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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210214/arginine-vasopressin-alters-both-spontaneous-and-phase-locked-synaptic-inputs-to-airway-vagal-preganglionic-neuron-via-activation-of-v1a-receptor-insights-into-stress-related-airway-vagal-excitation
#1
Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Yuhong Guo, Ding He, Yonghua Chen, Chunmei Xia, Jijiang Wang
The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA) play a major role in the vagal control of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and maintenance of airway resistance. The eNA receives vasopressinergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key node for the genesis of psychological stress. Since airway vagal excitation is reportedly to be associated with the psychological stress-induced/exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics, arginine vasopressin (AVP) might be involved in stress-related airway vagal excitation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130264/vagal-innervation-is-required-for-pulmonary-function-phenotype-in-htr4-mice
#2
John House, Cody E Nichols, Huiling Li, Christina Brandenberger, Rohan Virgincar, Laura Miller, Bastiaan Driehuys, Darryl C Zeldin, Stephanie London
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified over 50 loci associated with pulmonary function and related phenotypes, yet follow-up studies to determine causal genes or variants are rare. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in serotonin receptor 4 (HTR4) are associated with human pulmonary function in genome-wide association studies and follow-up animal work has demonstrated that Htr4 is causally associated with pulmonary function in mice, although the precise mechanisms were not identified...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091773/the-nervous-system-of-airways-and-its-remodeling-in-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Katrin Julia Audrit, Lucas Delventhal, Öznur Aydin, Christina Nassenstein
Inflammatory lung diseases are associated with bronchospasm, cough, dyspnea and airway hyperreactivity. The majority of these symptoms cannot be primarily explained by immune cell infiltration. Evidence has been provided that vagal efferent and afferent neurons play a pivotal role in this regard. Their functions can be altered by inflammatory mediators that induce long-lasting changes in vagal nerve activity and gene expression in both peripheral and central neurons, providing new targets for treatment of pulmonary inflammatory diseases...
January 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044203/advances-with-neonatal-aerodigestive-science-in-the-pursuit-of-safe-swallowing-in-infants-invited-review
#4
REVIEW
Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Feeding, swallowing, and airway protection are three distinct entities. Feeding involves a process of sequential, neurosensory, and neuromotor interactions of reflexes and behaviors facilitating ingestion. Swallowing involves anterograde bolus movement during oral-, pharyngeal-, and esophageal phases of peristalsis into stomach. During these events, coordination with airway protection is vital for homeostasis in clearing any material away from airway vicinity. Neurological-airway-digestive inter-relationships are critical to the continuum of successful feeding patterns during infancy, either in health or disease...
February 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039411/nasal-trpa1-mediates-irritant-induced-bradypnea-in-mice
#5
Keiichi Inui, ChangPing Chen, Jordan L Pauli, Chiharu Kuroki, Shogo Tashiro, Yuichi Kanmura, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily, exists in sensory neurons such as trigeminal neurons innervating the nasal cavity and vagal neurons innervating the trachea and the lung. Although TRPA1 has been proposed as an irritant receptor that, when stimulated, triggers bradypnea, precise locations of the receptors responsible have not been elucidated. Here, we examined the relative importance of TRPA1 located in the upper airway (nasal) and the lower airway (trachea/lungs) in urethane-anesthetized mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013057/neural-control-of-ventilation-prevents-both-over-distension-and-de-recruitment-of-experimentally-injured-lungs
#6
Lukas Brander, Onnen Moerer, Göran Hedenstierna, Jennifer Beck, Jukka Takala, Arthur S Slutsky, Christer Sinderby
BACKGROUND: Endogenous pulmonary reflexes may protect the lungs during mechanical ventilation. We aimed to assess integration of continuous neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (cNAVA), delivering assist in proportion to diaphragm's electrical activity during inspiration and expiration, and Hering-Breuer inflation and deflation reflexes on lung recruitment, distension, and aeration before and after acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: In 7 anesthetised rabbits with bilateral pneumothoraces, we identified adequate cNAVA level (cNAVAAL) at the plateau in peak ventilator pressure during titration procedures before (healthy lungs with endotracheal tube, [HLETT]) and after ALI (endotracheal tube [ALIETT] and during non-invasive ventilation [ALINIV])...
