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Atrial fibrillation and right atria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229312/routine-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-does-not-detect-inflammation-in-the-left-atrium-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Philipp S Lange, Nemanja Avramovic, Gerrit Frommeyer, Kristina Wasmer, Christian Pott, Lars Eckardt, Christian Wenning
Increasing evidence supports a role of inflammation in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, direct evidence of persistent inflammatory activity in the atria of AF patients is scarce. In this study, we used 18-Fluor-Deoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) to determine atrial inflammation in patients with and without AF. Retrospectively, (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were analyzed. 37 patients with a history of AF were compared to an age and sex matched control group with no history of AF...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217229/evaluation-of-the-characteristics-of-rotational-activation-at-high-dominant-frequency-and-complex-fractionated-atrial-electrogram-sites-during-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Koji Kumagai, Kentaro Minami, Daisuke Kutsuzawa, Shigeru Oshima
BACKGROUND: High-dominant frequency (DF) and continuous complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) sites as surrogates for localized sources maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF) are potential AF ablation targets. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of a rotational activation at high-DF and continuous CFAE sites in AF patients. METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive AF patients (5 paroxysmal and 27 non-paroxysmal) underwent ablation using the NavX system...
February 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205526/association-evidence-of-ccttt-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-inos-promoter-and-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-taiwanese
#3
Lung-An Hsu, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Wei-Jan Chen, Chi-Tai Kuo, Feng-Chun Tsai, Yi-Hsin Chan, Chun-Li Wang, Chi-Jen Chang, Hsin-Yi Tsai
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The iNOS promoter has a CCTTT-repeat length polymorphism that can determine the level of gene transcription. This study enrolled 200 AF patients and 240 controls. The length of CCTTT-repeat polymorphism in the iNOS promoter region was examined by polymerase chain reactions, with the alleles with ≤11 repeats designated as S and alleles with ≥12 repeats designated as L alleles. AF patients carried significantly higher frequencies of the LL genotype than control subjects (40...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162963/assessment-of-the-atrial-electromechanical-properties-of-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#4
Ahmet G Ertem, Çağrı Yayla, Burak Açar, Sefa Ünal, Mehmet A Erdol, Meliha Ç Sonmezer, Esra Kaya Kiliç, Çiğdem Ataman Hatipoglu, Serkan Gokaslan, Habibe Kafes, Mehmet K Akboga, Pelin Aladag, Koray Demirtas, Sinan Aydogdu
The relationship between atrial fibrillation and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was evaluated. Electro-echocardiographic methods can be used to predict the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study, we aimed to investigate the atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD) parameters of HIV (+) patients. Forty-two HIV (+) patients and 40 HIV (-) healthy volunteers were prospectively enrolled in this study. The electromechanical properties of the subjects' atria were evaluated with tissue Doppler imaging...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155995/sinus-node-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-reversible-phenomenon
#5
REVIEW
Larry R Jackson Ii, Bharath Rathakrishnan, Kristen Campbell, Kevin L Thomas, Jonathan P Piccini, Tristram Bahnson, Jonathan A Stiber, James P Daubert
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic sinus node dysfunction (SND) consists of a variety of manifestations including tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly associated with SND, which complicates the management of both conditions. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical trial data investigating therapeutic approaches for treatment of patients with both SND and AF. METHODS: The authors reviewed articles published in English describing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approaches for patients with SND and AF...
February 3, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115807/functional-remodeling-of-both-atria-is-associated-with-occurrence-of-stroke-in-patients-with-paroxysmal-and-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Hsuan-Ming Tsao, Wei-Chih Hu, Ping-Huang Tsai, Chao-Lin Lee, Hsueh-Han Wang, Shih-Lin Chang, Tze-Fan Chao, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: It is critical to recognize high risk patients who are prone to develop stroke in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of AF related stroke by assessing the anatomical and functional remodeling of cardiac chambers. METHODS: We compared the cardiac structure and function of 28 consecutive patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF-related stroke with 69 patients with AF and 21 controls without stroke using contrast-enhanced 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography during sinus rhythm...
