
#8
Kaitlyn A Mac Leod, Alexandra Seas, Marcy L Wainwright, Riccardo Mozzachiodi
Following exposure to aversive stimuli, organisms budget their behaviors by augmenting defensive responses and reducing/suppressing non-defensive behaviors. This budgeting process must be flexible to accommodate modifications in the animal's internal and/or external state that require the normal balance between defensive and non-defensive behaviors to be adjusted. When exposed to aversive stimuli, the mollusk Aplysia budgets its behaviors by concurrently enhancing defensive withdrawal reflexes (an elementary form of learning known as sensitization) and suppressing feeding...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#9
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691205/developing-sustainable-and-impactful-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-interventions-for-spanish-speaking-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-lessons-learned-from-informative-interviews
#10
Jason Mitchell, Maria Beatriz Torres, Lucy Asmar, Thu Danh, Keith J Horvath
BACKGROUND: Although many men who have sex with men (MSM) test for HIV at least once in their lifetime, opportunities to improve regular HIV testing, particularly among Hispanic or Latino MSM, is needed. Many mHealth interventions in development, including the ones on HIV testing, have primarily focused on English-speaking white, black, and MSM of other races. To date, no studies have assessed app use, attitudes, and motivations for downloading and sustaining use of mobile apps and preferences with respect to HIV prevention among Spanish-speaking, Hispanic MSM in the United States...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688646/-the-significance-of-the-legal-perspective-the-legal-world-s-contribution-to-the-medical-world
#11
REVIEW
Alona Sigler-Harcavi, Limor Cohen Ashkenazi
Working with medical and paramedical teams has taught us that the medical staff does not fully utilize the potential of judicial decisions and precedents as a source for learning, drawing conclusions and motivating progress. Judicial ruling is an essential part of the toolbox used by medical administrators in general, and healthcare risk managers in particular. Knowing the relevant legal rulings, before you embark on any given path, is the equivalent of looking before you leap. This is not necessarily an issue of "holy scripture", but should mainly be considered as a source for expanding your perspective...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678760/sub-millimeter-ecog-pitch-in-human-enables-higher-fidelity-cognitive-neural-state-estimation
#12
John Hermiz, Nicholas Rogers, Erik Kaestner, Mehran Ganji, Daniel R Cleary, Bob Carter, David Barba, Shadi Dayeh, Eric Halgren, Vikash Gilja
Electrocorticography (ECoG), electrophysiological recording from the pial surface of the brain, is a critical measurement technique for clinical neurophysiology, basic neurophysiology studies, and demonstrates great promise for the development of neural prosthetic devices for assistive applications and the treatment of neurological disorders. Recent advances in device engineering are poised to enable orders of magnitude increase in the resolution of ECoG without comprised measurement quality. This enhancement in cortical sensing enables the observation of neural dynamics from the cortical surface at the micrometer scale...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674991/when-teams-fail-to-self-regulate-predictors-and-outcomes-of-team-procrastination-among-debating-teams
#13
Edwin A J Van Hooft, Heleen Van Mierlo
Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team's life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660377/apathy-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review
#14
Andrew Worthington, Rodger Ll Wood
Apathy is a common problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can have a major impact on cognitive function, psychosocial outcome and engagement in rehabilitation. For scientists and clinicians it remains one of the least understood aspects of brain-behaviour relationships encompassing disturbances of cognition, motivation, emotion and action, and is variously an indication of organic brain disease or psychiatric disorder. Apathy can be both sign and symptom and has been proposed as a diagnosis in its own right as well as a secondary feature of other conditions...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626741/prescription-opioid-misusing-chronic-pain-patients-exhibit-dysregulated-context-dependent-associations-investigating-associative-learning-in-addiction-with-the-cue-primed-reactivity-task
#15
Eric L Garland, Craig J Bryan, Lydia Kreighbaum, Yoshio Nakamura, Matthew O Howard, Brett Froeliger
BACKGROUND: Associative learning undergirds the development of addiction, such that drug-related cues serve as conditioned stimuli to elicit drug-seeking responses. Plausibly, among opioid misusing chronic pain patients, pain-related information may serve as a conditioned stimulus to magnify opioid cue-elicited autonomic and craving responses through a process of second-order conditioning. METHODS: We utilized a novel psychophysiological probe of pain-opioid conditioned associations, the Cue-Primed Reactivity (CPR) task...
March 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621266/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-motivators-of-attachment-under-active-inference
#16
David Cittern, Tobias Nolte, Karl Friston, Abbas Edalat
This paper addresses the formation of infant attachment types within the context of active inference: a holistic account of action, perception and learning in the brain. We show how the organised forms of attachment (secure, avoidant and ambivalent) might arise in (Bayesian) infants. Specifically, we show that these distinct forms of attachment emerge from a minimisation of free energy-over interoceptive states relating to internal stress levels-when seeking proximity to caregivers who have a varying impact on these interoceptive states...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608236/an-exploration-of-the-participation-of-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-research-a-structured-interview-survey
#17
Tessa Kim Frankena, Jenneken Naaldenberg, Nienke Bekkema, Henny J M van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Mieke Cardol, Geraline Leusink
BACKGROUND: Even though participation of people with intellectual disabilities in research is increasingly common, there is little insight into how many people with intellectual disabilities participate, their motivations to participate and their interests regarding study results. METHOD: Five questions were added to the Panel Living Together (PLT) survey among 508 people with intellectual disabilities. The questions aimed to gain insight into the (i) frequency of participation; (ii) methods used to participate; (iii) motivations to participate; and (iv) interests regarding study results...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605107/the-introduction-of-mandatory-cpd-for-newly-state-registered-diagnostic-radiographers-an-irish-perspective
#18
J Grehan, M-L Butler, J Last, L Rainford
INTRODUCTION: Irish diagnostic radiography has undergone significant change with the dual introduction of state registration and mandatory Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in October 2015. We aimed to investigate motivators and barriers around CPD participation, mechanisms of CPD delivery and confidence of radiographers in using e-learning. METHODS: A questionnaire distributed nationally during this period captured Radiographer opinion through the use of closed and open questions...
May 2018: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604702/tensorial-dynamic-time-warping-with-articulation-index-representation-for-efficient-audio-template-learning
#19
Long N Le, Douglas L Jones
Audio classification techniques often depend on the availability of a large labeled training dataset for successful performance. However, in many application domains of audio classification (e.g., wildlife monitoring), obtaining labeled data is still a costly and laborious process. Motivated by this observation, a technique is proposed to efficiently learn a clean template from a few labeled, but likely corrupted (by noise and interferences), data samples. This learning can be done efficiently via tensorial dynamic time warping on the articulation index-based time-frequency representations of audio data...
March 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558526/motivational-valence-alters-memory-formation-without-altering-exploration-of-a-real-life-spatial-environment
#20
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
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