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Atrial fibrillation and right atria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964116/revealing-kinetics-and-state-dependent-binding-properties-of-ikur-targeting-drugs-that-maximize-atrial-fibrillation-selectivity
#1
Nicholas Ellinwood, Dobromir Dobrev, Stefano Morotti, Eleonora Grandi
The KV1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur) and is predominantly expressed in atria vs. ventricles, has emerged as a promising target to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). However, while numerous KV1.5-selective compounds have been screened, characterized, and tested in various animal models of AF, evidence of antiarrhythmic efficacy in humans is still lacking. Moreover, current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs heavily rely on steady-state concentration-response curves or IC50 values, which can overlook adverse cardiotoxic effects...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888481/spatial-distribution-of-conduction-disorders-during-sinus-rhythm
#2
Eva A H Lanters, Ameeta Yaksh, Christophe P Teuwen, Lisette J M E van der Does, Charles Kik, Paul Knops, Denise M S van Marion, Bianca J J M Brundel, Ad J J C Bogers, Maurits A Allessie, Natasja M S de Groot
BACKGROUND: Length of lines of conduction block (CB) during sinus rhythm (SR) at Bachmann's bundle (BB) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether extensiveness of CB at BB represents CB elsewhere in the atria. We aim to investigate during SR 1) the spatial distribution and extensiveness of CB 2) whether there is a predilection site for CB and 3) the association between CB and incidence of post-operative AF. METHODS: During SR, epicardial mapping of the right atrium (RA), BB and left atrium was performed in 209 patients with coronary artery disease...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862969/three-dimensional-integrated-functional-structural-and-computational-mapping-to-define-the-structural-fingerprints-of-heart-specific-atrial-fibrillation-drivers-in-human-heart-ex-vivo
#3
Jichao Zhao, Brian J Hansen, Yufeng Wang, Thomas A Csepe, Lidiya V Sul, Alan Tang, Yiming Yuan, Ning Li, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, Raul Weiss, Orlando P Simonetti, John D Hummel, Vadim V Fedorov
BACKGROUND: Structural remodeling of human atria plays a key role in sustaining atrial fibrillation (AF), but insufficient quantitative analysis of human atrial structure impedes the treatment of AF. We aimed to develop a novel 3-dimensional (3D) structural and computational simulation analysis tool that could reveal the structural contributors to human reentrant AF drivers. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-resolution panoramic epicardial optical mapping of the coronary-perfused explanted intact human atria (63-year-old woman, chronic hypertension, heart weight 608 g) was conducted during sinus rhythm and sustained AF maintained by spatially stable reentrant AF drivers in the left and right atrium...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862787/panoramic-atrial-mapping-with-basket-catheters-a-quantitative-analysis-to-optimize-practice-patient-selection-and-catheter-choice
#4
Shohreh Honarbakhsh, Richard J Schilling, Rui Providência, Gurpreet Dhillon, Vinit Sawhney, Claire A Martin, Emily Keating, Malcolm Finlay, Syed Ahsan, Anthony Chow, Mark J Earley, Ross J Hunter
INTRODUCTION: Panoramic mapping with basket catheters has been used to map atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the limited tissue contact and coverage achieved has raised concerns. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial tachycardia (AT) and persistent AF were recruited. Unipolar signals were recorded with the Constellation or FIRMap catheters. The proportion and distribution of anatomical coverage by the catheters was determined and tissue contact achieved measured...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840592/left-atrial-appendage-closure-for-primary-primary-prevention-during-percutaneous-closure-of-septal-defects-in-patients-with-large-atria-but-no-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Shingo Kuwata, Juliane Vierecke, Steffen Gloekler, Francesco Maisano, Bernhard Meier, Fabian Nietlispach
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is a routine procedure to prevent right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, or paradoxical embolism. The latter is the typical reason for percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. Atrial enlargement represents a risk for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is emerging as a preventive therapy for patients in AF who suffered from a previous stroke or bleeding (secondary prevention) or patients without previous stroke or bleeding (primary prevention)...
