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Motivational states and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146567/self-guided-web-based-interventions-scoping-review-on-user-needs-and-the-potential-of-embodied-conversational-agents-to-address-them
#1
REVIEW
Mark R Scholten, Saskia M Kelders, Julia Ewc Van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Web-based mental health interventions have evolved from innovative prototypes to evidence-based and clinically applied solutions for mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. Open-access, self-guided types of these solutions hold the promise of reaching and treating a large population at a reasonable cost. However, a considerable factor that currently hinders the effectiveness of these self-guided Web-based interventions is the high level of nonadherence. The absence of a human caregiver apparently has a negative effect on user adherence...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#2
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134482/potential-or-problem-an-investigation-of-secondary-school-teachers-attributions-of-the-educational-outcomes-of-students-with-specific-learning-difficulties
#3
Stuart Woodcock, Elizabeth Hitches
Despite strong support for inclusive education in principle, many teachers and administrators still demonstrate mixed responses to the inclusion of certain students in their classrooms. Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) form a large group of students in inclusive classrooms yet some provincial, state and national jurisdictions fail to acknowledge the existence of these students. Not acknowledging and understanding these students can deny them the recognition and resources necessary for their genuine participation in education and, in turn, society...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128392/adrenergic-manipulation-inhibits-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-behaviors
#4
Kyle Z Pasquariello, Marina Han, Cagla Unal, Paul J Meyer
Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071759/curiosity-based-learning-in-infants-a-neurocomputational-approach
#5
Katherine E Twomey, Gert Westermann
Infants are curious learners who drive their own cognitive development by imposing structure on their learning environment as they explore. Understanding the mechanisms by which infants structure their own learning is therefore critical to our understanding of development. Here we propose an explicit mechanism for intrinsically motivated information selection that maximizes learning. We first present a neurocomputational model of infant visual category learning, capturing existing empirical data on the role of environmental complexity on learning...
October 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068821/who-am-i-and-who-do-i-strive-to-be-applying-a-theory-of-self-conscious-emotions-to-medical-education
#6
William E Bynum, Anthony R Artino
The self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride are a distinct set of cognitively complex, powerful, and ubiquitous emotions that arise when an individual engages in self-evaluation. Currently, little is known about the influence or outcomes of self-conscious emotions in medical learners. In this article, the authors present a leading theory of self-conscious emotions that outlines the appraisals and attributions that give rise to and differentiate shame, guilt, and two forms of pride. The authors then apply the theory to three relevant topics in medical education: perfectionism, professional identity formation, and motivation...
October 24, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062274/monoaminergic-modulation-of-motor-cortex-function
#7
REVIEW
Clément Vitrac, Marianne Benoit-Marand
Elaboration of appropriate responses to behavioral situations rests on the ability of selecting appropriate motor outcomes in accordance to specific environmental inputs. To this end, the primary motor cortex (M1) is a key structure for the control of voluntary movements and motor skills learning. Subcortical loops regulate the activity of the motor cortex and thus contribute to the selection of appropriate motor plans. Monoamines are key mediators of arousal, attention and motivation. Their firing pattern enables a direct encoding of different states thus promoting or repressing the selection of actions adapted to the behavioral context...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056625/the-development-of-a-community-engagement-workshop-a-community-led-approach-for-building-researcher-capacity
#8
Jake Coffey, Anna Huff-Davis, Christie Lindsey, Onie Norman, Henryetter Curtis, Calvin Criner, M Kathryn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Although community-engaged research (CEnR) is increasingly promoted in the literature, academic programs often fail to prepare researchers for the critical, ethical, and power issues involved in CEnR. This article documents a community-created and led workshop for CEnR researchers. OBJECTIVES: The workshop's main objective is to increase researchers' knowledge and felt experience of the "dos and don'ts" of CEnR in three research domains: entering the community, accommodating the realities and constraints of community-based organizations, and dissemination...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054285/paraventricular-thalamus-gateway-to-feeding-appetitive-motivation-and-drug-addiction
#9
E Zayra Millan, ZhiYi Ong, Gavan P McNally
This chapter reviews the anatomical and functional evidence demonstrating the contribution of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) to appetitive motivation, food intake control, and drug-seeking behaviors. We first consider the anatomical properties of the PVT to highlight its relevance in the control of appetitive motivation, feeding, and drug seeking. This is followed by a review of the available literature on PVT neurocircuitry, PVT involvement in food intake control, animal models of drug self-administration, withdrawal, and relapse...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028834/validation-of-a-theoretically-motivated-approach-to-measuring-childhood-socioeconomic-circumstances-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#10
Anusha M Vable, Paola Gilsanz, Thu T Nguyen, Ichiro Kawachi, M Maria Glymour
