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Motivational states and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641271/joint-attributes-and-event-analysis-for-multimedia-event-detection
#1
Zhigang Ma, Xiaojun Chang, Zhongwen Xu, Nicu Sebe, Alexander G Hauptmann
Semantic attributes have been increasingly used the past few years for multimedia event detection (MED) with promising results. The motivation is that multimedia events generally consist of lower level components such as objects, scenes, and actions. By characterizing multimedia event videos with semantic attributes, one could exploit more informative cues for improved detection results. Much existing work obtains semantic attributes from images, which may be suboptimal for video analysis since these image-inferred attributes do not carry dynamic information that is essential for videos...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620026/learning-to-read-and-write-in-evolution-from-static-pseudoenzymes-and-pseudosignalers-to-dynamic-gear-shifters
#2
REVIEW
Abulikemu Abudukelimu, Thierry D G A Mondeel, Matteo Barberis, Hans V Westerhoff
We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613236/a-framework-for-learning-analytics-using-commodity-wearable-devices
#3
Yu Lu, Sen Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Wendong Xiao, Shengquan Yu
We advocate for and introduce LEARNSense, a framework for learning analytics using commodity wearable devices to capture learner's physical actions and accordingly infer learner context (e.g., student activities and engagement status in class). Our work is motivated by the observations that: (a) the fine-grained individual-specific learner actions are crucial to understand learners and their context information; (b) sensor data available on the latest wearable devices (e.g., wrist-worn and eye wear devices) can effectively recognize learner actions and help to infer learner context information; (c) the commodity wearable devices that are widely available on the market can provide a hassle-free and non-intrusive solution...
June 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609143/use-of-videoconferencing-for-lactation-consultation-an-online-cross-sectional-survey-of-mothers-acceptance-in-the-united-states
#4
Mona F Habibi, Cary M Springer, Marsha L Spence, Melissa B Hansen-Petrik, Katherine F Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates are a public health concern. Therefore, there is a need for identifying effective tools for use in interventions targeting specific barriers to optimal breastfeeding outcomes. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the relationship between acceptance of remote lactation consultation using videoconferencing and (a) maternal demographic factors, (b) technology acceptance subscales, (c) maternal learning style preferences, and (d) other potentially explanatory maternal factors...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600868/deep-bipolar-identifying-genomic-mutations-for-bipolar-disorder-via-deep-learning
#5
Sundaram Laksshman, Rajendra Rana Bhat, Vivek Viswanath, Xiaolin Li
Bipolar disorder (BD), also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression and over-excitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from BD. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to conventional lengthy and costly post-symptom clinical diagnosis...
June 10, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585017/laboratory-induced-learned-helplessness-attenuates-approach-motivation-as-indexed-by-posterior-versus-frontal-theta-activity
#6
Samantha J Reznik, Robin Nusslock, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Lyn Y Abramson, James A Coan, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Research suggests that midline posterior versus frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA) may reflect a novel neurophysiological index of approach motivation. Elevated PFTA has been associated with approach-related tendencies both at rest and during laboratory tasks designed to enhance approach motivation. PFTA is sensitive to changes in dopamine signaling within the fronto-striatal neural circuit, which is centrally involved in approach motivation, reward processing, and goal-directed behavior...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580192/fast-component-pursuit-for-large-scale-inverse-covariance-estimation
#7
Lei Han, Yu Zhang, Tong Zhang
The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for the Gaussian graphical model, which is also known as the inverse covariance estimation problem, has gained increasing interest recently. Most existing works assume that inverse covariance estimators contain sparse structure and then construct models with the ℓ1 regularization. In this paper, different from existing works, we study the inverse covariance estimation problem from another perspective by efficiently modeling the low-rank structure in the inverse covariance, which is assumed to be a combination of a low-rank part and a diagonal matrix...