August 25, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807377/crem-transgene-mice-an-animal-model-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-thrombogenesis
#6
A Bukowska, M Felgendreher, B Scholz, C Wolke, J S Schulte, E Fehrmann, E Wardelmann, M D Seidl, U Lendeckel, K Himmler, A Gardemann, A Goette, F U Müller
BACKGROUND: The molecular pathomechanisms underlying atrial thrombogenesis are multifactorial and still require detailed investigations. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-directed expression of the transcriptional repressor CREM-IbΔC-X (CREM-TG) represent an experimental model of atrial fibrillation (AF) that shows a gradual, age-dependent progression from atrial ectopy to persistent AF. Importantly, this model develops biatrial thrombi. The molecular characteristics related to the thrombogenesis in CREM-TG mice have not been studied, yet...
August 1, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791857/antiarrhythmic-properties-of-atrial-pacing
#7
REVIEW
Magdalena Kliś, Agnieszka Sławuta, Jacek Gajek
Bradycardia, atrial stretch and dilatation, autonomic nervous system disorders, and the presence of triggers such as atrial premature contractions, are factors which predispose a person to paroxysmal AF. Atrial pacing not only eliminates bradycardia but also prevents atrial premature contractions and dispersion of refractoriness, which are a substrate for atrial fibrillation. As the prolonged duration of atrial activation during pacing, especially from locations changing the physiological pattern of this activation (right atrium lateral wall, right atrium appendage), negatively influences both a mechanical and an electrical function of the atria, the atrial pacing site affects an atrial arrhythmogenesis...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790104/first-in-man-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-electrical-rotors-from-noninvasive-panoramic-mapping-and-atrial-fibrosis-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#8
Christian Sohns, Christine Lemes, Andreas Metzner, Thomas Fink, Mikhail Chmelevsky, Tilman Maurer, Margarita Budanova, Vladislav Solntsev, Walther H W Schulze, Wieland Staab, Shibu Mathew, Christian Heeger, Bruno Reißmann, Eugene Kholmovski, Dietmar Kivelitz, Feifan Ouyang, Karl-Heinz Kuck
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can be used to evaluate characteristics of atrial fibrosis. The novel noninvasive epicardial and endocardial electrophysiology system (NEEES) allows for the identification of sources with rotor activity. This study describes a new technique to examine the relationship between rotors and LGE signal intensity in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (PERS) scheduled for ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten consecutive patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation for persistent atrial fibrillation...
August 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765761/simulation-of-ventricular-rate-control-during-atrial-fibrillation-using-ionic-channel-blockers
#9
Shin Inada, Nitaro Shibata Md PhD, Michiaki Iwata PhD, Ryo Haraguchi PhD, Takashi Ashihara Md PhD, Takanori Ikeda Md PhD, Kazuyuki Mitsui PhD, Halina Dobrzynski PhD, Mark R Boyett PhD, Kazuo Nakazawa PhD
BACKGROUND: The atrioventricular (AV) node is the only compartment that conducts an electrical impulse between the atria and the ventricles. The main role of the AV node is to facilitate efficient pumping by conducting excitation slowly between the two chambers as well as reduce the ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Using computer simulations, we investigated excitation conduction from the right atrium to the bundle of His during high-rate atrial excitation with or without partial blocking of the calcium or potassium ionic current...