January 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932425/scn2b-deletion-in-mice-results-in-ventricular-and-atrial-arrhythmias
#7
Yangyang Bao, B Cicero Willis, Chad R Frasier, Luis F Lopez-Santiago, Xianming Lin, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, David S Auerbach, Chunling Chen, Zhenxun Wang, Justus Anumonwo, Héctor H Valdivia, Mario Delmar, José Jalife, Lori L Isom
BACKGROUND: Mutations in SCN2B, encoding voltage-gated sodium channel β2-subunits, are associated with human cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation and Brugada syndrome. Because of this, we propose that β2-subunits play critical roles in the establishment or maintenance of normal cardiac electric activity in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: To understand the pathophysiological roles of β2 in the heart, we investigated the cardiac phenotype of Scn2b null mice...
December 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930603/strategies-to-improve-the-efficacy-of-epicardial-linear-ablation-on-the-beating-heart
#8
Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Matthew R Schill, Toshinobu Kazui, Spencer J Melby, Richard B Schuessler, Ralph J Damiano
OBJECTIVE: Creating transmural linear lesions on the beating heart is an important component of minimally invasive surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation. Animal studies have shown poor efficacy for surface bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Clinicians have developed strategies including multiple device applications and vena caval occlusion (VCO) to improve ablation efficacy. These techniques were evaluated in an acute porcine model. METHODS: In the first experiment, an RFA device was used to perform two 40-second epicardial ablations on the right atrium of six pigs...
November 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924760/p-wave-dispersion-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, José Grindler, Acácio Fernandes-Cardoso, Adrian Baranchuk
P-wave dispersion (PWD, Pd or Pdis) is a noninvasive electrocardiographic (ECG) marker for atrial remodeling and predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). PWD is defined as the difference between the widest and the narrowest P-wave duration recorded from the 12 ECG leads. Increased P-wave duration and PWD reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time with lack of a well-coordinated conduction system within the atrial muscles, with inhomogeneous, asynchronic, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with the CG + GG genotype IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism [1] and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses mainly between the left and right atria, interstitial/extracellular fibroblast activation and collagen deposition with fibrosis (via TGF-β) in atrial tissue, insufficient blood supply, significant not isotropic myoelectric activity, and thin wall thickness and consequent expansion tendency all well-known electrophysiological characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) [2]...
July 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670628/regional-distribution-of-t-tubule-density-in-left-and-right-atria-in-dogs
#10
Rishi Arora, Gary L Aistrup, Stephen Supple, Caleb Frank, Jasleen Singh, Shannon Tai, Anne Zhao, Laura Chicos, William Marszalec, Ang Guo, Long-Sheng Song, J Andrew Wasserstrom
BACKGROUND: The peculiarities of transverse tubule (T-tubule) morphology and distribution in the atrium-and how they contribute to excitation-contraction coupling-are just beginning to be understood. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine T-tubule density in the intact, live right and left atria in a large animal and to determine intraregional differences in T-tubule organization within each atrium. METHODS: Using confocal microscopy, T-tubules were imaged in both atria in intact, Langendorf-perfused normal dog hearts loaded with di-4-ANEPPS...
