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Motivational states and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384481/cognitive-states-influence-dopamine-driven-aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
James F Cavanagh, Andrea A Mueller, Darin R Brown, Jacqueline R Janowich, Jacqueline H Story-Remer, Ashley Wegele, Sarah Pirio Richardson
Individual differences in dopaminergic tone underlie tendencies to learn from reward versus punishment. These effects are well documented in Parkinson's patients, who vacillate between low and high tonic dopaminergic states as a function of medication. Yet very few studies have investigated the influence of higher-level cognitive states known to affect downstream dopaminergic learning in Parkinson's patients. A dopamine-dependent cognitive influence over learning would provide a candidate mechanism for declining cognitive integrity and motivation in Parkinson's patients...
March 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383932/who-needs-innate-ability-to-succeed-in-math-and-literacy-academic-domain-specific-theories-of-intelligence-about-peers-versus-adults
#2
Elizabeth A Gunderson, Noora Hamdan, Nicole S Sorhagen, Alexander P D'Esterre
Individuals' implicit theories of intelligence exist on a spectrum, from believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable, to believing it is malleable and can be improved with effort. A belief in malleable intelligence leads to adaptive responses to challenge and higher achievement. However, surprisingly little is known about the development of academic-domain-specific theories of intelligence (i.e., math vs. reading and writing). The authors examined this in a cross-section of students from 1st grade to college (N = 523)...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381985/virtual-normalization-of-physical-impairment-a-pilot-study-to-evaluate-motor-learning-in-presence-of-physical-impairment
#3
Christopher Jarrett, Andrew McDaid
Motor learning is a critical component of the rehabilitation process; however, it can be difficult to separate the fundamental causes of a learning deficit when physical impairment is a confounding factor. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to augment the residual ability of physically impaired patients with a robotic rehabilitation exoskeleton, such that motor learning can be studied independently of physical impairment. The proposed technique augments the velocity of an on-screen cursor relative to the restricted physical motion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374264/bumblebees-at-work-in-an-emotion-like-state
#4
C M S Plowright
Pretest sucrose affects a dopamine-modulated response of bumblebees to an ambiguous cue to reward as well as a response to a simulated attack (Perry, Baciadonna, & Chittka, Science, 353(6307), 1529-1531, 2016). The contribution of the study lies in opening the door to research on the inner experience of insects, the learning and motivational mechanisms of their behavior, and the evolutionary analysis of emotions.
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362608/tmagic-a-model-free-3d-tracker
#5
Karel Lebeda, Simon Hadfield, Richard Bowden
Significant effort has been devoted within the visual tracking community to rapid learning of object properties on the fly. However, state-of-the-art approaches still often fail in cases such as rapid out-of-plane rotation, when the appearance changes suddenly. One of the major contributions of this work is a radical rethinking of the traditional wisdom of modelling 3D motion as appearance change during tracking. Instead, 3D motion is modelled as 3D motion. This intuitive but previously unexplored approach provides new possibilities in visual tracking research...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344152/trait-based-food-cravings-are-encoded-by-regional-homogeneity-in-the-parahippocampal-gyrus
#6
Shuaiyu Chen, Debo Dong, Todd Jackson, Qian Zhuang, Hong Chen
Food cravings can reflect an intense trait-like emotional-motivational desire to eat palatable food, often resulting in the failure of weight loss efforts. Studies have linked trait-based food-cravings to increased risk of overeating. However, little is known about resting-state neural mechanisms that underlie food cravings. We investigated this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity occurs in regions implicated in emotional memory and reward motivation associated with food cravings...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338882/tribal-love-the-neural-correlates-of-passionate-engagement-in-football-fans
#7
Isabel C Duarte, Sónia Afonso, Helena Jorge, Ricardo Cayolla, Carlos Ferreira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The tribal character of the affective link between football fans and their teams is a well-recognized phenomenon. Other forms of love such as romantic or maternal attachment have previously been studied from a neuroimaging point of view. Here we aimed to investigate the neural basis of this tribal form of love, which implies both the feeling of belongingness and rivalry against opposing teams. A pool of 56 participants was submitted to an fMRI experimental design involving the presentation of winning and losing football moments of their loved, rival or neutral teams...
