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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741626/dopamine-and-stress-system-modulation-of-sex-differences-in-decision-making
#1
Polymnia Georgiou, Panos Zanos, Shambhu Bhat, J Kathleen Tracy, Istvan J Merchenthaler, Margaret M McCarthy, Todd D Gould
Maladaptive decision making is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including problem gambling and suicidal behavior. The prevalence of these disorders is higher in men versus women, suggesting gender-dependent regulation of their pathophysiology underpinnings. We assessed sex differences in decision making using the rat version of the Iowa gambling task. Female rats identified the most optimal choice from session 1, while male rats from session 5. Male, but not female rats, progressively improved their advantageous option responding and surpassed females...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733446/how-does-pressure-overload-cause-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-dysfunction-high-ouabain-affinity-cardiac-na-pumps-are-crucial
#2
Mordecai P Blaustein
Left ventricular hypertrophy is frequently observed in hypertensive patients, and is believed to be due to the pressure overload and cardiomyocyte stretch. Three recent reports on mice with genetically-engineered Na(+) pumps, however, demonstrate that cardiac ouabain-sensitive α2 Na(+) pumps play a key role in the pathogenesis of trans-aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was delayed/attenuated in mice with mutant, ouabain-resistant α2 Na(+) pumps and in mice with cardiac-selective knockout (KO) or transgenic overexpression (TG) of α2 Na(+) pumps...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730282/blockade-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-prelimbic-cortex-impact-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-adult-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-following-adolescent-atomoxetine-treatment
#3
Britahny M Baskin, Bríd Á Nic Dhonnchadha, Linda P Dwoskin, Kathleen M Kantak
RATIONALE: Research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder demonstrated that chronic methylphenidate treatment during adolescence increased cocaine self-administration established during adulthood under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Compared to vehicle, chronic atomoxetine treatment during adolescence failed to increase cocaine self-administration under a PR schedule in adult SHR. OBJECTIVES: We determined if enhanced noradrenergic transmission at α2-adrenergic receptors within prefrontal cortex contributes to this neutral effect of adolescent atomoxetine treatment in adult SHR...
July 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724493/oral-transmucosal-detomidine-gel-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#4
Morika D Williams, C Tyler Long, Jessica R Durrant, Gabriel P McKeon, Heather R Shive, Emily H Griffith, Kristen M Messenger, Richard E Fish
Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719851/interaction-of-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-with-t-and-b-lymphocytes
#5
Elena V Navolotskaya, Vladimir B Sadovnikov, Dmitry V Zinchenko, Valery M Lipkin, Vladimir P Zav'yalov
We have prepared (125)I-labeled cholera toxin B subunit ((125)I-labeled CT-B, a specific activity of 98Ci/mmol) and found that its binding to T and B lymphocytes from the blood of healthy donors was high-affinity (Kd 2.8 and 3.0nM, respectively). The binding of labeled protein was completely inhibited by unlabeled thymosin-α1 (TM-α1), interferon-α2 (IFN-α2), and the synthetic peptide LKEKK that corresponds to residues 16-20 in TM-α1 and 131-135 in IFN-α2, but was not inhibited by the synthetic peptide KKEKL with inverted amino acid sequence (Ki>10μM)...
July 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718820/a-transcriptomic-survey-of-ion-channel-based-conotoxins-in-the-chinese-tubular-cone-snail-conus-betulinus
#6
Yu Huang, Chao Peng, Yunhai Yi, Bingmiao Gao, Qiong Shi
Conotoxins in the venom of cone snails (Conus spp.) are a mixture of active peptides that work as blockers, agonists, antagonists, or inactivators of various ion channels. Recently we reported a high-throughput method to identify 215 conotoxin transcripts from the Chinese tubular cone snail, C. betulinus. Here, based on the previous datasets of four transcriptomes from three venom ducts and one venom bulb, we explored ion channel-based conotoxins and predicted their related ion channel receptors. Homologous analysis was also performed for the most abundant ion channel protein, voltage-gated potassium (Kv; with Kv1...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715875/acute-orexigenic-effect-of-agmatine-involves-interaction-between-central-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-and-gabaergic-receptors
#7
Brijesh Gulabrao Taksande, Omi Sharma, Manish Manohar Aglawe, Mayur Bhimrao Kale, Dinesh Yugraj Gawande, Milind Janraoji Umekar, Nandkishor Ramdas Kotagale
Agmatine and GABA have been abundantly expressed in brain nuclei involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and promoting stimulation of food intake in rodents. However, their mutual interaction, if any, in the elicitation of feeding behavior is largely remains unclear. The current study provides experimental evidence for the possible interaction of agmatine, adrenergic and GABAergic systems in stimulation of feeding in satiated rats. Satiated rats fitted with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae and were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (a) GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, diazepam or antagonist bicuculline and flumazenil, GABAA positive modulator, allopregnanolone or negative modulator of GABAA receptor, dehydroepiandrosterone (b) In view of the high affinity of agmatine for α2-adrenoceptors and the close association between α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic system, the effect of their modulators on feeding elicited by agmatine/GABAergic agonists were also examined...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714909/the-interplay-between-the-host-receptor-and-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase
#8
REVIEW
Lauren Byrd-Leotis, Richard D Cummings, David A Steinhauer
The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of influenza A virus are responsible for the surface interactions of the virion with the host. Entry of the virus is mediated by functions of the HA: binding to cellular receptors and facilitating fusion of the virion membrane with the endosomal membrane. The HA structure contains receptor binding sites in the globular membrane distal head domains of the trimer, and the fusion machinery resides in the stem region. These sites have specific characteristics associated with subtype and host, and the differences often define species barriers...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713898/identification-of-potential-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-human-iga-nephropathy-and-hypertensive-nephropathy-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#9
Yingchun Cui, Shengmao Liu, Wenpeng Cui, Dan Gao, Wenhua Zhou, Ping Luo
In order to further elucidate the potential correlations and treatments of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and hypertensive nephropathy (HT), bioinformatics analysis of IgAN and HT was performed. The mRNA expression profiles of human renal biopsy samples from patients with IgAN, patients with HT and pre‑transplant healthy living controls (LD) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Then, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and functions of DEGs were analyzed. Finally, the regulatory networks containing DEGs and related‑transcription factors (TFs) were constructed using Cytoscape software...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706420/maytenus-erythroxylon-reissek-celastraceae-ethanol-extract-presents-antidiarrheal-activity-via-antimotility-and-antisecretory-mechanisms
#10
Rodrigo de Oliveira Formiga, Zelma Glebya Maciel Quirino, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz, Alexsandro Fernandes Marinho, Josean Fechine Tavares, Leônia Maria Batista
AIM: To investigate the acute toxicity, phytochemical profile, antidiarrheal activity and mechanisms of action of Maytenus erythroxylon (M. erythroxylon) ethanol extract. METHODS: A castor oil-induced diarrhea model was used to evaluate antidiarrheal activity. Intestinal transit and gastric emptying protocols were used to evaluate a possible antimotility effect. KATP channels, nitric oxide, presynaptic α2-adrenergic and tissue adrenergic receptors were investigated to uncover antimotility mechanisms of action and castor oil-induced enteropooling to elucidate antisecretory mechanisms...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701401/evaluation-of-the-biological-properties-and-cross-reactive-antibody-response-to-h10-influenza-viruses-in-ferrets
#11
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Rita Czako, Kanta Subbarao
The recent outbreak of avian origin H10N7 influenza among seals in Northern Europe, and two fatal human infections with an avian H10N8 virus in China, have demonstrated that H10 viruses can spread between mammals and cause severe disease in humans. To gain insight into the potential for H10 viruses to cross the species barrier and identify a candidate vaccine strain, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo properties and antibody response in ferrets to 20 diverse H10 viruses. H10 virus infection of ferrets caused variable weight loss and all 20 viruses replicated throughout the respiratory tract; however, replication in the lungs was highly variable...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697634/the-fibrinolysis-inhibitor-%C3%AE-2-antiplasmin-restricts-lymphatic-remodelling-and-metastasis-in-a-mouse-model-of-cancer
#12
Sophie Paquet-Fifield, Sally Roufail, You-Fang Zhang, Trifina Sofian, David J Byrne, Paul B Coughlin, Stephen B Fox, Steven A Stacker, Marc G Achen
Remodelling of lymphatic vessels in tumours facilitates metastasis to lymph nodes. The growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D are well known inducers of lymphatic remodelling and metastasis in cancer. They are initially produced as full-length proteins requiring proteolytic processing in order to bind VEGF receptors with high affinity and thereby promote lymphatic remodelling. The fibrinolytic protease plasmin promotes processing of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in vitro, but its role in processing them in cancer was unknown...
July 11, 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695626/mucosal-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-responses-are-mediated-by-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-in-the-mouse-colon-and-both-peptide-responses-are-area-specific
#13
I R Tough, R Moodaley, H M Cox
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is an incretin hormone and its mimetics are proven antidiabetic and antiobesity drugs. GLP-1 exerts antimotility and mucosal proliferative activities but its epithelial ion transport effects are uncharacterized and these may contribute to the gastrointestinal (GI) disturbance, i.e., diarrhea experienced with some GLP-1 mimetics. Our aim was to establish GLP-1 agonist mechanisms and identify potential mucosal mediator(s) in the colonic tissue from C57BL/6J mice...
