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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906340/sympatho-excitatory-response-to-pulmonary-chemosensitive-spinal-afferent-activation-in-anesthetized-vagotomized-rats
#1
Julia Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J Lisco, George J Rozanski, Harold D Schultz, Irving H Zucker, Han-Jun Wang
The sensory innervation of the lung is well known to be innervated by nerve fibers of both vagal and sympathetic origin. Although the vagal afferent innervation of the lung has been well characterized, less is known about physiological effects mediated by spinal sympathetic afferent fibers. We hypothesized that activation of sympathetic spinal afferent nerve fibers of the lung would result in an excitatory pressor reflex, similar to that previously characterized in the heart. In this study, we evaluated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and hemodynamics in response to activation of TRPV1-sensitive pulmonary spinal sensory fibers by agonist application to the visceral pleura of the lung and by administration into the primary bronchus in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867575/dorsal-vagal-complex-modulates-neurogenic-airway-inflammation-in-a-guinea-pig-model-with-esophageal-perfusion-of-hcl
#2
Zhe Chen, Lejia Sun, Hui Chen, Dachuan Gu, Weitao Zhang, Zifeng Yang, Tao Peng, Rong Dong, Kefang Lai
Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is involved in the esophageal-bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD) and substance P (SP) expression in the airway...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847989/inhalation-of-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-induces-reflex-bronchoconstriction-by-activation-of-vagal-bronchopulmonary-c-fibers
#3
Mehdi Khosravi, Ruei-Lung Lin, Lu-Yuan Lee
The electronic cigarette (e-cig) has been suggested as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes. However, the health effects of e-cig in the airways have not been fully investigated. Nicotine, the primary chemical constituent of the e-cig aerosol, has been shown to stimulate vagal bronchopulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves, which upon activation can elicit vigorous pulmonary defense reflexes, including airway constriction. In this study, we investigated the bronchomotor response to e-cig inhalation challenge in anesthetized guinea pigs and the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses...
May 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696118/anesthetic-considerations-for-angelman-syndrome-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Mary Ellen Warner, David P Martin, Mark A Warner, Ralitza H Gavrilova, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten
Background: Angelman syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, ataxia, seizures, happy demeanor, distinctive craniofacial features, high vagal tone, and gamma-amino butyric acid receptor abnormalities. The aim of this report is to review our experience of patients with Angelman syndrome undergoing anesthetic management. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed perioperative course of patients with Angelman syndrome who underwent procedures under anesthesia from 2000 to 2016...
October 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694504/influence-of-expiratory-positive-airway-pressure-on-cardiac-autonomic-modulation-at-rest-and-in-submaximal-exercise-in-copd-patients
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
C da L Goulart, E A San Martin, K M K Mansour, P B Schneiders, A L G da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) on heart rate variability (HRV) indices at rest and during 6-min walk test (6MWT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Fifteen moderate to severe COPD patients were randomized and evaluated with and without (Non-EPAP) a 5 cmH2O EPAP device. Respiratory rate (RR) was collected at rest (5 min), during the 6MWT (5 min), and at recovery (5 min). Indices of HRV were computed in the time domain, in the frequency domain, and nonlinear analysis...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518161/toll-like-receptor-expression-in-pulmonary-sensory-neurons-in-the-bleomycin-induced-fibrosis-model
#6
Won Jai Jung, Sang Yeub Lee, Sue In Choi, Byung-Keun Kim, Eun Joo Lee, Kwang Ho In, Min-Goo Lee
Airway sensory nerves are known to express several receptors and channels that are activated by exogenous and endogenous mediators that cause coughing. Toll-like receptor (TLR) s are expressed in nociceptive neurons and play an important role in neuroinflammation. However, there have been very few studies of TLR expression in lung-derived sensory neurons or their relevance to respiratory symptoms such as cough. We used the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model to investigate the change in TLR expression in pulmonary neurons and the association of TLRs with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in pulmonary neurons...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455359/eosinophilic-esophagitis-an-important-comorbid-condition-of-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Sandy R Durrani, Vincent A Mukkada, Theresa W Guilbert
Eosinophilic esophagitis and asthma are frequently found as comorbid conditions in children and adults along with other manifestations of atopic diathesis. These two conditions have similar T helper 2 responses-driven pathophysiology and share common management strategies such as using systemic corticosteroids and targeted anti-cytokine biologic therapies. Review of the literature finds that asthma is often a comorbid condition in eosinophilic esophagitis in both children and adults; however, the EoE-asthma relationship remains poorly characterized mechanistically and clinically...
