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Michele Poletti, Eva Gebhardt, Marianne N Kvande, Judith Ford, Andrea Raballo
The motor system in its manifold articulations is receiving increasing clinical and research attention. This is because motor impairments constitute a central, expressive component of the mental state examination and a key transdiagnostic feature indexing disease severity. Furthermore, within the schizophrenia spectrum, the integration of neurophysiological, developmental, and phenomenological perspectives suggests that motor impairment is not simply a generic, extrinsic proxy of an altered neurodevelopment, but might be more intimately related to psychotic risk...
July 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Olga Klebanov-Akopyan, Amartya Mishra, Galina Glousker, Yehuda Tzfati, Joseph Shlomai
Universal minicircle sequence binding proteins (UMSBPs) are CCHC-type zinc-finger proteins that bind a single-stranded G-rich sequence, UMS, conserved at the replication origins of the mitochondrial (kinetoplast) DNA of trypanosomatids. Here, we report that Trypanosoma brucei TbUMSBP2, which has been previously proposed to function in the replication and segregation of the mitochondrial DNA, colocalizes with telomeres at the nucleus and is essential for their structure, protection and function. Knockdown of TbUMSBP2 resulted in telomere clustering in one or few foci, phosphorylation of histone H2A at the vicinity of the telomeres, impaired nuclear division, endoreduplication and cell growth arrest...
July 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Agata Leszczuk, Monika Chylinska, Artur Zdunek
Background and Aims: Changes in the arrangement of cell wall components determine cell wall properties (integrity, stiffness), thereby affecting the macro-scale properties of fruits, which are important for consumers and industry. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous components of the plant cell, in which they have various functions. Currently, AGPs are considered to be one of the less well-known, enigmatic proteoglycans, a consequence of their heterogeneous structure and unclear mechanism of activity...
July 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hassan Anwer, Jae-Woo Park
Synergy between surface adsorption and photocatalysis is key for effective contaminant degradation in the liquid phase. Herein, we report a heterojunction photocatalyst of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 )/silver phosphate (Ag3 PO4 ) that incorporates this synergy for 4-nitrophenol (PNP) removal. Compared with other photocatalyst combinations, ZrO2 and Ag3 PO4 coupling generates reactive species with greater degradation potential. ZrO2 and rGO were synthesized by a green approach using a one-step hydrothermal reaction in ethanol-water...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hidehiko Hashimoto, Edwin Munro
A fundamental challenge in developmental biology is to understand how forces produced by individual cells are patterned in space and time and then integrated to produce stereotyped changes in tissue-level or embryo-level morphology. Ascidians offer a unique opportunity to address this challenge by studying how small groups of cells collectively execute complex, but highly stereotyped morphogenetic movements. Here we highlight recent progress and open questions in the study of ascidian morphogenesis, emphasizing the dynamic interplay of cell fate determination, cellular force generation and tissue-level mechanics...
July 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Xiuzheng Zhuang, Hao Zhan, Yanqin Huang, Yanpei Song, Xiuli Yin, Chuangzhi Wu
The aim of this work was to study the correlation between dynamic mechanisms of carbon structure associated with their upgrading effects with the help of XPS, 13 C NMR and 2D-PCIS methods. Results showed the fuel qualifies of biowastes were improved and became comparable to lignite or even bitumite after HTC. The carbon chemical bonds of -C-H and -C-O in biowaste components (mainly protein and polysaccharide) were thermally cracked and enriched in liquid phase in the form of soluble intermediates, which subsequently generated coal-like structures via cyclization as well as polymerization at higher temperatures...
July 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Liangliang Xiang, Qichang Mei, Justin Fernandez, Yaodong Gu
BACKGROUND: Hallux valgus (HV) is one common deformity of the human foot. Metatarsal pain, gait deviation and foot function disorder may occur when HV is severe. RESEARCH QUESTION: It was hypothesized that a 12-week minimalist shoes running intervention among mild and moderate hallux valgus males may alter foot morphology and plantar pressure distribution during walking and running. METHODS: The foot morphology and plantar pressure data, in this study, were collected from eleven participants using the Easy-Foot-Scan (EFS) and Novel EMED force plate...
July 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
Hongran Wang, Shuying Zhao, Richard H Finnell, Timothy George, Austin J Cooney
A skin biopsy was obtained from a 14-year-old female patient with a history of Myelomeningocele. Dermal fibroblasts were isolated and reprogrammed with Sendai virus (SeV) vectors encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. The generated induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) clones NTDi4_09A were free of genomically integrated reprogramming genes, had a stable normal karyotype and expressed pluripotency markers. The iPSCs formed teratomas in mice, which were differentiated towards derivatives of the three germ layers in vivo...