February 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337158/how-not-to-do-a-mindset-intervention-learning-from-a-mindset-intervention-among-students-with-good-grades
#8
Gábor Orosz, Szilvia Péter-Szarka, Beáta Bőthe, István Tóth-Király, Rony Berger
The present study examined the effectiveness of a Growth Mindset intervention based on Dweck et al.'s (1995) theory in the Hungarian educational context. A cluster randomized controlled trial classroom experiment was carried out within the framework of a train-the-trainer intervention among 55 Hungarian 10th grade students with high Grade Point Average (GPA). The results suggest that students' IQ and personality mindset beliefs were more incremental in the intervention group than in the control group 3 weeks after the intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325117/psychometric-summary-of-the-technology-delivered-tension-scales-for-weight-management
#9
Kelli L Kramer-Jackman, Sue Popkess-Vawter
The purpose of this article is to summarize the psychometric results from studies of the last 25 years of the Overeating Tension Scale, Exercise Tension Scale, Feelings Tension Scale, and Feelings About Weight Tension Scale. These reliable and valid technology-delivered weight management scales can be used by clinicians independently or in combination to longitudinally identify specific triggers of overeating, skipping exercise, feeling low or down, and strong feelings about one's body weight; motivational states, and related tension levels...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280394/addressing-intravaginal-practices-in-women-with-hiv-and-at-risk-for-hiv-infection-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#10
Maria L Alcaide, Violeta J Rodriguez, Margaret A Fischl, Deborah L Jones, Stephen M Weiss
Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275895/-emotiplay-a-serious-game-for-learning-about-emotions-in-children-with-autism-results-of-a-cross-cultural-evaluation
#11
S Fridenson-Hayo, S Berggren, A Lassalle, S Tal, D Pigat, N Meir-Goren, H O'Reilly, S Ben-Zur, S Bölte, S Baron-Cohen, O Golan
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) experience difficulties recognizing others' emotions and mental states. It has been shown that serious games (SG) can produce simplified versions of the socio-emotional world. The current study performed a cross-cultural evaluation (in the UK, Israel and Sweden) of Emotiplay's SG, a system aimed to teach emotion recognition (ER) to children with ASC in an entertaining, and intrinsically motivating way. Participants were 6-9 year olds with high functioning ASC who used the SG for 8-12 weeks...
March 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268947/design-projects-motivated-and-informed-by-the-needs-of-severely-disabled-autistic-children
#12
Steve Warren, Punit Prakash, David Thompson, Bala Natarajan, Charles Carlson, Kim Fowler, Ed Brokesh, Jack Xin, Wayne Piersel, Janine Kesterson, Steve Stoffregen
Technology can positively impact the lives of severely disabled autistic children if used to (a) gather situational awareness data regarding their health, development, and behavior and (b) assist them with learning and day-to-day activities. This paper summarizes student design projects in the Kansas State University (KSU) College of Engineering that are motivated and informed by the needs of severely disabled children at Heartspring, Wichita, KS. These efforts are supported through the National Science Foundation's General and Age-Related Disabilities Engineering (GARDE) program...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264738/the-dark-side-of-dopaminergic-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease-shedding-light-on-aberrant-salience
#13
Michele Poletti
Psychotic subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) "on" dopaminergic drugs, especially on dopamine agonists, present a hyperdopaminergic state that interferes with learning processing. These clinical populations present with distinct alterations of learning that share an increased potential motivational significance of stimuli: psychotic subjects may attribute salience to neutral stimuli, while medicated PD patients may overvalue rewards. Herein is discussed the speculative hypothesis that the hyperdopaminergic state induced by dopaminergic treatments, especially with dopamine agonists, may also facilitate the attribution of salience to neutral stimuli in PD patients, altering the physiological attribution of salience...