March 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#7
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
January 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820848/acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-contributes-to-airway-hyperreactivity-in-mice
#8
Leah R Reznikov, David K Meyerholz, Ryan J Adam, Mahmoud Abou Alaiwa, Omar Jaffer, Andrew S Michalski, Linda S Powers, Margaret P Price, David A Stoltz, Michael J Welsh
Neurons innervating the airways contribute to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a hallmark feature of asthma. Several observations suggested that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), neuronal cation channels activated by protons, might contribute to AHR. For example, ASICs are found in vagal sensory neurons that innervate airways, and asthmatic airways can become acidic. Moreover, airway acidification activates ASIC currents and depolarizes neurons innervating airways. We found ASIC1a protein in vagal ganglia neurons, but not airway epithelium or smooth muscle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685879/critical-airway-compromise-due-to-a-massive-vagal-schwannoma
#9
A M McDermott, M Sadadcharam, B J Manning, P Sheahan
We describe the case of a 37-year-old man with a slowly enlarging neck lump and compressive symptoms. He presented to a separate institution 10 years prior where an observational approach was advocated. Following preoperative investigations and embolization, an 11cm vagal schwannoma was excised and vagus nerve was sacrificed. Although conservative management is appropriate for a select patient population, surgical excision is treatment of choice for cervical neurogenic tumours and paraganglionomas and must be considered in young patients or rapidly expanding tumours to avoid compressive symptoms, as in this case...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621379/w-ritchie-russell-a-b-baker-and-fred-plum-pioneers-of-ventilatory-management-in-poliomyelitis
#10
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607589/assessing-the-effects-of-a-new-cervical-pillow-on-pain-and-sleep-quality-in-recreational-athletes-with-chronic-mechanical-neck-pain-a-preliminary-comparative-study
#11
Alessandra Di Cagno, Carlo Minganti, Federico Quaranta, Eugenio M Pistone, Federica Fagnani, Giovanni Fiorilli, Arrigo Giombini
BACKGROUND: The aim of this intervention study was to determine the effects of a new experimental cervical pillow, on symptomatic adults affected by chronic mechanical neck pain. METHODS: Twelve recreational athletes of both sexes (mean age 40.5 years; range 35-55), affected by grade II chronic mechanical neck pain, were evaluated with a daily diary type of self- report questionnaire, which incorporated an 11-point Numerical Rating Pain Scale, to collect the primary outcome measures of pre and post-sleep neck pain and with the Neck Pain Disability Scale...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497331/sudden-death-due-to-rupture-of-the-right-internal-carotid-artery-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-report
#12
Yue Liang, Fang Tong, Lin Zhang, Wenhe Li, Yiwu Zhou
Vascular involvement is a well-recognized manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) which has the potential to be fatal when disrupted. We here present a case of sudden death due to the fatal arterial rupture resulted from infiltration of the neurofibromas. A 42-year-old man who suffered from NF1 presented a 1-h history of sudden onset of pain in his right cervical region. His condition worsened and became unconscious on his way to the emergency room. Despite resuscitation efforts, he died 30min later without regaining consciousness...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492525/can-bronchial-asthma-with-an-highly-prevalent-airway-and-systemic-vagal-tone-be-considered-an-independent-asthma-phenotype-possible-role-of-anticholinergics
#13
Gennaro Liccardi, Antonello Salzillo, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani
Recently, we studied occurrence and role of non-respiratory symptoms (n-RSs) before a worsening of asthma symptoms. Some n-RSs such as anxiety, reflux, heartburn, abdominal pain, which appeared within 3 h before the onset of an asthma attack, are the likely result of an imbalance between sympathetic/parasympathetic systems with an increase in cholinergic tone. Therefore, it is likely that some of these n-RSs induced by the increased cholinergic tone might be present related with specific parasympathetic-associated respiratory symptoms such as those elicited by airway narrowing...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451958/mechanisms-of-the-acute-effects-of-inhaled-ozone-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Philip A Bromberg