February 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572111/influence-of-genotype-on-structural-atrial-abnormalities-and-atrial-fibrillation-or-flutter-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-dysplasia-cardiomyopathy
#11
Mimount Bourfiss, Anneline S J M Te Riele, Thomas P Mast, Maarten J Cramer, Jeroen F VAN DER Heijden, Toon A B VAN Veen, Peter Loh, Dennis Dooijes, Richard N W Hauer, Birgitta K Velthuis
INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is associated with desmosomal mutations. Although desmosomal disruption affects both ventricles and atria, little is known about atrial involvement in ARVD/C. OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent and clinical significance of structural atrial involvement and atrial arrhythmias (AA) in ARVD/C stratified by genotype. METHODS: We included 71 patients who met ARVD/C Task Force Criteria and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and molecular genetic analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559042/glycoproteomics-reveals-decorin-peptides-with-anti-myostatin-activity-in-human-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Shashi K Gupta, Anna Zoccarato, Rika Kitazume-Taneike, Marika Fava, Xiaoke Yin, Tessa Werner, Marc N Hirt, Anna Zampetaki, Alessandro Viviano, Mei Chong, Marshall Bern, Antonios Kourliouros, Nieves Domenech, Peter Willeit, Ajay M Shah, Marjan Jahangiri, Liliana Schaefer, Jens W Fischer, Renato V Iozzo, Rosa Viner, Thomas Thum, Joerg Heineke, Antoine Kichler, Kinya Otsu, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a feature of many cardiac diseases. We used proteomics to profile glycoproteins in the human cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS: Atrial specimens were analyzed by mass spectrometry after extraction of ECM proteins and enrichment for glycoproteins or glycopeptides. RESULTS: ECM-related glycoproteins were identified in left and right atrial appendages from the same patients. Several known glycosylation sites were confirmed...
September 13, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543481/physiological-cardiac-pacing-current-status
#13
REVIEW
Asit Das, Dhiman Kahali
Adverse hemodynamics of right ventricular (RV) pacing is a well-known fact. It was believed to be the result of atrio-ventricular (AV) dyssynchrony and sequential pacing of the atrium and ventricle may solve these problems. However, despite maintenance of AV synchrony, the dual chamber pacemakers in different trials have failed to show its superiority over single chamber RV apical pacing in terms of death, progression of heart failure, and atrial fibrillation (AF). As a consequence, investigators searched for alternate pacing sites with a more physiological activation pattern and better hemodynamics...
July 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526304/association-of-atrial-fibrillation-with-morphological-and-electrophysiological-changes-of-the-atrial-myocardium
#14
Adéla Matějková, Ivo Šteiner
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. For long time it was considered as pure functional disorder, but in recent years, there were identified atrial locations, which are involved in the initiation and maintenance of this arrhythmia. These structural changes, so called remodelation, start at electric level and later they affect contractility and morphology. In this study we attempted to find a possible relation between morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial (LA) enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG features) changes in patients with AF...
2016: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500319/testing-the-efficacy-of-pharmacological-agents-in-a-pericardial-target-delivery-model-in-the-swine
#15
Tinen L Iles, Brian Howard, Stephen Howard, Stephen Quallich, Christopher Rolfes, Eric Richardson, Hanna R Iaizzo, Paul A Iaizzo
To date, many pharmacological agents used to treat or prevent arrhythmias in open-heart cases create undesired systemic side effects. For example, antiarrhythmic drugs administered intravenously can produce drops in systemic pressure in the already compromised cardiac patient. While performing open-heart procedures, surgeons will often either create a small port or form a pericardial cradle to create suitable fields for operation. This access yields opportunities for target pharmacological delivery (antiarrhythmic or ischemic preconditioning agents) directly to the myocardial tissue without undesired side effects...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494721/differential-left-to-right-atria-gene-expression-ratio-in-human-sinus-rhythm-and-atrial-fibrillation-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis-and-thrombogenesis
#16
Feng-Chun Tsai, Yen-Chen Lin, Shang-Hung Chang, Gwo-Jyh Chang, Yu-Juei Hsu, Yuan-Min Lin, Yun-Shien Lee, Chun-Li Wang, Yung-Hsin Yeh