August 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761039/atrio-esophageal-fistula-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#10
Craig A Schuring, Luke J Mountjoy, Ashley B Priaulx, Robert J Schneider, Hayden L Smith, Geoffrey C Wall, Dipen Kadaria, Amik Sodhi
BACKGROUND Percutaneous catheter radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation of the left atrium and pulmonary vein ostia have become successful therapeutic modalities in the management of atrial fibrillation. Atrio-esophageal fistula is a rare complication. Awareness of complication risk is imperative because without prompt diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention, the outcome is often fatal. We present 3 cases of atrio-esophageal fistula following percutaneous catheter radiofrequency ablation (RFA). CASE REPORT Case 1: A 72-year old white male presented 27 days after percutaneous RFA for atrial fibrillation with fever, altered mental status, and melena...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733070/spatial-relationship-of-sites-for-atrial-fibrillation-drivers-and-atrial-tachycardia-in-patients-with-both-arrhythmias
#11
Tina Baykaner, Junaid A B Zaman, Albert J Rogers, Rachita Navara, Mahmood AlHusseini, Ryan T Borne, Shirley Park, Paul J Wang, David E Krummen, William H Sauer, Sanjiv M Narayan
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often converts to and from atrial tachycardia (AT), but it is undefined if these rhythms are mechanistically related in such patients. We tested the hypothesis that critical sites for AT may be related to regional AF sources in patients with both rhythms, by mapping their locations and response to ablation on transitions to and from AF. METHODS: From 219 patients undergoing spatial mapping of AF prior to ablation at 3 centers, we enrolled 26 patients in whom AF converted to AT by ablation (n=19) or spontaneously (n=7; left atrial size 42±6cm, 38% persistent AF)...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730651/a-comparison-of-the-electrophysiologic-and-electroanatomic-characteristics-between-the-right-and-left-atrium-in-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-is-the-right-atrium-a-window-into-the-left
#12
Sandeep Prabhu, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Alex J A McLellan, Kah Y Peck, Bhupesh Pathik, Chrishan J Nalliah, Geoff R Wong, Sonia M Azzopardi, Geoffrey Lee, Justin Mariani, Liang-Han Ling, Andrew J Taylor, Jonathan M Kalman, Peter M Kistler
INTRODUCTION: The right atrium (RA) is readily accessible; however, it is unclear whether changes in the RA are representative of the LA. We performed detailed biatrial electroanatomic mapping to determine the electrophysiological relationship between the atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with persistent AF underwent biatrial electroanatomical mapping with a contact force catheter acquiring points with a CF >10 g prior to ablation. Points were analyzed for tissue voltage, complex electrograms, low voltage (<0...
October 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721223/atrial-fibrillation-in-a-preterm-newborn-with-structurally-normal-heart
#13
Pier Paolo Bassareo, Andrea Raffaele Marras, Mariangela Marras, Silvia Marras, Giuseppe Mercuro
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a really uncommon arrhythmia in newborns. Here, we report the case of a 1-day-old infant who was recovered in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for a twin-to-twin transfusion. The appearance of an unexpected AF was registered at his continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Both chest X-ray and echocardiographic examination revealed the anomalous insertion of the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC) into the heart ('umbilical artery → inferior vena cava → right atrium → patent foramen ovale → left atrium')...
March 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719150/can-principles-of-the-surface-potential-be-combined-with-knowledge-of-natural-products-to-reduce-atrial-rhythm-disturbances
#14
EDITORIAL
H Ni, K Narsingani, H Zhang, W R Giles
Long lasting or chronic electrophysiological abnormalities in human atria are significant contributors to morbidity during healthy aging. Although both paroxysmal (brief) and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) were considered to be benign; the notable association between maintained AF and stroke has resulted in AF now being a target for surgical intervention (ablation) and/or drug therapy. An interesting, forward looking paper from the Elinder Group(1) in this issue of Acta Physiologica reveals novel pharmacological agents and principles that could be the basis for more effective antiarrhythmic therapies for AF...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665544/pioglitazone-attenuates-atrial-remodeling-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#15
Changle Liu, Ruimeng Liu, Huaying Fu, Jian Li, Xinghua Wang, Lijun Cheng, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activators exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these agents prevent atrial remodeling in diabetes are not completely elucidated. We sought to investigate the potential effects of pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ activator, on atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility in diabetic rabbits. METHODS: Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: diabetes only, diabetes treated with low-dose pioglitazone (4 mg/day/kg), or diabetes treated with high dose pioglitazone (8 mg/day/kg) (n = 24 for each group)...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586103/minimal-configuration-of-body-surface-potential-mapping-for-discrimination-of-left-versus-right-dominant-frequencies-during-atrial-fibrillation
#16
M Rodrigo, A M Climent, A Liberos, F Fernández-Aviles, F Atienza, M S Guillem, O Berenfeld
BACKGROUND: Ablation of drivers maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF) has been demonstrated as an effective therapy. Drivers in the form of rapidly activated atrial regions can be noninvasively localized to either left or right atria (LA, RA) with body surface potential mapping (BSPM) systems. This study quantifies the accuracy of dominant frequency (DF) measurements from reduced-leads BSPM systems and assesses the minimal configuration required for ablation guidance. METHODS: Nine uniformly distributed lead sets of eight to 66 electrodes were evaluated...