Childhood socioeconomic status (cSES) is a powerful predictor of adult health, but its operationalization and measurement varies across studies. Using Health and Retirement Study data (HRS, which is nationally representative of community-residing United States adults aged 50+ years), we specified theoretically-motivated cSES measures, evaluated their reliability and validity, and compared their performance to other cSES indices. HRS respondent data (N = 31,169, interviewed 1992-2010) were used to construct a cSES index reflecting childhood social capital (cSC), childhood financial capital (cFC), and childhood human capital (cHC), using retrospective reports from when the respondent was <16 years (at least 34 years prior)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020747/deep-machine-learning-provides-state-of-the-art-performance-in-image-based-plant-phenotyping
#11
Michael P Pound, Jonathan A Atkinson, Alexandra J Townsend, Michael H Wilson, Marcus Griffiths, Aaron S Jackson, Adrian Bulat, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Darren M Wells, Erik H Murchie, Tony P Pridmore, Andrew P French
In plant phenotyping, it has become important to be able to measure many features on large image sets in order to aid genetic discovery. The size of the datasets, now often captured robotically, often precludes manual inspection, hence the motivation for finding a fully automated approach. Deep learning is an emerging field that promises unparalleled results on many data analysis problems. Building on artificial neural networks, deep approaches have many more hidden layers in the network, and hence have greater discriminative and predictive power...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983956/transitional-dialysis-care-units-a-new-approach-to-increase-home-dialysis-modality-uptake-and-patient-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
José A Morfín, Alex Yang, Elizabeth Wang, Brigitte Schiller
Home hemodialysis (HHD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are associated with better clinical outcomes, lower hospitalization rates, and improved quality of life compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis. However, <12% of patients requiring dialysis therapy use HHD or PD in the United States, even though over 90% of nephrologists would choose home-based dialysis modalities for themselves. Inadequate patient education and decision-making support are key barriers to patients choosing home-based therapy...
October 5, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#13
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960257/an-online-growth-mindset-intervention-in-a-sample-of-rural-adolescent-girls
#14
Jeni L Burnette, Michelle V Russell, Crystal L Hoyt, Kasey Orvidas, Laura Widman
BACKGROUND: Students living in rural areas of the United States exhibit lower levels of educational attainment than their suburban counterparts. Innovative interventions are needed to close this educational achievement gap. AIMS: We investigated whether an online growth mindset intervention could be leveraged to promote academic outcomes. SAMPLE: We tested the mindset intervention in a sample of 222 10th-grade adolescent girls (M age = 15...
September 27, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957015/hunger-as-a-context-food-seeking-that-is-inhibited-during-hunger-can-renew-in-the-context-of-satiety
#15
Scott T Schepers, Mark E Bouton
At the end of a diet, even a successful one, people often return to overeating. One potential reason is that the behavioral inhibition that people learn while dieting might not readily transfer outside the context in which it is learned: Basic research indicates that after a behavior is inhibited, a return to the conditioning context or simple removal from the treatment context can cause the behavior to return (i.e., to renew). Can states of hunger and satiety play the role of context? In two experiments, rats learned a food-seeking response that earned sucrose or sweet, fatty food pellets while they were satiated...
November 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940743/learning-and-study-strategies-correlate-with-medical-students-performance-in-anatomical-sciences
#16
Mohammed K Khalil, Shanna E Williams, H Gregory Hawkins
Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination(®) (USMLE(®) ) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination(®) (COMPLEX-USA(®) ) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations...
September 22, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931980/development-of-a-low-cost-emg-biofeedback-device-kit-as-an-educational-tool-for-physical-therapy-students
#17
Risa Suzuki, Yoshihiro Muraoka, Shuntaro Okazaki
[Purpose] Electromyography biofeedback therapy is applied to various diseases during physical therapy for motor learning. Our aim was to develop a low-cost electromyography biofeedback device kit that students could build by themselves in class and to evaluate whether this kit was an adequate educational tool for physical therapy students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 34 volunteers from a 3 year physical therapy vocational school and a 4 year university course. All students were tasked with: 1) completing a pre-questionnaire; 2) attending basic lectures on electromyography biofeedback therapy and how to build the device; 3) building the device; and 4) completing a post-questionnaire...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922121/motion-blur-kernel-estimation-via-deep-learning
#18
Xiangyu Xu, Jinshan Pan, Yu-Jin Zhang, Ming-Hsuan Yang
The success of the state-of-the-art deblurring methods mainly depends on restoration of sharp edges in a coarse-tofine kernel estimation process. In this paper, we propose to learn a deep convolutional neural network for extracting sharp edges from blurred images. Motivated by the success of the existing filtering based deblurring methods, the proposed model consists of two stages: suppressing extraneous details and enhancing sharp edges. We show that the two-stage model simplifies the learning process and effectively restores sharp edges...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#19
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898959/cognitive-training-using-a-novel-memory-game-on-an-ipad-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-amci
#20
George Savulich, Thomas Piercy, Chris Fox, John Suckling, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien, Barbara J Sahakian
Background: Cognitive training is effective in patients with mild cognitive impairment but does not typically address the motivational deficits associated with older populations with memory difficulties. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a novel memory game on an iPad in 42 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment assigned to either the cognitive training (n=21; 8 hours of gameplay over 4 weeks) or control (n=21; clinic visits as usual) groups...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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