August 2016: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549952/drug-target-interaction-prediction-using-ensemble-learning-and-dimensionality-reduction
#8
Ali Ezzat, Min Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Chee-Keong Kwoh
Experimental prediction of drug-target interactions is expensive, time-consuming and tedious. Fortunately, computational methods help narrow down the search space for interaction candidates to be further examined via wet-lab techniques. Nowadays, the number of attributes/features for drugs and targets, as well as the amount of their interactions, are increasing, making these computational methods inefficient or occasionally prohibitive. This motivates us to derive a reduced feature set for prediction. In addition, since ensemble learning techniques are widely used to improve the classification performance, it is also worthwhile to design an ensemble learning framework to enhance the performance for drug-target interaction prediction...
May 23, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541893/sequential-optimization-for-efficient-high-quality-object-proposal-generation
#9
Ziming Zhang, Yun Liu, Xi Chen, Yanjun Zhu, Ming-Ming Cheng, Venkatesh Saligrama, Philip H S Torr
We are motivated by the need for a generic object proposal generation algorithm which achieves good balance between object detection recall, proposal localization quality and computational efficiency. We propose a novel object proposal algorithm, BING++, which inherits the virtue of good computational efficiency of BING [1] but significantly improves its proposal localization quality. At high level we formulate the problem of object proposal generation from a novel probabilistic perspective, based on which our BING++ manages to improve the localization quality by employing edges and segments to estimate object boundaries and update the proposals sequentially...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541201/palmprint-recognition-based-on-complete-direction-representation
#10
Wei Jia, Bob Zhang, Jingting Lu, Yihai Zhu, Yang Zhao, Wangmeng Zuo, Haibin Ling
Direction information serves as one of the most important features for palmprint recognition. In the past decade, many effective direction representation (DR)-based methods have been proposed and achieved promising recognition performance. However, due to an incomplete understanding for DR, these methods only extract DR in one direction level and one scale. Hence, they did not fully utilized all potentials of DR. In addition, most researchers only focused on the DR extraction in spatial coding domain, and rarely considered the methods in frequency domain...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515060/barriers-and-facilitators-experienced-in-collaborative-prospective-research-in-orthopaedic-oncology-a-qualitative-study
#11
J S Rendon, M Swinton, N Bernthal, M Boffano, T Damron, N Evaniew, P Ferguson, M Galli Serra, W Hettwer, P McKay, B Miller, L Nystrom, W Parizzia, P Schneider, A Spiguel, R Vélez, K Weiss, J P Zumárraga, M Ghert
OBJECTIVES: As tumours of bone and soft tissue are rare, multicentre prospective collaboration is essential for meaningful research and evidence-based advances in patient care. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators encountered in large-scale collaborative research by orthopaedic oncological surgeons involved or interested in prospective multicentre collaboration. METHODS: All surgeons who were involved, or had expressed an interest, in the ongoing Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial were invited to participate in a focus group to discuss their experiences with collaborative research in this area...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507135/parallel-memory-traces-are-built-after-an-experience-containing-aversive-and-appetitive-components-in-the-crab-neohelice
#12
Martín Klappenbach, Ayelén Nally, Fernando Federico Locatelli
The neurobiology of learning and memory has been mainly studied by focusing on pure aversive or appetitive experiences. Here, we challenged this approach considering that real-life stimuli come normally associated with competing aversive and appetitive consequences and that interaction between conflicting information must be intrinsic part of the memory processes. We used Neohelice crabs, taking advantage of two well-described appetitive and aversive learning paradigms and combining them in a single training session to evaluate how this affects memory...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495976/optogenetic-inhibition-of-ventral-pallidum-neurons-impairs-context-driven-salt-seeking
#13
Stephen E Chang, Elizabeth B Smedley, Katherine J Stansfield, Jeffrey J Stott, Kyle S Smith
Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479977/the-foundations-of-plant-intelligence
#14
REVIEW
Anthony Trewavas
Intelligence is defined for wild plants and its role in fitness identified. Intelligent behaviour exhibited by single cells and systems similarity between the interactome and connectome indicates neural systems are not necessary for intelligent capabilities. Plants sense and respond to many environmental signals that are assessed to competitively optimize acquisition of patchily distributed resources. Situations of choice engender motivational states in goal-directed plant behaviour; consequent intelligent decisions enable efficient gain of energy over expenditure...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463200/correlation-based-tracker-level-fusion-for-robust-visual-tracking
#15
Madan Rapuru, Sumithra Kakanuru, Pallavi Venugopal M, Deepak Mishra, Gorthi R F Subrahmanyam
Although visual object tracking algorithms are capable of handling various challenging scenarios individually, none of them are robust enough to handle all the challenges simultaneously. For any online tracking by detection method the key issue lies in detecting the target over the whole frame and updating systematically a target model based on the last detected appearance to avoid the drift phenomenon. This paper aims at proposing a novel robust tracking algorithm by fusing the frame level detection strategy of Tracking, Learning & Detection with the systematic model update strategy of Kernelized Correlation Filter tracker...
