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Douglas B Sponsler, Reed M Johnson
The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. We submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: (1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees and (2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Eva Jangland, Pia Yngman Uhlin, Erebouni Arakelian
The position of Nurse Practitioner is a new role in Nordic countries. The transition from a registered nurse to the Nurse Practitioner role has been reported to be a personal challenge. This study, guided by the Nordic theoretical model for use in the education of advanced practice nurses, represents a unique opportunity to describe this transition for newly graduated Nurse Practitioners in an interprofessional surgical care team in Sweden. The aim was to explore how the first Nurse Practitioners in surgical care experienced the transition into a new role and what competences they used in the team...
October 15, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Jan Forber, Michelle DiGiacomo, Bernie Carter, Patricia Davidson, Jane Phillips, Debra Jackson
Clinical learning experiences are an essential part of nurse education programs. Numerous approaches to clinical education and student supervision exist. The aim of this integrative review was to explore how studies have compared or contrasted different models of undergraduate nurse clinical education. A search of eight databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature published between 2006 and 2015. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A diverse range of methodologies and data collection methods were represented, which primarily explored student experiences or perceptions...
September 30, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Tommaso Michele Moles, Antonio Pompeiano, Thais Huarancca Reyes, Andrea Scartazza, Lorenzo Guglielminetti
Landraces represent an important part of the biodiversity well-adapted under limiting environmental conditions. We investigated the response of two Southern Italy tomato landraces, the well-known San Marzano (our commercial standard) and a local accession called "Ciettaicale", to different levels of sodium chloride in water irrigation (from 0 up to 600 mM) for a short-time exposure (one week). The combination of the chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange analyses suggested that Ciettaicale maintained a higher efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and CO2 utilization at high salinity concentrations than San Marzano...
October 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Kate Ablett, Andrew R Thompson
Childhood skin conditions can affect the quality of life of children, adolescents, and families. As such, paediatric dermatological conditions have been the focus of a number of qualitative studies and there is now a need to integrate the findings. A meta-ethnography was carried out with the existing 12 studies, which included nine studies examining parental experiences and three studies of child experiences. Meta-ethnographic analysis of the studies identified themes focused on the child's sense of stigmatisation and the challenges for families that arose from this...
October 18, 2016: Body Image
Jane Desborough, Nasser Bagheri, Michelle Banfield, Jane Mills, Christine Phillips, Rosemary Korda
BACKGROUND: The numbers of nurses in general practice in Australia tripled between 2004 and 2012. However, evidence on whether nursing care in general practice improves patient outcomes is scarce. Although patient satisfaction and enablement have been examined extensively as outcomes of general practitioner care, there is little research into these outcomes from nursing care in general practice. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between specific general practice characteristics and nurse consultation characteristics, and patient satisfaction and enablement METHODS: A mixed methods study examined a cross-section of patients from 21 general practices in the Australian Capital Territory...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Anna Chung-Kwan Tse, Jing-Woei Li, Simon Yuan Wang, Ting-Fung Chan, Keng Po Lai, Rudolf Shiu-Sun Wu
Hypoxia is a global environmental concern and poses a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems, including the sustainability of natural fish populations. The deleterious effects of hypoxia on fish reproductive fitness, as mediated by disruption of sex hormones and gene expression along the Brain-Pituitary-Gonad axis, have been well documented. Recently, we further demonstrated that the observed disruption of steroidogenesis in the ovary of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma is mediated through microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 8, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Katharina Grundler, Raffaela Rotter, Sloane Tilley, Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Mustaf Yakac, Erik Gaitzsch, Steffen Massberg, Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Ulrich Pohl, Hanna Mannell, Bjoern F Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Platelets possess critical hemostatic functions in the system of thrombosis and hemostasis, which can be affected by a multitude of external factors. Previous research has shown that platelets have the capacity to synthesize proteins de novo and more recently a multicatalytic protein complex, the proteasome, has been discovered in platelets. Due to its vital function for cellular integrity, the proteasome has become a therapeutic target for anti-proliferative drug therapies in cancer...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Gavish Munbauhal, Thomas Seisen, Florie D Gomez, Benoit Peyronnet, Olivier Cussenot, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) concept relies on the accurate detection of primary nodal landing sites and could represent a major advancement towards accurate, non-invasive pelvic staging in prostate cancer (PCa). Different iterations of the technique have now been validated and reproduced mostly in large-volume centres. The existing evidence denotes the feasibility and sensitivity of SLND, with encouraging pre- and intraoperative detection rates of 98% and 96%. Yet, current surgical practice mandates a backup template dissection due to a false negative rate, up to 7...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Ranjan Basak, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
There is extensive literature to show that nucleic acids can be taken up by cells under experimental conditions and that foetal DNA can be detected in maternal tissues. The uptaken DNA can integrate into host cell genomes and can be transcribed and translated into proteins. They can also cause chromosomal damage and karyotype alterations. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs)-based non-invasive DNA diagnostic techniques are being extensively researched in the field of cancer with the potential to advance new prognostic parameters and direct treatment decisions...
