Read by QxMD icon Read

Motivational states and learning

Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Ying Liu, Brent Logan, Ning Liu, Zhiyuan Xu, Jian Tang, Yanzhi Wang
In this paper, we propose the first deep reinforcement learning framework to estimate the optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes from observational medical data. This framework is more flexible and adaptive for high dimensional action and state spaces than existing reinforcement learning methods to model real life complexity in heterogeneous disease progression and treatment choices, with the goal to provide doctor and patients the data-driven personalized decision recommendations. The proposed deep reinforcement learning framework contains a supervised learning step to predict the most possible expert actions; and a deep reinforcement learning step to estimate the long term value function of Dynamic Treatment Regimes...
August 2017: Healthcare Informatics: the Business Magazine for Information and Communication Systems
Matteo Lo Monte, Candida Manelfi, Marica Gemei, Daniela Corda, Andrea Rosario Beccari
Motivation: ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification implicated in several crucial cellular processes, ranging from regulation of DNA repair and chromatin structure to cell metabolism and stress responses. To date, a complete understanding of ADP-ribosylation targets and their modification sites in different tissues and disease states is still lacking. Identification of ADP-ribosylation sites is required to discern the molecular mechanisms regulated by this modification. This motivated us to develop a computational tool for the prediction of ADP-ribosylated sites...
March 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jeffrey W Brown, Derek Caetano-Anollés, Marianne Catanho, Ekaterina Gribkova, Nathaniel Ryckman, Kun Tian, Mikhail Voloshin, Rhanor Gillette
Economic decisions arise from evaluation of alternative actions in contexts of motivation and memory. In the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea the economic decisions of foraging are found to occur by the workings of a simple, affectively controlled homeostat with learning abilities. Here, the neuronal circuit relations for approach-avoidance choice of Pleurobranchaea are expressed and tested in the foraging simulation Cyberslug. Choice is organized around appetitive state as a moment-to-moment integration of sensation, motivation (satiation/hunger), and memory...
January 2018: ENeuro
Robert M Klassen, Joel R L Klassen
INTRODUCTION: Self-efficacy is a theoretically and empirically robust motivation belief that has been shown to play an important role in the learning and development of new skills and knowledge. In this article, we critically review research on the self-efficacy beliefs of medical students, with a goal to evaluate the existing research and to strengthen future work. In particular, we sought to describe the state of research on medical student self-efficacy and to critically examine the conceptualization and measurement of the construct...
February 26, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Sara R Westbrook, Emily R Hankosky, Megan R Dwyer, Joshua M Gulley
Compared with adults, adolescent behavior is often characterized by reduced behavioral flexibility, increased sensitivity to reward, and increased likelihood to take risks. These traits, which have been hypothesized to confer heightened vulnerability to psychopathologies such as substance use disorders (SUDs), have been the focus of studies in laboratory animal models that seek to understand their neural underpinnings. However, rodent studies to date have typically used only males and have adopted standard methodological practices (e...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Jenna Jerman, Tsuyoshi Onda, Rachel K Jones
OBJECTIVE: To examine the motivations and circumstances of individuals seeking information about self-abortion on the Internet. STUDY DESIGN: We identified 26 terms that we anticipated someone might use to find information about self-abortion on the internet. Users who entered these terms into the Google search engine were provided with a link to our survey via Google AdWords. We fielded the survey over a 32-day period; users were eligible if accessing the survey from a U...
February 22, 2018: Contraception
Jenna E Reno, Sean O'Leary, Kathleen Garrett, Jennifer Pyrzanowski, Steven Lockhart, Elizabeth Campagna, Juliana Barnard, Amanda F Dempsey
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is below that of other routine adolescent vaccines. This is due in part to the fact that the HPV vaccine is often not routinely recommended by providers to all eligible adolescents. While providers' recommendations are crucial, even a strongly stated recommendation can be insufficient among HPV vaccine-hesitant parents. Providers must be prepared to respond to parental concerns following giving the recommendation for the HPV vaccine. This paper presents the analysis of implementation of an intervention aimed at improving provider communication with HPV vaccine-hesitant parents...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Zahra Aziz, Michaela A Riddell, Pilvikki Absetz, Margaret Brand, Brian Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: Several studies have now demonstrated the benefits of peer support in promoting diabetes control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a group-based, peer support program to improve diabetes self-management and thereby, diabetes control in people with Type 2 Diabetes in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: The intervention program was designed to address four key peer support functions i.e. 1) assistance in daily management, 2) social and emotional support, 3) regular linkage to clinical care, and 4) ongoing and sustained support to assist with the lifelong needs of diabetes self-care management...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Camilla Wasserman, Vita Postuvan, Dana Herta, Miriam Iosue, Peeter Värnik, Vladimir Carli
THE YOUTH AWARE OF MENTAL HEALTH (YAM) EXPERIENCE: Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time...
