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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709904/the-effects-of-gaze-stabilization-on-gait-parameters-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Rebecca J Reed-Jones, Douglas W Powell
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gaze fixation on head stabilization and gait during straight over ground walking in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight individuals with PD (Age: 62.3±8.1years) volunteered for the study. Full body kinematic data were collected at 120Hz using a Vicon motion capture system. Two visual conditions were used to determine the effects of gaze fixation: FREE gaze and FIXED gaze. During FIXED gaze, participants were required to fixate on a still target 13meters ahead...
July 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669548/an-effective-balancing-response-to-lateral-perturbations-at-pelvis-level-during-slow-walking-requires-control-in-all-three-planes-of-motion
#2
Zlatko Matjačić, Matjaž Zadravec, Andrej Olenšek
In this study we investigated balancing responses to lateral perturbations during slow walking (0.85m/s). A group of seven healthy individuals walked on an instrumented treadmill while being perturbed at the level of waist at left heel strike in outward and inward lateral directions. Centre of mass (COM) and centre of pressure (COP), rotation of pelvis around vertical axis, step lengths, step widths and step times were assessed. The results have shown that beside control of COP in lateral direction, facilitated by adequate step widths, control of COP in sagittal direction, slowing down movement of COM was present after commencement of lateral perturbations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619310/dance-for-parkinson-s-the-effects-on-whole-body-co-ordination-during-turning-around
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sophia Hulbert, Ann Ashburn, Lisa Roberts, Geert Verheyden
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ballroom and Latin American dancing classes on turning in people with Parkinson's. DESIGN: This study employed a randomised, controlled, experimental design. SETTING: Dance classes were performed in a community dance centre in Southern England and all assessments took place a gait laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven people with mild-moderate Parkinson's participated. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 20, 1-h dancing classes over 10 weeks (n=15), or a 'usual care' control group (n=12)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559427/effects-of-altered-sagittal-trunk-orientation-on-kinetic-pattern-in-able-bodied-walking-on-uneven-ground
#4
Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode
Studies of disturbed human locomotion often focus on the dynamics of the gait when either posture, movement or surface is perturbed. Yet, the interaction effects of variation of trunk posture and ground level on kinetic behaviour of able-bodied gait have not been explored. For 12 participants we investigated the kinetic behaviour, as well as velocity and contact time, across four steps including an unperturbed step on level ground, pre-perturbation, perturbation (10-cm drop) and post-perturbation steps while walking with normal speed with four postures: regular erect, with 30°, 50° and maximal sagittal trunk flexion (70°)...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535762/gait-initiation-and-termination-strategies-in-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#5
Veronica Cimolin, Nicola Cau, Manuela Galli, Cristina Santovito, Graziano Grugni, Paolo Capodaglio
BACKGROUND: Gait Initiation (GI) is a functional task representing one of the first voluntary destabilizing behaviours observed in the development of a locomotor pattern as the whole body centre of mass transitions from a large to a small base of support. Conversely, Gait Termination (GT) consists in the transition from walking to standing which, in everyday life, is a very common movement. Compared to normal walking, it requires higher control of postural stability. For a safe GT, the forward movement of the body has to be slowed down to achieve a stable upright position...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367687/effects-of-tai-chi-exercise-on-body-stability-among-the-elderly-during-stair-descent-under-different-levels-of-illumination
#6
Qipeng Song, Xuewen Tian, Del Wong, Cui Zhang, Wei Sun, Peng Cheng, Dewei Mao
The elderly are prone to stair descent falls under low illumination. Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese conditioning exercise, has been proved to improve body stability by altering body condition, gait, and proprioception. This study investigates whether Tai Chi exercise could improve body stability during stair descent under high and low illumination. Three groups of elderly women who practice Tai Chi, brisk walking, and no exercise were included. They descended from a simulated staircase. Tai Chi participants decreased horizontal velocity, centre of mass (COM) sway, and increased foot clearance compared with other participants, these movements could increase body stability; Compared with under high illumination, Tai Chi participants decreased horizontal velocity, loading rate, braking impulse, and increased inclination angle, COM sway, centre of pressure displacement under low illumination...