February 18, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435993/different-role-of-ttx-sensitive-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-na-v-1-subtypes-in-action-potential-initiation-and-conduction-in-vagal-airway-nociceptors
#8
M Kollarik, H Sun, R A Herbstsomer, F Ru, M Kocmalova, S N Meeker, B J Undem
KEY POINTS: The action potential initiation in the nerve terminals and its subsequent conduction along the axons of afferent nerves are not necessarily dependent on the same voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV 1) subunits. The action potential initiation in jugular C-fibres within airway tissues is not blocked by TTX; nonetheless, conduction of action potentials along the vagal axons of these nerves is often dependent on TTX-sensitive channels. This is not the case for nodose airway Aδ-fibres and C-fibres, where both action potential initiation and conduction is abolished by TTX or selective NaV 1...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428555/the-inflammatory-molecule-sphingosine-1-phosphate-is-not-effective-to-evoke-or-sensitize-cough-in-na%C3%A3-ve-guinea-pigs
#9
Simona Svajdova, Lenka Mazurova, Mariana Brozmanova
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an inflammatory mediator increased in the tissue in the number of inflammatory conditions. Preliminary data indicate that the vagal afferent neurons express several S1P receptors including S1PR2-3 . We therefore evaluated the hypothesis that S1P induces cough and/or enhances the cough evoked by other tussive stimuli (TRPA1 and TRPV1 activators) in naïve guinea pigs. Inhalation of S1P in the concentrations of 0.1 mM and 1 mM did not evoke cough. Preinhalation and continuing inhalation of S1P (1 mM) during citric acid (0...
February 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403029/mrgprs-on-vagal-sensory-neurons-contribute-to-bronchoconstriction-and-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#10
Liang Han, Nathachit Limjunyawong, Fei Ru, Zhe Li, Olivia J Hall, Haley Steele, Yuyan Zhu, Julie Wilson, Wayne Mitzner, Marian Kollarik, Bradley J Undem, Brendan J Canning, Xinzhong Dong
Asthma, accompanied by lung inflammation, bronchoconstriction and airway hyper-responsiveness, is a significant public health burden. Here we report that Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs) are expressed in a subset of vagal sensory neurons innervating the airway and mediates cholinergic bronchoconstriction and airway hyper-responsiveness. These findings provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of asthma.
March 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369741/reflex-bronchoconstriction-evoked-by-inhaled-nicotine-aerosol-in-guinea-pigs-role-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#11
Lu-Yuan Lee, Ruei-Lung Lin, Mehdi Khosravi, Fadi Xu
Inhaled cigarette smoke stimulated vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers via an action of nicotine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Recent studies have reported that nicotine at high concentrations can also activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor (TRPA1) expressed in these sensory nerves. This study was carried out to characterize the airway response to inhaled nicotine aerosol and to investigate the relative roles of nAChR and TRPA1 in this response. Guinea pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated; one tidal volume of nicotine aerosol (2% solution) was diluted by equal volume of air and delivered directly into the lung via a tracheal cannula in a single breath...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306061/structure-of-vagal-afferent-nerve-terminal-fibers-in-the-mouse-trachea
#12
Michal Hennel, Jana Harsanyiova, Fei Ru, Tomas Zatko, Mariana Brozmanova, Alzbeta Trancikova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
The structure of primary afferent nerve terminals profoundly influences their function. While the complex vagal airway nerve terminals (stretch receptors, cough receptors and neuroepithelial bodies) were thoroughly characterized, much less is known about the structure of airway nerves that do not form distinct complex terminals (often termed free nerve fibers). We selectively induced expression of GFP in vagal afferent nerves in the mouse by transfection with AAV-GFP virus vector and visualized nerve terminals in the trachea by whole organ confocal imaging...