2018: PloS One
Won Hwa Kim, Mona Jalal, Seongjae Hwang, Sterling C Johnson, Vikas Singh
The adoption of "human-in-the-loop" paradigms in computer vision and machine learning is leading to various applications where the actual data acquisition (e.g., human supervision) and the underlying inference algorithms are closely interwined. While classical work in active learning provides effective solutions when the learning module involves classification and regression tasks, many practical issues such as partially observed measurements, financial constraints and even additional distributional or structural aspects of the data typically fall outside the scope of this treatment...
July 2017: Proceedings
Elly Hiby, Lou Tasker
Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched 'Red Collar'; a five-year campaign (2011-2016) that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Alexey A Melnikov, Hendrik Poulsen Nautrup, Mario Krenn, Vedran Dunjko, Markus Tiersch, Anton Zeilinger, Hans J Briegel
How useful can machine learning be in a quantum laboratory? Here we raise the question of the potential of intelligent machines in the context of scientific research. A major motivation for the present work is the unknown reachability of various entanglement classes in quantum experiments. We investigate this question by using the projective simulation model, a physics-oriented approach to artificial intelligence. In our approach, the projective simulation system is challenged to design complex photonic quantum experiments that produce high-dimensional entangled multiphoton states, which are of high interest in modern quantum experiments...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christiane Grünloh, Gunilla Myreteg, Åsa Cajander, Hanife Rexhepi
BACKGROUND: Roles in the doctor-patient relationship are changing and patient participation in health care is increasingly emphasized. Electronic health (eHealth) services such as patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) have been implemented to support patient participation. Little is known about practical use of PAEHR and its effect on roles of doctors and patients. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aimed to investigate how physicians view the idea of patient participation, in particular in relation to the PAEHR system...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Elizabeth R Lemoine, Janelle S Nassim, Jasmine Rana, Susan Burgin
Challenge: Trainees' motivational and emotional states can influence their learning and career decisions, but historically these "affective" learning factors have received little attention in medical education. In this "Tips" piece, we outline strategies to positively influence trainees' intrinsic motivation and emotion toward their training to ultimately enhance their overall learning experience.
February 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Mircea-Bogdan Radac, Radu-Emil Precup, Raul-Cristian Roman
This paper proposes a combined Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning-Q-learning model-free control approach, which tunes nonlinear static state feedback controllers to achieve output model reference tracking in an optimal control framework. The novel iterative Batch Fitted Q-learning strategy uses two neural networks to represent the value function (critic) and the controller (actor), and it is referred to as a mixed Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning-Batch Fitted Q-learning approach. Learning convergence of the Q-learning schemes generally depends, among other settings, on the efficient exploration of the state-action space...
January 8, 2018: ISA Transactions
Peter Wüst-Ackermann, Christian Vollmer, Christoph Randler, Heike Itzek-Greulich
The introduction of living invertebrates into the classroom was investigated. First, possible anchor points for a lesson with living invertebrates are explored by referring to the curriculum of primary/secondary schools and to out-of-school learning. The effectiveness of living animals for increasing interest, motivation, and achievement in recent research is discussed. Next, the Vivarium, an out-of-school learning facility with living invertebrates, is described. The effects of an intervention study with living invertebrates on achievement are then investigated at school (School condition) and out of school (University condition); a third group served as a control condition...
January 2, 2018: Insects
Courtenay R Bruce, Trevor Bibler, Andrew Childress, Savitri Fedson
A few weeks ago, Texas took an unprecedented position on unilateral DNRs by passing Senate Bill (SB) 11, which requires patient/surrogate consent for writing DNR orders. The motivation behind the bill was based on the drafters' beliefs that physicians frequently write unilateral DNR orders. SB 11, however, does not stop at requiring physicians to seek consent for DNR orders. Instead, the legislation uncharacteristically exceeds what is typically within the scope and role boundaries for lawmakers by legislating how physicians discuss and implement DNR orders...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Eve Dubé, Julie Leask, Brent Wolff, Benjamin Hickler, Victor Balaban, Everold Hosein, Katrine Habersaat
INTRODUCTION: The WHO Regional Office for Europe developed the Guide to tailoring immunization programmes (TIP), offering countries a process through which to diagnose barriers and motivators to vaccination in susceptible low vaccination coverage and design tailored interventions. A review of TIP implementation was conducted in the European Region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review was conducted during June to December 2016 by an external review committee and was based on visits in Bulgaria, Lithuania, Sweden and the United Kingdom that had conducted a TIP project; review of national and regional TIP documents and an online survey of the Member States in the WHO European Region that had not conducted a TIP project...
December 26, 2017: Vaccine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"