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Centre of mass during walk or gait

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903873/timing-of-head-movements-is-consistent-with-energy-minimization-in-walking-ungulates
#1
David M Loscher, Fiete Meyer, Kerstin Kracht, John A Nyakatura
Many ungulates show a conspicuous nodding motion of the head when walking. Until now, the functional significance of this behaviour remained unclear. Combining in vivo kinematics of quadrupedal mammals with a computer model, we show that the timing of vertical displacements of the head and neck is consistent with minimizing energy expenditure for carrying these body parts in an inverted pendulum walking gait. Varying the timing of head movements in the model resulted in increased metabolic cost estimate for carrying the head and neck of up to 63%...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897410/androgen-deprivation-causes-selective-deficits-in-the-biomechanical-leg-muscle-function-of-men-during-walking-a-prospective-case-control-study
#2
Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888201/increasing-trunk-flexion-morphs-human-leg-function-into-that-of-birds-despite-different-leg-morphology
#3
Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instruct twelve participants to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, with 30°, 50° and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulate the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865845/temporal-spatial-and-metabolic-measures-of-walking-in-highly-functional-individuals-with-lower-limb-amputations
#4
Hannah L Jarvis, Alex N Bennett, Martin Twiste, Rhodri D Phillip, John Etherington, Richard Baker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this descriptive exploratory study is to record the temporal spatial parameters and metabolic energy expenditure during walking of individuals with amputation, walking with advanced prostheses and following completion of comprehensive rehabilitation, to able-bodied controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional SETTING: Multi-disciplinary comprehensive rehabilitation centre PARTICIPANTS: Thirty severely injured United Kingdom military personnel with amputation and subsequent completion of their rehabilitation programme (10 unilateral trans-tibial, 10 unilateral trans-femoral, and 10 bilateral trans-femoral) were compared to (and of similar age, height and mass (p >0...
November 16, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853539/foot-pressure-distributions-during-walking-in-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana
#5
Olga Panagiotopoulou, Todd C Pataky, Madeleine Day, Michael C Hensman, Sean Hensman, John R Hutchinson, Christofer J Clemente
Elephants, the largest living land mammals, have evolved a specialized foot morphology to help reduce locomotor pressures while supporting their large body mass. Peak pressures that could cause tissue damage are mitigated passively by the anatomy of elephants' feet, yet this mechanism does not seem to work well for some captive animals. This study tests how foot pressures vary among African and Asian elephants from habitats where natural substrates predominate but where foot care protocols differ. Variations in pressure patterns might be related to differences in husbandry, including but not limited to trimming and the substrates that elephants typically stand and move on...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825073/mechanical-energy-patterns-in-nordic-walking-comparisons-with-conventional-walking
#6
Barbara Pellegrini, Leonardo Alexandre Peyré-Tartaruga, Chiara Zoppirolli, Lorenzo Bortolan, Aldo Savoldelli, Alberto Enrico Minetti, Federico Schena
The use of poles during Nordic Walking (NW) actively engages the upper body to propel the body forward during walking. Evidence suggests that NW leads to a longer stride and higher speed, and sometimes to increased ground reaction forces with respect to conventional walking (W). The aim of this study was to investigate if NW is associated with different changes in body centre of mass (COM) motion and limbs energy patterns, mechanical work and efficiency compared to W. Eight experienced Nordic Walkers performed 5-min W and NW trials on a treadmill at 4kmh(-1)...
November 3, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697719/medial-lateral-centre-of-mass-displacement-and-base-of-support-are-equally-good-predictors-of-metabolic-cost-in-amputee-walking
#7
R A Weinert-Aplin, M Twiste, H L Jarvis, A N Bennett, R J Baker
Amputees are known to walk with greater metabolic cost than able-bodied individuals and establishing predictors of metabolic cost from kinematic measures, such as centre of mass (CoM) motion, during walking are important from a rehabilitative perspective, as they can provide quantifiable measures to target during gait rehabilitation in amputees. While it is known that vertical CoM motion poorly predicts metabolic cost, CoM motion in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior directions have not been investigated in the context of gait efficiency in the amputee population...