April 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298890/the-differential-effect-of-arm-movements-during-gait-on-the-forward-acceleration-of-the-centre-of-mass-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-typically-developing-children
#7
Pieter Meyns, Guy Molenaers, Jacques Duysens, Ilse Jonkers
Background: We aimed to study the contribution of upper limb movements to propulsion during walking in typically developing (TD) children (n = 5) and children with hemiplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy (CP; n = 5 and n = 4, respectively). Methods: Using integrated three-dimensional motion capture data and a scaled generic musculoskeletal model that included upper limbs, we generated torque driven simulations of gait in OpenSim. Induced acceleration analyses were then used to determine the contributions of the individual actuators located at the relevant degrees of freedoms of the upper and lower limb joints to the forward acceleration of the COM at each time point of the gait simulation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294323/segmental-morphometrics-of-the-olive-baboon-papio-anubis-a-longitudinal-study-from-birth-to-adulthood
#8
François Druelle, Peter Aerts, Kristiaan D'Août, Valérie Moulin, Gilles Berillon
The linear dimensions and inertial characteristics of the body are important in locomotion and they change considerably during the ontogeny of animals, including humans. This longitudinal and ontogenetic study has produced the largest dataset to date of segmental morphometrics in a Catarrhini species, the olive baboon. The objectives of the study were to quantify the changes in body linear and inertial dimensions and to explore their (theoretical) mechanical significance for locomotion. We took full-body measurements of captive individuals at regular intervals...
June 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237184/soft-tissue-displacement-over-pelvic-anatomical-landmarks-during-3-d-hip-movements
#9
V Camomilla, T Bonci, A Cappozzo
The position, in a pelvis-embedded anatomical coordinate system, of skin points located over the following anatomical landmarks (AL) was determined while the hip assumed different spatial postures: right and left anterior superior and posterior superior iliac spines, and the sacrum. Postures were selected as occurring during walking and during a flexion-extension and circumduction movement, as used to determine the hip joint centre position (star-arc movement). Five volunteers, characterised by a wide range of body mass indices (22-37), were investigated...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222342/concussion-is-associated-with-altered-preparatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation
#10
Cailbhe Doherty, Liang Zhao, John Ryan, Yusuke Komaba, Akihiro Inomata, Brian Caulfield
Gait initiation is a useful surrogate measure of supraspinal motor control mechanisms but has never been evaluated in a cohort following concussion. The aim of this study was to quantify the preparatory postural adjustments (PPAs) of gait initiation (GI) in fifteen concussion patients (4 females, 11 males) in comparison to a group of fifteen age- and sex-matched controls. All participants completed variants of the GI task where their dominant and non-dominant limbs as the 'stepping' and 'support' limbs. Task performance was quantified using the centre of pressure (COP) trajectory of each foot (computed from a force plate) and a surrogate of the centre of mass (COM) trajectory (estimated from an inertial measurement unit placed on the sacrum)...
April 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183867/propulsion-in-hexapod-locomotion-how-do-desert-ants-traverse-slopes
#11
Toni Wöhrl, Lars Reinhardt, Reinhard Blickhan
The employment of an alternating tripod gait to traverse uneven terrains is a common characteristic shared among many Hexapoda. Because this could be one specific cause for their ecological success, we examined the alternating tripod gait of the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis together with their ground reaction forces and weight-specific leg impulses for level locomotion and on moderate (±30 deg) and steep (±60 deg) slopes in order to understand mechanical functions of individual legs during inclined locomotion...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903873/timing-of-head-movements-is-consistent-with-energy-minimization-in-walking-ungulates
#12
David M Loscher, Fiete Meyer, Kerstin Kracht, John A Nyakatura
Many ungulates show a conspicuous nodding motion of the head when walking. Until now, the functional significance of this behaviour remained unclear. Combining in vivo kinematics of quadrupedal mammals with a computer model, we show that the timing of vertical displacements of the head and neck is consistent with minimizing energy expenditure for carrying these body parts in an inverted pendulum walking gait. Varying the timing of head movements in the model resulted in increased metabolic cost estimate for carrying the head and neck of up to 63%...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897410/androgen-deprivation-causes-selective-deficits-in-the-biomechanical-leg-muscle-function-of-men-during-walking-a-prospective-case-control-study
#13
Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888201/increasing-trunk-flexion-morphs-human-leg-function-into-that-of-birds-despite-different-leg-morphology
#14
Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instruct twelve participants to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, with 30°, 50° and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulate the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865845/temporal-spatial-and-metabolic-measures-of-walking-in-highly-functional-individuals-with-lower-limb-amputations
#15
Hannah L Jarvis, Alex N Bennett, Martin Twiste, Rhodri D Phillip, John Etherington, Richard Baker
OBJECTIVE: To record the temporal spatial parameters and metabolic energy expenditure during walking of individuals with amputation, walking with advanced prostheses, and after completion of comprehensive rehabilitation compared with able-bodied persons. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Multidisciplinary comprehensive rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Severely injured UK military personnel with amputation and subsequent completion of their rehabilitation program (n=30; unilateral transtibial: n=10, unilateral transfemoral: n=10, and bilateral transfemoral: n=10) were compared with able-bodied persons (n=10) with similar age, height, and mass (P>...
