keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Motivational states and learning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#1
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212966/estimating-preferences-for-complex-health-technologies-lessons-learned-and-implications-for-personalized-medicine
#2
Deborah A Marshall, Juan Marcos Gonzalez, Karen V MacDonald, F Reed Johnson
We examine key study design challenges of using stated-preference methods to estimate the value of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a specific example of genomic testing. Assessing the value of WGS is complex because WGS provides multiple findings, some of which can be incidental in nature and unrelated to the specific health concerns that motivated the test. In addition, WGS results can include actionable findings (variants considered to be clinically useful and can be acted on), findings for which evidence for best clinical action is not available (variants considered clinically valid but do not meet as high of a standard for clinical usefulness), and findings of unknown significance...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210357/a-survey-of-emergency-medicine-residents-use-of-educational-podcasts
#3
Jeff Riddell, Anand Swaminathan, Monica Lee, Abdiwahab Mohamed, Rob Rogers, Salim R Rezaie
INTRODUCTION: Emergency medicine (EM) educational podcasts have become increasingly popular. Residents spend a greater percentage of their time listening to podcasts than they do using other educational materials. Despite this popularity, research into podcasting in the EM context is sparse. We aimed to determine EM residents' consumption habits, optimal podcast preferences, and motivation for listening to EM podcasts. METHODS: We created a survey and emailed it to EM residents at all levels of training at 12 residencies across the United States from September 2015 to June 2016...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143568/factors-predicting-training-transfer-in-health-professionals-participating-in-quality-improvement-educational-interventions
#4
Ahmed Eid, Doris Quinn
BACKGROUND: Predictors of quality improvement (QI) training transfer are needed. This study aimed to identify these predictors among health professionals who participated in a QI training program held at a large hospital in the United States between 2005 and 2014. It also aimed to determine how these predictive factors facilitated or impeded QI training transfer. METHODS: Following the Success Case Method, we used a screening survey to identify trainees with high and low levels of training transfer...
January 31, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129155/learning-deep-sharable-and-structural-detectors-for-face-alignment
#5
Hao Liu, Jiwen Lu, Jianjiang Feng, Jie Zhou
Face alignment aims at localizing multiple facial landmarks for a given facial image, which usually suffers from large variances of diverse facial expressions, aspect ratios and partial occlusions, especially when face images were captured in wild conditions. To address this problem, conventional face alignment methods extract local features and then directly concatenate these features for global shape regression. Unlike these methods which cannot explicitly model the correlation of neighbouring landmarks and motivated by the fact that individual landmarks are usually correlated, in this paper, we propose a deep structural and sharable detectors (DSSD) method for facial landmark localization...
January 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114063/deep-learning-driven-visual-path-prediction-from-a-single-image
#6
Siyu Huang, Xi Li, Zhongfei Zhang, Zhouzhou He, Fei Wu, Wei Liu, Jinhui Tang, Yueting Zhuang
Capabilities of inference and prediction are significant components of visual systems. Visual path prediction is an important and challenging task among them, with the goal to infer the future path of a visual object in a static scene. This task is complicated as it needs high-level semantic understandings of both the scenes and underlying motion patterns in video sequences. In practice, cluttered situations have also raised higher demands on the effectiveness and robustness of models. Motivated by these observations, we propose a deep learning framework which simultaneously performs deep feature learning for visual representation in conjunction with spatio-temporal context modeling...
September 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114038/class-specific-subspace-kernel-representations-and-adaptive-margin-slack-minimization-for-large-scale-classification
#7
Yinan Yu, Konstantinos I Diamantaras, Tomas McKelvey, Sun-Yuan Kung
In kernel-based classification models, given limited computational power and storage capacity, operations over the full kernel matrix becomes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a new supervised learning framework using kernel models for sequential data processing. The framework is based on two components that both aim at enhancing the classification capability with a subset selection scheme. The first part is a subspace projection technique in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space using a CLAss-specific Subspace Kernel representation for kernel approximation...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113794/unsupervised-topic-hypergraph-hashing-for-efficient-mobile-image-retrieval
#8
Lei Zhu, Jialie Shen, Liang Xie, Zhiyong Cheng
Hashing compresses high-dimensional features into compact binary codes. It is one of the promising techniques to support efficient mobile image retrieval, due to its low data transmission cost and fast retrieval response. However, most of existing hashing strategies simply rely on low-level features. Thus, they may generate hashing codes with limited discriminative capability. Moreover, many of them fail to exploit complex and high-order semantic correlations that inherently exist among images. Motivated by these observations, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing scheme, called topic hypergraph hashing (THH), to address the limitations...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110724/avnm-a-voting-based-novel-mathematical-rule-for-image-classification
#9
Ankit Vidyarthi, Namita Mittal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In machine learning, the accuracy of the system depends upon classification result. Classification accuracy plays an imperative role in various domains. Non-parametric classifier like K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is the most widely used classifier for pattern analysis. Besides its easiness, simplicity and effectiveness characteristics, the main problem associated with KNN classifier is the selection of a number of nearest neighbors i.e. "k" for computation. At present, it is hard to find the optimal value of "k" using any statistical algorithm, which gives perfect accuracy in terms of low misclassification error rate...