September 26, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685013/knee-rotationplasty-motion-of-the-body-centre-of-mass-during-walking
#8
Viviana Rota, Maria Grazia Benedetti, Yusuke Okita, Marco Manfrini, Luigi Tesio
Knee rotationplasty (KRP) is a type of surgery in which the rotated ankle serves as a new knee after being removed for bone tumor. Although this limb salvage surgery is rarely indicated in properly selected patients, it may offer functional advantages over transfemoral amputation, and more durable results compared with a prosthesis. The walking mechanics of adult patients after KRP is believed to be close to that of below-knee amputees. In this study, we evaluated steady-state walking of KRP patients from the viewpoint of the overall muscle power needed to keep the body centre of mass in motion...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676754/on-the-origin-of-the-mediolateral-displacement-of-the-centre-of-pressure-during-gait-initiation
#9
Marco Schieppati, Jean Louis Honeine, Manh-Cuong Do, Oscar Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: The critical action for gait initiation involves lifting of the swing leg while shifting the centre of mass (CoM) of the body over the stance leg. This action is made possible by the initial displacement of the centre of pressure (CoP) in the direction of the swing leg. We hypothesised that the CoP displacement requires a coordinated action of the swing-leg abductor muscles and of the dorsiflexor muscles of the stance leg. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths (small, medium, wide)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575317/cross-sectional-associations-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-with-sarcopenia-and-sarcopenic-obesity-in-older-men
#10
Daniel A Aggio, Claudio Sartini, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
This study investigated associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older British men. Participants were men aged 70-92years (n=1286) recruited from UK Primary Care Centres. Outcomes included (i) sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (lowest two fifths of the mid-upper arm muscle circumference distribution) accompanied by low muscular strength (hand grip strength <30kg) or low physical performance (gait speed≤0.8m/s); (ii) severe sarcopenia, required all three conditions; (iii) sarcopenic obesity defined as sarcopenia or severe sarcopenia and a waist circumference of >102cm...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413640/an-exploration-of-the-influence-of-diagonal-dissociation-and-moderate-changes-in-speed-on-locomotor-parameters-in-trotting-horses
#11
Sarah Jane Hobbs, John E A Bertram, Hilary M Clayton
Background. Although the trot is described as a diagonal gait, contacts of the diagonal pairs of hooves are not usually perfectly synchronized. Although subtle, the timing dissociation between contacts of each diagonal pair could have consequences on gait dynamics and provide insight into the functional strategies employed. This study explores the mechanical effects of different diagonal dissociation patterns when speed was matched between individuals and how these effects link to moderate, natural changes in trotting speed...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354828/implementation-of-interval-walking-training-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-denmark-rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#12
Mathias Ried-Larsen, Reimar W Thomsen, Klara Berencsi, Cecilie F Brinkløv, Charlotte Brøns, Laura S Valentiner, Kristian Karstoft, Henning Langberg, Allan A Vaag, Bente K Pedersen, Jens S Nielsen
Promoting physical activity is a first-line choice of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is a need for more effective tools and technologies to facilitate structured lifestyle interventions and to ensure a better compliance, sustainability, and health benefits of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336849/sit-to-walk-and-sit-to-stand-and-walk-task-dynamics-are-maintained-during-rising-at-an-elevated-seat-height-independent-of-lead-limb-in-healthy-individuals
#13
Gareth D Jones, Darren C James, Michael Thacker, Eleanor J Jones, David A Green
INTRODUCTION: Sit-to-walk (STW) is a common transitional motor task not usually included in rehabilitation. Typically, sit-to-stand (STS), pause, then gait initiation (GI) before walking is used, which we term sit-to-stand-and-walk (STSW). Separation between centre-of-pressure (COP) and whole-body centre-of-mass (BCOM) during GI is associated with dynamic postural stability. Rising from seats higher than knee-height (KH) is more achievable for patients, but whether this and/or lead-limb significantly affects task dynamics is unclear...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893506/obstacle-crossing-during-gait-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-cross-sectional-study-with-kinematic-analysis-of-dynamic-balance-and-trunk-control
#14
Ailish Malone, Damien Kiernan, Helen French, Valerie Saunders, Timothy O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Balance problems are common in children who have cerebral palsy (CP) but are active and ambulant. Control of the whole-body center of mass is critical in maintaining dynamic stability during challenging mobility tasks, such as clearing an obstacle while walking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare trunk and lower limb kinematics and center-of-mass control in children with CP and those in children with typical development during obstacle crossing...