November 16, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853539/foot-pressure-distributions-during-walking-in-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#16
Olga Panagiotopoulou, Todd C Pataky, Madeleine Day, Michael C Hensman, Sean Hensman, John R Hutchinson, Christofer J Clemente
Elephants, the largest living land mammals, have evolved a specialized foot morphology to help reduce locomotor pressures while supporting their large body mass. Peak pressures that could cause tissue damage are mitigated passively by the anatomy of elephants' feet, yet this mechanism does not seem to work well for some captive animals. This study tests how foot pressures vary among African and Asian elephants from habitats where natural substrates predominate but where foot care protocols differ. Variations in pressure patterns might be related to differences in husbandry, including but not limited to trimming and the substrates that elephants typically stand and move on...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825073/mechanical-energy-patterns-in-nordic-walking-comparisons-with-conventional-walking
#17
Barbara Pellegrini, Leonardo Alexandre Peyré-Tartaruga, Chiara Zoppirolli, Lorenzo Bortolan, Aldo Savoldelli, Alberto Enrico Minetti, Federico Schena
The use of poles during Nordic Walking (NW) actively engages the upper body to propel the body forward during walking. Evidence suggests that NW leads to a longer stride and higher speed, and sometimes to increased ground reaction forces with respect to conventional walking (W). The aim of this study was to investigate if NW is associated with different changes in body centre of mass (COM) motion and limbs energy patterns, mechanical work and efficiency compared to W. Eight experienced Nordic Walkers performed 5-min W and NW trials on a treadmill at 4kmh(-1)...
January 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697719/medial-lateral-centre-of-mass-displacement-and-base-of-support-are-equally-good-predictors-of-metabolic-cost-in-amputee-walking
#18
R A Weinert-Aplin, M Twiste, H L Jarvis, A N Bennett, R J Baker
Amputees are known to walk with greater metabolic cost than able-bodied individuals and establishing predictors of metabolic cost from kinematic measures, such as centre of mass (CoM) motion, during walking are important from a rehabilitative perspective, as they can provide quantifiable measures to target during gait rehabilitation in amputees. While it is known that vertical CoM motion poorly predicts metabolic cost, CoM motion in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior directions have not been investigated in the context of gait efficiency in the amputee population...
January 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685013/knee-rotationplasty-motion-of-the-body-centre-of-mass-during-walking
#19
Viviana Rota, Maria Grazia Benedetti, Yusuke Okita, Marco Manfrini, Luigi Tesio
Knee rotationplasty (KRP) is a type of surgery in which the rotated ankle serves as a new knee after being removed for bone tumor. Although this limb salvage surgery is rarely indicated in properly selected patients, it may offer functional advantages over transfemoral amputation, and more durable results compared with a prosthesis. The walking mechanics of adult patients after KRP is believed to be close to that of below-knee amputees. In this study, we evaluated steady-state walking of KRP patients from the viewpoint of the overall muscle power needed to keep the body centre of mass in motion...
December 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676754/on-the-origin-of-the-mediolateral-displacement-of-the-centre-of-pressure-during-gait-initiation
#20
Marco Schieppati, Jean Louis Honeine, Manh-Cuong Do, Oscar Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: The critical action for gait initiation involves lifting of the swing leg while shifting the centre of mass (CoM) of the body over the stance leg. This action is made possible by the initial displacement of the centre of pressure (CoP) in the direction of the swing leg. We hypothesised that the CoP displacement requires a coordinated action of the swing-leg abductor muscles and of the dorsiflexor muscles of the stance leg. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths (small, medium, wide)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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