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Centre of mass during walk or gait

R A Weinert-Aplin, M Twiste, H L Jarvis, A N Bennett, R J Baker
Amputees are known to walk with greater metabolic cost than able-bodied individuals and establishing predictors of metabolic cost from kinematic measures, such as centre of mass (CoM) motion, during walking are important from a rehabilitative perspective, as they can provide quantifiable measures to target during gait rehabilitation in amputees. While it is known that vertical CoM motion poorly predicts metabolic cost, CoM motion in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior directions have not been investigated in the context of gait efficiency in the amputee population...
September 26, 2016: Gait & Posture
Viviana Rota, Maria Grazia Benedetti, Yusuke Okita, Marco Manfrini, Luigi Tesio
Knee rotationplasty (KRP) is a type of surgery in which the rotated ankle serves as a new knee after being removed for bone tumor. Although this limb salvage surgery is rarely indicated in properly selected patients, it may offer functional advantages over transfemoral amputation, and more durable results compared with a prosthesis. The walking mechanics of adult patients after KRP is believed to be close to that of below-knee amputees. In this study, we evaluated steady-state walking of KRP patients from the viewpoint of the overall muscle power needed to keep the body centre of mass in motion...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Marco Schieppati, Jean Louis Honeine, Manh-Cuong Do, Oscar Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: The critical action for gait initiation involves lifting of the swing leg while shifting the centre of mass (CoM) of the body over the stance leg. This action is made possible by the initial displacement of the centre of pressure (CoP) in the direction of the swing leg. We hypothesised that the CoP displacement requires a coordinated action of the swing-leg abductor muscles and of the dorsiflexor muscles of the stance leg. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths (small, medium, wide)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Daniel A Aggio, Claudio Sartini, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
This study investigated associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older British men. Participants were men aged 70-92years (n=1286) recruited from UK Primary Care Centres. Outcomes included (i) sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (lowest two fifths of the mid-upper arm muscle circumference distribution) accompanied by low muscular strength (hand grip strength <30kg) or low physical performance (gait speed≤0.8m/s); (ii) severe sarcopenia, required all three conditions; (iii) sarcopenic obesity defined as sarcopenia or severe sarcopenia and a waist circumference of >102cm...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
Sarah Jane Hobbs, John E A Bertram, Hilary M Clayton
Background. Although the trot is described as a diagonal gait, contacts of the diagonal pairs of hooves are not usually perfectly synchronized. Although subtle, the timing dissociation between contacts of each diagonal pair could have consequences on gait dynamics and provide insight into the functional strategies employed. This study explores the mechanical effects of different diagonal dissociation patterns when speed was matched between individuals and how these effects link to moderate, natural changes in trotting speed...
2016: PeerJ
Mathias Ried-Larsen, Reimar W Thomsen, Klara Berencsi, Cecilie F Brinkløv, Charlotte Brøns, Laura S Valentiner, Kristian Karstoft, Henning Langberg, Allan A Vaag, Bente K Pedersen, Jens S Nielsen
Promoting physical activity is a first-line choice of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is a need for more effective tools and technologies to facilitate structured lifestyle interventions and to ensure a better compliance, sustainability, and health benefits of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Gareth D Jones, Darren C James, Michael Thacker, Eleanor J Jones, David A Green
INTRODUCTION: Sit-to-walk (STW) is a common transitional motor task not usually included in rehabilitation. Typically, sit-to-stand (STS), pause, then gait initiation (GI) before walking is used, which we term sit-to-stand-and-walk (STSW). Separation between centre-of-pressure (COP) and whole-body centre-of-mass (BCOM) during GI is associated with dynamic postural stability. Rising from seats higher than knee-height (KH) is more achievable for patients, but whether this and/or lead-limb significantly affects task dynamics is unclear...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
Ailish Malone, Damien Kiernan, Helen French, Valerie Saunders, Timothy O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Balance problems are common in children who have cerebral palsy (CP) but are active and ambulant. Control of the whole-body center of mass is critical in maintaining dynamic stability during challenging mobility tasks, such as clearing an obstacle while walking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare trunk and lower limb kinematics and center-of-mass control in children with CP and those in children with typical development during obstacle crossing...
August 2016: Physical Therapy
Astrid S T Willener, Yves Handrich, Lewis G Halsey, Siobhán Strike
Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass...
2016: PloS One
S P Shultz, S D Houltham, S M Kung, P Hume, P W Fink
Footwear affects the biomechanics of children's gait; however, there has been less research addressing the energetics of walking with and without shoes. This study investigated the effects of barefoot and shod walking on metabolic parameters in children. 25 children (9.7±1.4 years) walked at a self-selected pace for 5 min on an instrumented treadmill under 2 footwear conditions (barefoot, running shoe). Vertical oscillations of centre of mass were calculated from ground reaction forces. Expired gases were collected in the last minute of each trial...