March 7, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263413/species-specific-diversity-in-the-anatomical-and-physiological-organization-of-the-bnst-vta-pathway
#14
Jennifer Kaufling, Delphine Girard, Marlène Maitre, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, François Georges
The anteromedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (amBNST) is a limbic structure innervating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that is remarkably constant across species. The amBNST modulates fear and anxiety, and activation of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons by amBNST afferents seems to be the way by which stress controls motivational states associated with reward or aversion. Because fear learning and anxiety states can be expressed differently between rats and mice, we compared the functional connectivity between amBNST and the VTA-DA neurons in both species using consistant methodological approaches...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227153/design-projects-motivated-and-informed-by-the-needs-of-severely-disabled-autistic-children
#15
Steve Warren, Punit Prakash, David Thompson, Bala Natarajan, Charles Carlson, Kim Fowler, Ed Brokesh, Jack Xin, Wayne Piersel, Janine Kesterson, Steve Stoffregen, Steve Warren, Punit Prakash, David Thompson, Bala Natarajan, Charles Carlson, Kim Fowler, Ed Brokesh, Jack Xin, Wayne Piersel, Janine Kesterson, Steve Stoffregen, Janine Kesterson, Bala Natarajan, David Thompson, Steve Stoffregen, Steve Warren, Kim Fowler, Jack Xin, Punit Prakash, Charles Carlson, Wayne Piersel
Technology can positively impact the lives of severely disabled autistic children if used to (a) gather situational awareness data regarding their health, development, and behavior and (b) assist them with learning and day-to-day activities. This paper summarizes student design projects in the Kansas State University (KSU) College of Engineering that are motivated and informed by the needs of severely disabled children at Heartspring, Wichita, KS. These efforts are supported through the National Science Foundation's General and Age-Related Disabilities Engineering (GARDE) program...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223891/what-should-we-tell-our-patients-about-marijuana-cannabis-indica-and-cannabis-sativa
#16
EDITORIAL
Joseph Pizzorno
With several states allowing medicinal use of marijuana and a growing number decriminalizing recreational use, many of our patients are using this herbal drug. Approximately 43% of US adults have tried marijuana, with 13% using it regularly. These users are seeking help from integrative medicine practitioners regarding safety. They are looking for advice based on research and clinical experience, not politics or philosophical bias. The major health problems caused by marijuana appear to be bronchial irritation, decreased motivation, learning difficulties, and injuries...
December 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222000/fast-prediction-of-protein-methylation-sites-using-a-sequence-based-feature-selection-technique
#17
Leyi Wei, Pengwei Xing, Gaotao Shi, Zhi-Liang Ji, Quan Zou
Protein methylation, an important post-translational modification, plays crucial roles in many cellular processes. The accurate prediction of protein methylation sites is fundamentally important for revealing the molecular mechanisms undergoing methylation. In recent years, computational prediction based on machine learning algorithms has emerged as a powerful and robust approach for identifying methylation sites, and much progress has been made in predictive performance improvement. However, the predictive performance of existing methods is not satisfactory in terms of overall accuracy...
February 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#18
Joseph J Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, then animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food-seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined "neuronal ensembles," have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. Although alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212966/estimating-preferences-for-complex-health-technologies-lessons-learned-and-implications-for-personalized-medicine
#19
Deborah A Marshall, Juan Marcos Gonzalez, Karen V MacDonald, F Reed Johnson
We examine key study design challenges of using stated-preference methods to estimate the value of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a specific example of genomic testing. Assessing the value of WGS is complex because WGS provides multiple findings, some of which can be incidental in nature and unrelated to the specific health concerns that motivated the test. In addition, WGS results can include actionable findings (variants considered to be clinically useful and can be acted on), findings for which evidence for best clinical action is not available (variants considered clinically valid but do not meet as high of a standard for clinical usefulness), and findings of unknown significance...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210357/a-survey-of-emergency-medicine-residents-use-of-educational-podcasts
#20
Jeff Riddell, Anand Swaminathan, Monica Lee, Abdiwahab Mohamed, Rob Rogers, Salim R Rezaie
INTRODUCTION: Emergency medicine (EM) educational podcasts have become increasingly popular. Residents spend a greater percentage of their time listening to podcasts than they do using other educational materials. Despite this popularity, research into podcasting in the EM context is sparse. We aimed to determine EM residents' consumption habits, optimal podcast preferences, and motivation for listening to EM podcasts. METHODS: We created a survey and emailed it to EM residents at all levels of training at 12 residencies across the United States from September 2015 to June 2016...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
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