October 12, 2016: Mutation Research
Ruobing Zhang, Gilbert O Fruhwirth, Oana Coban, James E Barrett, Thomas Burgoyne, Sang Hak Lee, Paul Dennis Simonson, Murat Baday, Boris Kholodenko, Clare E Futter, Tony Ng, Paul R Selvin
Heterogeneity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in genetically identical cells, which occurs in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, remains poorly understood. MAPK cascades integrate signals emanating from different EGFR spatial locations, including the plasma membrane and endocytic compartment. We previously hypothesized that in EGF-stimulated cells the MAPK phosphorylation (pMAPK) level and activity are largely determined by the spatial organization of the EGFR clusters within the cell...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Ruifeng Liu, Xueping Yu, Anders Wallqvist
Chemical toxicity is conventionally evaluated in animal models. However, animal models are resource intensive; moreover, they face ethical and scientific challenges because the outcomes obtained by animal testing may not correlate with human responses. To develop an alternative method for assessing chemical toxicity, we investigated the feasibility of using chemical-induced genome-wide expression changes in cultured human cells to predict the potential of a chemical to cause specific organ injuries in humans...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Shuchi K Talati, Haibo Zhai, G Page Kyle, M Granger Morgan, Pralit Patel, Lu Liu
This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3%-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Timothy J Williams, Michelle Allen, Bernhard Tschitschko, Ricardo Cavicchioli
Haloarchaea are heterotrophic members of the Archaea that thrive in hypersaline environments, often feeding off the glycerol that is produced as an osmolyte by eucaryotic Dunaliella during primary production. In this study we analyzed glycerol metabolism genes in closed genomes of haloarchaea, and examined published data describing the growth properties of haloarchaea and experimental data for the enzymes involved. By integrating the genomic data with knowledge from the literature, we derived an understanding of the ecophysiology and evolutionary properties of glycerol catabolic pathways in haloarchaea...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Olivier Taboureau, Karine Audouze
During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database...
October 21, 2016: ALTEX
Marie-Catherine Drigeard Desgarnier, Corinne Zinflou, Justin D Mallet, Sébastien P Gendron, Sébastien J Méthot, Patrick J Rochette
Purpose: Human chromosomes are protected at their end by a long portion of hexameric tandem repeats, the telomere. In somatic cells, telomere attrition caused by endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress as well as DNA replication can threaten genomic integrity and lead to the deterioration of tissue functions and an age-related physiological decline. The human eye is a complex organ in which cells of different ocular tissues are exposed to photo-oxidation, high mitochondrial metabolic activity, and/or replicative pressure...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lisa K Fazio, Casey A Kennedy, Robert S Siegler
We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Marion Tegethoff, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Gunther Meinlschmidt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. METHODS: This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report...
2016: PloS One
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