August 2016: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26886216/fat-king-penguins-are-less-steady-on-their-feet
#15
Astrid S T Willener, Yves Handrich, Lewis G Halsey, Siobhán Strike
Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837929/metabolic-differences-between-shod-and-barefoot-walking-in-children
#16
S P Shultz, S D Houltham, S M Kung, P Hume, P W Fink
Footwear affects the biomechanics of children's gait; however, there has been less research addressing the energetics of walking with and without shoes. This study investigated the effects of barefoot and shod walking on metabolic parameters in children. 25 children (9.7±1.4 years) walked at a self-selected pace for 5 min on an instrumented treadmill under 2 footwear conditions (barefoot, running shoe). Vertical oscillations of centre of mass were calculated from ground reaction forces. Expired gases were collected in the last minute of each trial...
May 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26771198/balancing-ballistic-protection-against-physiological-strain-evidence-from-laboratory-and-field-trials
#17
Nigel A S Taylor, Catriona A Burdon, Anne M J van den Heuvel, Alison L Fogarty, Sean R Notley, Andrew P Hunt, Daniel C Billing, Jace R Drain, Aaron J Silk, Mark J Patterson, Gregory E Peoples
This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0...
February 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26737888/gait-analysis-and-estimation-of-changes-in-fall-risk-factors
#18
Heidi Similä, Milla Immonen, Juho Merilahti, Tuula Petäkoski-Hult
Falls are a major problem for older adults. A continuous gait monitoring that provides fall risk assessment would allow timely interventions aiming for preventing falls. The objective of this work was to find out whether gait variables calculated from the acceleration signal measured during walk task in the baseline assessment can predict changes in commonly used fall risk assessment scales after 12 months follow-up. Forty two subjects were measured during walk test with a triaxial acceleration sensor worn on a waist belt at the lower back near the centre of mass...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728501/effects-of-modified-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-on-the-lower-extremities-in-patients-with-stroke-a-pilot-study
#19
Yulian Zhu, Chaosheng Zhou, Yu Liu, Jue Liu, Jiaran Jin, Shengnian Zhang, Yulong Bai, Dequan Huang, Bing Zhu, Yiming Xu, Yi Wu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to qualify the improvements of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) on the lower limb of stroke patients via assessing the centre of mass (COM) displacement and the basic gait parameters. METHODS: A total of 22 hemiplegic patients after stroke with first-time clinical cerebral infarction or haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident were included in this study from May to December, 2014. The patients were randomly divided into m-CIMT group and the conventional therapy group (control group), and received corresponding training for five days/week for four weeks...
September 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26589617/correlating-mechanical-work-with-energy-consumption-during-gait-throughout-pregnancy
#20
Zarko Krkeljas, Sarah Johanna Moss
BACKGROUND: Measures of mechanical work may be useful in evaluating efficiency of walking during pregnancy. Various adaptations in the body during pregnancy lead to altered gait, consequently contributing to the total energy cost of walking. Measures of metabolic energy expenditure may not be reliable for measuring energetic cost of gait during pregnancy as pregnancy results in numerous metabolic changes resulting from foetal development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if mechanical work prediction equations correlate with the metabolic energy cost of gait during pregnancy...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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