August 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546098/altered-long-non-coding-rna-expression-profile-in-rabbit-atria-with-atrial-fibrillation-tcons_00075467-modulates-atrial-electrical-remodeling-by-sponging-mir-328-to-regulate-cacna1c
#17
Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Weizong Wang, Juanjuan Du, Jinqiu Wei, Yong Zhang, Jiangrong Wang, Yinglong Hou
Electrical remodeling has been reported to play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been increasingly recognized as contributors to the pathology of heart diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in electrical remodeling during AF remain unknown. In this study, the lncRNA expression profiles of right atria were investigated in AF and non-AF rabbit models by using RNA sequencing technique and validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534025/atrial-fibrillation-dynamics-and-ionic-block-effects-in-six-heterogeneous-human-3d-virtual-atria-with-distinct-repolarization-dynamics
#18
Carlos Sánchez, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Esther Pueyo, Blanca Rodríguez
Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually manifests as reentrant circuits propagating through the whole atria creating chaotic activation patterns. Little is yet known about how differences in electrophysiological and ionic properties between patients modulate reentrant patterns in AF. The goal of this study is to quantify how variability in action potential duration (APD) at different stages of repolarization determines AF dynamics and their modulation by ionic block using a set of virtual whole-atria human models...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422654/novel-mri-technique-enables-non-invasive-measurement-of-atrial-wall-thickness
#19
Marta Varela, Ross Morgan, Adeline Theron, Desmond Dillon-Murphy, Henry Chubb, John Whitaker, Markus Henningsson, Paul Aljabar, Tobias Schaeffter, Christoph Kolbitsch, Oleg V Aslanidi
Knowledge of atrial wall thickness (AWT) has the potential to provide important information for patient stratification and the planning of interventions in atrial arrhythmias. To date, information about AWT has only been acquired in post-mortem or poor-contrast computed tomography (CT) studies, providing limited coverage and highly variable estimates of AWT. We present a novel contrast agent-free MRI sequence for imaging AWT and use it to create personalized AWT maps and a biatrial atlas. A novel black-blood phase-sensitive inversion recovery protocol was used to image ten volunteers and, as proof of concept, two atrial fibrillation patients...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387822/differences-in-the-structural-characteristics-and-distribution-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-between-left-and-right-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Hideyuki Hasebe, Kentaro Yoshida, Masataka Iida, Naoki Hatano, Toshiro Muramatsu, Akihiko Nogami, Kazutaka Aonuma
Aims: Right atrial (RA) fibrillation (RAF) was previously characterized by initiation from RA ectopies, presence of a right-to-left dominant frequency gradient during atrial fibrillation (AF), and augmentation of the gradient by adenosine triphosphate infusion. We investigated structural characteristics of the bi-atria and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume in patients with RAF. Methods and results: By using multidetector computed tomography, RA, left atrial (LA), right and LA appendage (RAA and LAA, respectively) volumes, pulmonary vein (PV) sizes, and EAT volumes were compared between the RAF group (n = 8) and LA fibrillation (LAF) group (n = 32)...
April 6, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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