February 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303602/melatonin-attenuates-chronic-cough-mediated-by-oxidative-stress-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-in-guinea-pigs-exposed-to-particulate-matter-2-5
#13
Zhenjun Ji, Zhen Wang, Zhe Chen, Hao Jin, Chen Chen, Senlin Chai, Haining Lv, Ling Yang, Yakun Hu, Rong Dong, Kefang Lai
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on oxidative stress, the expression of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) in guinea pig brains, and the influence of melatonin on oxidative stress in lungs and airway inflammation induced by particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5). A particle suspension (0.1 g/ml) was nasally administered to the guinea pigs to prepare a PM2.5 exposure model. Cough frequency and cough incubation period were determined through RM6240B biological signal collection and disposal system...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288022/variable-expression-of-gfp-in-different-populations-of-peripheral-cholinergic-neurons-of-chat-bac-egfp-transgenic-mice
#14
T Christopher Brown, Cherie E Bond, Donald B Hoover
Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments...
March 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242088/voluntarily-induced-vomiting-a-yoga-technique-to-enhance-pulmonary-functions-in-healthy-humans
#15
Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Ramesh Mavathur Nanjundaiah, Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath
Vomiting is a complex autonomic reflex orchestrated by several neurological centres in the brain. Vagus, the cranial nerve plays a key role in regulation of vomiting. Kunjal Kriya (Voluntarily Induced Vomiting), is a yogic cleansing technique which involves voluntarily inducing vomiting after drinking saline water (5%) on empty stomach. This study was designed with an objective to understand the effect of voluntary induced vomiting (ViV) on pulmonary functions in experienced practitioners and novices and derive its possible therapeutic applications...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223509/neuropeptides-and-breathing-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Dominika Zając, Piotr Wojciechowski, Ewelina Kogut, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska
Regulatory neuropeptides control and regulate breathing in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While they have been identified in the neurons of major respiratory areas, they can be active not only at the central level, but also at the periphery via chemoreceptors, vagal afferents, or locally within lungs and airways. Some neuropeptides, such as leptin or substance P, are respiratory stimulants; others, such as neurotensin, produce variable effects on respiration depending on the site of application...
February 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197546/prevalence-of-arnold-nerve-reflex-in-adults-and-children-with-chronic-cough
#17
Peter V Dicpinigaitis, Ahmad Kantar, Oladunni Enilari, Francesco Paravati
BACKGROUND: Cough originates from stimulation of structures innervated by the vagus nerve, including the airways and distal esophagus. Arnold nerve reflex describes the induction of cough by stimulation of the external auditory canal, which is innervated by the auricular branch of the vagus. Historically, the prevalence of this reflex has been reported in the range of 2% to 3% on the basis of studies of outpatients in otolaryngology practices, but has not been investigated in healthy volunteers or in patients with chronic cough...
March 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931663/targeting-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-antitussive-therapy
#18
Michael A Wortley, John J Adcock, Eric D Dubuis, Sarah A Maher, Sara J Bonvini, Isabelle Delescluse, Ross Kinloch, Gordon McMurray, Christelle Perros-Huguet, Marianthi Papakosta, Mark A Birrell, Maria G Belvisi
Cough is the most common reason to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, and inhibition of FAAH produces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabinoids inhibit vagal sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, so it was hypothesised that FAAH inhibition would produce antitussive activity via elevation of endocannabinoids.Primary vagal ganglia neurons, tissue bioassay, in vivo electrophysiology and a conscious guinea pig cough model were utilised to investigate a role for fatty acid amides in modulating sensory nerve activation in vagal afferents...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814850/increased-parasympathetic-cardiac-modulation-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-copd-how-should-we-interpret-it
#19
Erika Zavaglia Kabbach, Adriana Mazzuco, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Ramona Cabiddu, Aline Galvão Agnoleto, Jessica Fernanda Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Soares de Carvalho Junior, Renata Gonçalves Mendes
BACKGROUND: Cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) is impaired in patients with stable COPD. Exacerbation aggravates the patients' health status and functional capacity. While the clinical and functional effects of exacerbation are known, no studies investigated CAM during exacerbation and whether there is a relationship between CAM and functional capacity and dyspnea. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe COPD were enrolled into two groups: stable COPD (GSta, n=16) and acute exacerbation of COPD (GAE, n=16)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669932/cough-and-airway-disease-the-role-of-ion-channels
#20
REVIEW
Sara J Bonvini, Maria G Belvisi
Cough is the most common reason for patients to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. It can be idiopathic in nature but can also be a troublesome symptom across chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Chronic cough affects up to 12% of the population and yet there are no safe and effective therapies. The cough reflex is regulated by vagal, sensory afferent nerves which innervate the airway. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels are expressed on sensory nerve terminals, and when activated can evoke cough...
December 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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