May 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Nigel A S Taylor, Catriona A Burdon, Anne M J van den Heuvel, Alison L Fogarty, Sean R Notley, Andrew P Hunt, Daniel C Billing, Jace R Drain, Aaron J Silk, Mark J Patterson, Gregory E Peoples
This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0...
February 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Heidi Similä, Milla Immonen, Juho Merilahti, Tuula Petäkoski-Hult
Falls are a major problem for older adults. A continuous gait monitoring that provides fall risk assessment would allow timely interventions aiming for preventing falls. The objective of this work was to find out whether gait variables calculated from the acceleration signal measured during walk task in the baseline assessment can predict changes in commonly used fall risk assessment scales after 12 months follow-up. Forty two subjects were measured during walk test with a triaxial acceleration sensor worn on a waist belt at the lower back near the centre of mass...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yulian Zhu, Chaosheng Zhou, Yu Liu, Jue Liu, Jiaran Jin, Shengnian Zhang, Yulong Bai, Dequan Huang, Bing Zhu, Yiming Xu, Yi Wu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to qualify the improvements of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (m-CIMT) on the lower limb of stroke patients via assessing the centre of mass (COM) displacement and the basic gait parameters. METHODS: A total of 22 hemiplegic patients after stroke with first-time clinical cerebral infarction or haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident were included in this study from May to December, 2014. The patients were randomly divided into m-CIMT group and the conventional therapy group (control group), and received corresponding training for five days/week for four weeks...
September 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Zarko Krkeljas, Sarah Johanna Moss
BACKGROUND: Measures of mechanical work may be useful in evaluating efficiency of walking during pregnancy. Various adaptations in the body during pregnancy lead to altered gait, consequently contributing to the total energy cost of walking. Measures of metabolic energy expenditure may not be reliable for measuring energetic cost of gait during pregnancy as pregnancy results in numerous metabolic changes resulting from foetal development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if mechanical work prediction equations correlate with the metabolic energy cost of gait during pregnancy...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Thomas Endlein, Walter Federle
Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate...
2015: PloS One
Philippe C Dixon, Karen Jansen, Ilse Jonkers, Julie Stebbins, Tim Theologis, Amy B Zavatsky
Turning while walking requires substantial joint kinematic and kinetic adaptations compared to straight walking in order to redirect the body centre of mass (COM) towards the new walking direction. The role of muscles and external forces in controlling and redirecting the COM during turning remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the contributors to COM medio-lateral acceleration during 90° pre-planned turns about the inside limb (spin) and straight walking in typically developing children. Simulations of straight walking and turning gait based on experimental motion data were implemented in OpenSim...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
Patrick Studer, Norbert Suhm, Qing Wang, Rachel Rosenthal, Hatem Al-Fadel Saleh, Marcel Jakob
BACKGROUND: The importance of the greater trochanter and its attached abductor muscles for physiological gait is well accepted. However the influence of a displaced greater trochanter fracture after a pertrochanteric fracture is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine if there is an association between the greater trochanter position and the level of patient mobility following internal fixation of pertrochanteric fractures. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three consecutive elderly patients with a median age of 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 79-91) years, who were treated for pertrochanteric fractures at a level I trauma centre, were recruited...
December 2015: Injury
Teresa Moreno, Cristina Reche, Ioar Rivas, Maria Cruz Minguillón, Vânia Martins, Concepción Vargas, Giorgio Buonanno, Jesus Parga, Marco Pandolfi, Mariola Brines, Marina Ealo, Ana Sofia Fonseca, Fulvio Amato, Garay Sosa, Marta Capdevila, Eladio de Miguel, Xavier Querol, Wes Gibbons
Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part...
October 2015: Environmental Research
Blandine Bril, Lucile Dupuy, Gilles Dietrich, Daniela Corbetta
This study examines the process of learning to walk from a functional perspective. To move forward, one must generate and control propulsive forces. To achieve this, it is necessary to create and tune a distance between the centre of mass (CoM) and the centre of pressure (CoP) along the antero-posterior axis. We hypothesize that learning to walk consists of learning how to calibrate these self-generated propulsive forces to control such distance. We investigated this question with six infants (three girls and three boys) who we followed up weekly for the first 8 weeks after the onset of walking and then biweekly until they reached 14-16 weeks of walking experience...
October 2015: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Michael McGrath, David Howard, Richard Baker
Mathematical gait models often fall into one of two categories: simple and complex. There is a large leap in complexity between model types, meaning the effects of individual gait mechanisms get overlooked. This study investigated the cause-and-effect relationships between gait mechanisms and resulting kinematics and kinetics, using a sequence of mathematical models of increasing complexity. The focus was on sagittal plane and single support only. Starting with an inverted pendulum (IP), extended to include a HAT (head-arms-trunk) segment and an actuated hip moment, further complexities were added one-by-one...
2015: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
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