Ambient air ozone (O3) is generated photochemically from oxides of nitrogen and volatile hydrocarbons. Inhaled O3 causes remarkably reversible acute lung function changes and inflammation. Approximately 80% of inhaled O3 is deposited on the airways. O3 reacts rapidly with CC double bonds in hydrophobic airway and alveolar surfactant-associated phospholipids and cholesterol. Resultant primary ozonides further react to generate bioactive hydrophilic products that also initiate lipid peroxidation leading to eicosanoids and isoprostanes of varying electrophilicity...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445853/inflammatory-role-of-ros-sensitive-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-hypersensitivity-of-lung-vagal-c-fibers-induced-by-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats
#15
Chang-Huan Yang, Yan-Jhih Shen, Ching Jung Lai, Yu Ru Kou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434663/limonene-and-its-ozone-initiated-reaction-products-attenuate-allergic-lung-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Jitka S Hansen, Asger W Nørgaard, Ismo K Koponen, Jorid B Sørli, Maya D Paidi, Søren W K Hansen, Per Axel Clausen, Gunnar D Nielsen, Peder Wolkoff, Søren Thor Larsen
Inhalation of indoor air pollutants may cause airway irritation and inflammation and is suspected to worsen allergic reactions. Inflammation may be due to mucosal damage, upper (sensory) and lower (pulmonary) airway irritation due to activation of the trigeminal and vagal nerves, respectively, and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene, is used as a fragrance in numerous consumer products. When limonene reacts with the pulmonary irritant ozone, a complex mixture of gas and particle phase products is formed, which causes sensory irritation...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328978/activation-of-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors-suppresses-the-ros-induced-hypersensitivity-of-rat-vagal-lung-c-fiber-afferents
#17
Chou-Ming Yeh, Ting Ruan, Yu-Jung Lin, Tien-Huan Hsu
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including H2O2, have been shown to induce hypersensitivity of vagal lung C-fibers (VLCFs) mainly through receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and P2X receptors. Cannabinoids (CBs) exert antinociceptive effects by binding to specific CB receptors, designated CB1 and CB2 (type 2) for type 1 and type 2, respectively. We investigated whether activation of CB receptors can suppress ROS-mediated VLCF hypersensitivity and, if so, what type(s) of CB receptors are involved...
October 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279650/vagal-afferent-innervation-of-the-airways-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Stuart B Mazzone, Bradley J Undem
Vagal sensory neurons constitute the major afferent supply to the airways and lungs. Subsets of afferents are defined by their embryological origin, molecular profile, neurochemistry, functionality, and anatomical organization, and collectively these nerves are essential for the regulation of respiratory physiology and pulmonary defense through local responses and centrally mediated neural pathways. Mechanical and chemical activation of airway afferents depends on a myriad of ionic and receptor-mediated signaling, much of which has yet to be fully explored...
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242540/nadph-oxidase-derived-ros-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-mediates-hypersensitivity-of-lung-vagal-c-fibers-in-rats
#19
Chang-Huan Yang, Wei-Ling Zhuang, Yan-Jhih Shen, Ching Jung Lai, Yu Ru Kou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184303/changes-in-vagal-afferent-drive-alter-tracheobronchial-coughing-in-anesthetized-cats
#20
Michal Simera, Ivan Poliacek, Marcel Veternik, Lucia Babalova, Zuzana Kotmanova, Jan Jakus
Unilateral cooling of the vagus nerve (<5°C, blocking mainly conductivity of myelinated fibers) and unilateral vagotomy were employed to reduce cough afferent drive in order to evaluate the effects of these interventions on the temporal features of the cough reflex. Twenty pentobarbitone anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats were used. Cough was induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways. The number of coughs during vagal cooling was significantly decreased (p<0.001). Inspiratory cough efforts were reduced by approximately 30% (p<0...
August 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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