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes atrial remodeling, and the left atrium (LA) is the favored substrate for maintaining AF. It remains unclear if AF remodels both atria differently and contributes to LA arrhythmogenesis and thrombogenesis. Therefore, we wished to characterize the transcript profiles in the LA and right atrium (RA) in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF respectively. METHODS: Paired LA and RA appendages acquired from patients receiving cardiac surgery were used for ion-channel- and whole-exome-based transcriptome analysis...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462069/adenosine-induced-atrial-fibrillation-localized-reentrant-drivers-in-lateral-right-atria-due-to-heterogeneous-expression-of-adenosine-a1-receptors-and-girk4-subunits-in-the-human-heart
#17
Ning Li, Thomas A Csepe, Brian J Hansen, Lidiya V Sul, Anuradha Kalyanasundaram, Stanislav O Zakharkin, Jichao Zhao, Avirup Guha, David R Van Wagoner, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, Brandon J Biesiadecki, John D Hummel, Raul Weiss, Vadim V Fedorov
BACKGROUND: Adenosine provokes atrial fibrillation (AF) with a higher activation frequency in right atria (RA) versus left atria (LA) in patients, but the underlying molecular and functional substrates are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-induced AF is driven by localized reentry in RA areas with highest expression of adenosine A1 receptor and its downstream GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels) channels (IK,Ado). METHODS: We applied biatrial optical mapping and immunoblot mapping of various atrial regions to reveal the mechanism of adenosine-induced AF in explanted failing and nonfailing human hearts (n=37)...
August 9, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447370/increased-susceptibility-to-atrial-fibrillation-secondary-to-atrial-fibrosis-in-transgenic-goats-expressing-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#18
Irina A Polejaeva, Ravi Ranjan, Christopher J Davies, Misha Regouski, Justin Hall, Aaron L Olsen, Qinggang Meng, Heloisa M Rutigliano, Derek J Dosdall, Nathan A Angel, Frank B Sachse, Thomas Seidel, Aaron J Thomas, Rusty Stott, Kip E Panter, Pamela M Lee, Arnaud J VAN Wettere, John R Stevens, Zhongde Wang, Rob S Macleod, Nassir F Marrouche, Kenneth L White
INTRODUCTION: Large animal models of progressive atrial fibrosis would provide an attractive platform to study relationship between structural and electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we established a new transgenic goat model of AF with cardiac specific overexpression of TGF-β1 and investigated the changes in the cardiac structure and function leading to AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic goats with cardiac specific overexpression of constitutively active TGF-β1 were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390994/post-operative-atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-a-pre-existing-structural-and-electrical-substrate-in-human-right-atrial-myocardium
#19
Junaid A B Zaman, Leanne Harling, Hutan Ashrafian, Ara Darzi, Nigel Gooderham, Thanos Athanasiou, Nicholas S Peters
BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a major health economic burden. However, the precise mechanisms in POAF remain unclear. In other forms of AF, sites of high dominant frequency (DF) in sinus rhythm (SR) may harbour 'AF nests'. We studied AF inducibility in relation to substrate changes using epicardial electrograms and cardiomyocyte calcium handling in the atria of AF naïve patients. METHOD: Bipolar electrograms were recorded from the lateral right atrial (RA) wall in 34 patients undergoing coronary surgery using a high-density array in sinus rhythm (NSR)...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353237/acute-effects-of-unilateral-temporary-stellate-ganglion-block-on-human-atrial-electrophysiological-properties-and-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility
#20
Dionyssios Leftheriotis, Panayota Flevari, Charalampos Kossyvakis, Dimitrios Katsaras, Chrysanthi Batistaki, Chrysa Arvaniti, Georgios Giannopoulos, Spyridon Deftereos, Georgia Kostopanagiotou, Ioannis Lekakis
BACKGROUND: In experimental models, stellate ganglion block (SGB) reduces the induction of atrial fibrillation (AF), while data in humans are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of unilateral SGB on atrial electrophysiological properties and AF induction in patients with paroxysmal AF. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with paroxysmal AF were randomized in a 2:1 order to temporary, transcutaneous, pharmaceutical SGB with lidocaine or placebo before pulmonary vein isolation...
June 21, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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