December 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106670/reward-motivation-and-emotion-of-pain-and-its-relief
#10
Frank Porreca, Edita Navratilova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092510/unobtrusive-and-wearable-systems-for-automatic-dietary-monitoring
#11
Temiloluwa Prioleau, Elliot Moore, Maysam Ghovanloo
The threat of obesity, diabetes, anorexia and bulimia in our society today has motivated extensive research on dietary monitoring. Standard self-report methods such as 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaires are expensive, burdensome and unrealiable to handle the growing health crisis. Long-term activity monitoring in daily living is a promising approach to provide individuals with quantitative feedback that can encourage healthier habits. Although several studies have attempted automating dietary monitoring using wearable, hand-held, smartobject, and environmental systems, it remains an open research problem...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#13
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076866/biophysically-motivated-regulatory-network-inference-progress-and-prospects
#14
Tarmo Äijö, Richard Bonneau
Thanks to the confluence of genomic technology and computational developments, the possibility of network inference methods that automatically learn large comprehensive models of cellular regulation is closer than ever. This perspective focuses on enumerating the elements of computational strategies that, when coupled to appropriate experimental designs, can lead to accurate large-scale models of chromatin state and transcriptional regulatory structure and dynamics. We highlight 4 research questions that require further investigation in order to make progress in network inference: (1) using overall constraints on network structure such as sparsity, (2) use of informative priors and data integration to constrain individual model parameters, (3) estimation of latent regulatory factor activity under varying cell conditions, and (4) new methods for learning and modeling regulatory factor interactions...
2016: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065844/effects-of-the-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depression-on-reward-related-learning-in-rats
#15
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Yixi Chen, Qiong Wang, Zhe Shi, Yanyan Yang, Shanguang Chen, Xinmin Liu
Chronic mild or unpredictability stress produces a persistent depressive-like state. The main symptoms of depression include weight loss, despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation and mild cognition impairment, which could influence the ability of reward-related learning. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic restraint stress on the performance of reward-related learning of rats. We used the exposure of repeated restraint stress (6h/day, for 28days) to induce depression-like behavior in rats...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060525/diurnal-rhythms-in-psychological-reward-functioning-in-healthy-young-men-wanting-liking-and-learning
#16
Jamie E M Byrne, Greg Murray
A range of evidence suggests that human reward functioning is partly driven by the endogenous circadian system, generating 24-hour rhythms in behavioural measures of reward activation. Reward functioning is multifaceted but literature to date is largely limited to measures of self-reported positive mood states. The aim of this study was to advance the field by testing for hypothesised diurnal variation in previously unexplored components of psychological reward: 'wanting', liking, and learning using subjective and behavioural measures...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017470/a-central-amygdala-crf-circuit-facilitates-learning-about-weak-threats
#17
Christina A Sanford, Marta E Soden, Madison A Baird, Samara M Miller, Jay Schulkin, Richard D Palmiter, Michael Clark, Larry S Zweifel
Fear is a graded central motive state ranging from mild to intense. As threat intensity increases, fear transitions from discriminative to generalized. The circuit mechanisms that process threats of different intensity are not well resolved. Here, we isolate a unique population of locally projecting neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that produce the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF-producing neurons and CRF in the CeA are required for discriminative fear, but both are dispensable for generalized fear at high US intensities...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986377/vocal-fry-use-in-adult-female-speakers-exposed-to-two-languages
#18
Todd A Gibson, Connie Summers, Sydney Walls
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. STUDY DESIGN: This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959821/class-specific-subspace-kernel-representations-and-adaptive-margin-slack-minimization-for-large-scale-classification
#19
Yinan Yu, Konstantinos I Diamantaras, Tomas McKelvey, Sun-Yuan Kung
In kernel-based classification models, given limited computational power and storage capacity, operations over the full kernel matrix becomes prohibitive. In this paper, we propose a new supervised learning framework using kernel models for sequential data processing. The framework is based on two components that both aim at enhancing the classification capability with a subset selection scheme. The first part is a subspace projection technique in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space using a CLAss-specific Subspace Kernel representation for kernel approximation...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928508/a-perspective-on-physiological-studies-supporting-the-provision-of-scientific-advice-for-the-management-of-fraser-river-sockeye-salmon-oncorhynchus-nerka
#20
REVIEW
David A Patterson, Steven J Cooke, Scott G Hinch, Kendra A Robinson, Nathan Young, Anthony P Farrell, Kristina M Miller
The inability of physiologists to effect change in fisheries management has been the source of frustration for many decades. Close collaboration between fisheries managers and researchers has afforded our interdisciplinary team an unusual opportunity to evaluate the emerging impact that physiology can have in providing relevant and credible scientific advice to assist in management decisions. We categorize the quality of scientific advice given to management into five levels based on the type of scientific activity and resulting advice (notions, observations, descriptions, predictions and prescriptions)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
keyword
keyword
107017
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"