July 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694181/allopregnanolone-involvement-in-feeding-regulation-overeating-and-obesity
#14
E Holmberg, J Sjöstedt, E Malinina, M Johansson, S Turkmen, G Ragagnin, A Lundqvist, M Löfgren, L Jaukkuri, M Bixo, T Bäckström
Obesity is strongly associated with ill health, primarily caused by consumption of excessive calories, and promoted (inter alia) by gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) stimulating food intake by activating GABAA receptors (primarily with α3 and α2 subunits) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. Allopregnanolone is a potent positive GABAA receptor modulating steroid (GAMS). As reviewed here, elevated allopregnanolone levels are associated with increases in food intake, preferences for energy-rich food, and obesity in humans and other mammals...
July 8, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694067/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-inhibition-produced-by-moxonidine-and-agmatine-on-the-vasodepressor-sensory-cgrpergic-outflow-in-pithed-rats
#15
Eloísa Rubio-Beltrán, Alejandro Labastida-Ramírez, Oswaldo Hernández-Abreu, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink, Carlos M Villalón
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in several (patho)physiological functions, and modulation of its release is considered a therapeutic target. In this respect, electrical spinal (T9-T12) stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. This study investigated the role of imidazoline I1 and I2 receptors in the inhibition by moxonidine and agmatine of these vasodepressor responses. Male Wistar pithed rats (pretreated i...
July 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690001/synergistic-interaction-between-dexmedetomidine-and-ulinastatin-against-vincristine-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#16
Bilin Nie, Subo Zhang, Zhuxi Huang, Jingxiu Huang, Xiaodi Chen, Yaochao Zheng, Xiaohui Bai, Weian Zeng, Handong Ouyang
Anti-microtubulin chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine (VCR), often induce peripheral neuropathic pain. It is usually permanent and seriously harmful to cancer patients' quality of life quality and can result in the hampering of clinical treatments. Currently, there is no definitive therapy, and many of the drugs approved for the treatment of other neuropathic pain have shown little or no analgesic effect. It is therefore vital to find new and novel therapeutic strategies for patients suffering from chemotherapeutic agent-induced neuropathic pain in order to improve patients' quality of life...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687873/%C3%AE-2-6-linked-sialic-acid-serves-as-a-high-affinity-receptor-for-cancer-oncolytic-virotherapy-with-newcastle-disease-virus
#17
Qian Li, Ding Wei, Fei Feng, Xi-Long Wang, Can Li, Zhi-Nan Chen, Huijie Bian
PURPOSE: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been applied to oncolytic virotherapy for decades due to its naturally oncolytic property. In spite of the substantiation of the sialic acid receptors of NDV on host cells, knowledge of preference of sialic acid linkage in viral attachment and oncolytic effect is lacking and imperative to be elucidated. METHODS: Surface plasmon resonance analysis and competitive inhibition with sialylated glycan receptor analogues were used to determine the affinity and the preference of sialic acid receptor...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681979/trpv1-channels-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-implications-for-vascular-function
#18
Stephen J Ives, Song Young Park, Oh Sung Kwon, Jayson R Gifford, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Russell S Richardson
To examine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 ) ion channel in the vascular function of human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) and if activation of this heat-sensitive receptor could be involved in modulating vascular function, SMFAs from 16 humans (63 ± 5, 41-89 yrs) were studied using wire myography with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) and without (control). Specifically, phenylephrine (PE, α1 -adrenergic receptor agonist), dexemedetomidine (DEX, α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration response curves (CRCs) were performed to assess the role of TRPV1 channels in α-receptor-mediated vasocontraction as well as endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxation, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679671/breast-regression-protein-39-chitinase-3-like-1-promotes-renal-fibrosis-after-kidney-injury-via-activation-of-myofibroblasts
#19
Tinika A Montgomery, Leyuan Xu, Sherene Mason, Amirtha Chinnadurai, Chun Geun Lee, Jack A Elias, Lloyd G Cantley
The normal response to kidney injury includes a robust inflammatory infiltrate of PMNs and macrophages. We previously showed that the small secreted protein breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39), also known as chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and encoded by the Chi3l1 gene, is expressed at high levels by macrophages during the early stages of kidney repair and promotes tubular cell survival via IL-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2)-mediated signaling. Here, we investigated the role of BRP-39 in profibrotic responses after AKI...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677806/%C3%AE-2-antiplasmin-modulates-bone-formation-by-negatively-regulating-osteoblast-differentiation-and-function
#20
Yosuke Kanno, Akira Ishisaki, Hiromi Kuretake, Chihiro Maruyama, Ayaka Matsuda, Osamu Matsuo
α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) is known to be a physiological inhibitor of plasmin. Previously, we showed that α2AP displays various functions, such as promotion of extracellular matrix production, cell growth, and cell differentiation that are not promoted by its function as a plasmin inhibitor. We herein investigated the role of α2AP in bone formation by examining calcein incorporation after its injection in α2AP-deficient mice. We found that α2AP deficiency enhanced the bone formation rate in mice. We also found that the osteocalcin expression and alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in the femur and serum of the α2AP-deficient mice...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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