April 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384481/cognitive-states-influence-dopamine-driven-aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
James F Cavanagh, Andrea A Mueller, Darin R Brown, Jacqueline R Janowich, Jacqueline H Story-Remer, Ashley Wegele, Sarah Pirio Richardson
Individual differences in dopaminergic tone underlie tendencies to learn from reward versus punishment. These effects are well documented in Parkinson's patients, who vacillate between low and high tonic dopaminergic states as a function of medication. Yet very few studies have investigated the influence of higher-level cognitive states known to affect downstream dopaminergic learning in Parkinson's patients. A dopamine-dependent cognitive influence over learning would provide a candidate mechanism for declining cognitive integrity and motivation in Parkinson's patients...
May 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383932/who-needs-innate-ability-to-succeed-in-math-and-literacy-academic-domain-specific-theories-of-intelligence-about-peers-versus-adults
#17
Elizabeth A Gunderson, Noora Hamdan, Nicole S Sorhagen, Alexander P D'Esterre
Individuals' implicit theories of intelligence exist on a spectrum, from believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable, to believing it is malleable and can be improved with effort. A belief in malleable intelligence leads to adaptive responses to challenge and higher achievement. However, surprisingly little is known about the development of academic-domain-specific theories of intelligence (i.e., math vs. reading and writing). The authors examined this in a cross-section of students from 1st grade to college (N = 523)...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381985/virtual-normalization-of-physical-impairment-a-pilot-study-to-evaluate-motor-learning-in-presence-of-physical-impairment
#18
Christopher Jarrett, Andrew McDaid
Motor learning is a critical component of the rehabilitation process; however, it can be difficult to separate the fundamental causes of a learning deficit when physical impairment is a confounding factor. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to augment the residual ability of physically impaired patients with a robotic rehabilitation exoskeleton, such that motor learning can be studied independently of physical impairment. The proposed technique augments the velocity of an on-screen cursor relative to the restricted physical motion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374264/bumblebees-at-work-in-an-emotion-like-state
#19
C M S Plowright
Pretest sucrose affects a dopamine-modulated response of bumblebees to an ambiguous cue to reward as well as a response to a simulated attack (Perry, Baciadonna, & Chittka, Science, 353(6307), 1529-1531, 2016). The contribution of the study lies in opening the door to research on the inner experience of insects, the learning and motivational mechanisms of their behavior, and the evolutionary analysis of emotions.
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362608/tmagic-a-model-free-3d-tracker
#20
Karel Lebeda, Simon Hadfield, Richard Bowden
Significant effort has been devoted within the visual tracking community to rapid learning of object properties on the fly. However, state-of-the-art approaches still often fail in cases such as rapid out-of-plane rotation, when the appearance changes suddenly. One of the major contributions of this work is a radical rethinking of the traditional wisdom of modelling 3D motion as appearance change during tracking. Instead, 3D motion is modelled as 3D motion. This intuitive but previously unexplored approach provides new possibilities in visual tracking research...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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