May 17, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Adam Sacarny
Performance-raising practices tend to diffuse slowly in the health care sector. To understand how incentives drive adoption, I study a practice that generates revenue for hospitals: submitting detailed documentation about patients. After a 2008 reform, hospitals could raise their Medicare revenue over 2% by always specifying a patient's type of heart failure. Hospitals only captured around half of this revenue, indicating that large frictions impeded takeup. Exploiting the fact that many doctors practice at multiple hospitals, I find that four-fifths of the dispersion in adoption reflects differences in the ability of hospitals to extract documentation from physicians...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Cai Zhang, Xian Zheng, Hui Ni, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li
Quality control (QC) is crucial for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Due to extremely complicated phytochemical matrices and characteristic mode of "multi-component, multi-target, integrated adjustment", discovering of QC markers from TCMs is a big challenge. Fingerprint-efficacy (FE) modeling method is currently proposed as an effective and reasonable attempt. This review summarizes the methodologies of FE modeling and applications in screening QC markers, meanwhile the future perspectives are also briefly discussed so as to provide inspiration and reference for follow-up study of FE relationship for TCMs...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
B A Rakha, M S Ansari, S Akhter, J Santiago-Moreno, E Blesbois
Egg yolk is a good external cryoprotectant of mammalian sperm and some wild bird's sperm, but, at least in domestic breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), it may inhibit eventual fertilization of ova when high concentrations are used. We hypothesized that egg yolk can protect the sperm from cryo-induced damages providing adequate fertilization in one phylogenetic wild ancestor of current chicken breeds: the Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi). To test the hypothesis, the present study was designed to evaluate different concentrations of egg yolk in extender in comparison with glycerol...
June 28, 2018: Theriogenology
Shino Magaki, Zhaoyi Tang, Spencer Tung, Christopher K Williams, Darrick Lo, William H Yong, Negar Khanlou, Harry V Vinters
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), in which amyloid accumulates predominantly in the walls of arterioles and capillaries, is seen in most patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and may contribute to compromise of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function seen in AD. We investigated the effects of CAA on BBB integrity by examining the expression of the endothelial marker CD31, basement membrane protein collagen IV (COL4), tight junction protein claudin-5, and fibrinogen, a marker of BBB leakage, by immunohistochemistry in the occipital cortex of autopsy brains with AD and capillary CAA (CAA type 1; n = 8), AD with noncapillary CAA (CAA type 2; n = 10), and AD without CAA (n = 7) compared with elderly controls (n = 10)...
June 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Yi-Fan Zhou, Peng-Cheng Li, Jie-Hong Wu, James Andrew Haslam, Ling Mao, Yuan-Peng Xia, Quan-Wei He, Xu-Xia Wang, Hao Lei, Xiao-Li Lan, Qing Robert Miao, Zhen-Yu Yue, Ya-Nan Li, Bo Hu
Brain tissue survival and functional recovery after ischemic stroke greatly depend on cerebral vessel perfusion and functional collateral circulation in the ischemic area. Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), one of the class 3 secreted semaphorins, has been demonstrated to be a critical regulator in embryonic and postnatal vascular formation via binding to its receptor PlexinD1. However, whether Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling is involved in poststroke neovascularization remains unknown. To determine the contribution of Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling to poststroke recovery, aged rats (18 months) were subjected to a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
June 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Carolina Camacho, Sara Cunha, José O Fernandes, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Diniz
Pharmaceutical drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), are frequently detected in the marine environment, and recent evidence has pointed out their toxicity to non-target marine biota. Concomitantly, altered environmental conditions associated with climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also affect the physiology of marine organisms. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceutical exposure and climate change-related stressors) still require a deeper understanding...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Andrea Cockett, Carole Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the literature relating to the use of rubrics in Higher Education. DESIGN: A systematic search using three databases was undertaken, the question used to guide the search strategy was: What are the benefits and challenges of using rubrics as part of the assessment process in Higher Education? DATA SOURCES: Three electronic databases were searched: British Education Index, Education Resources Information Centre and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Ilana Dubovi
BACKGROUND: Online computer-based simulations are becoming more widespread in nursing education. Therefore, an understanding of when and how to implement the variety of instructional strategies related to these simulations is fundamental. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effectiveness of online computer-based simulations designed using two alternative instructional approaches-Productive Failure and Simple-to-Complex sequencing-on learning of clinical reasoning skills...
July 6, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Karpagam Chakkaravarthy, Norzihan Ibrahim, Mardiah Mahmud, Munikumar Ramasamy Venkatasalu
AIM: To systematically review the existing evidence on predictors for nurses and midwives' readiness towards Self-directed Learning (SDL). BACKGROUND: Increased complexities in healthcare settings demand that nurses and midwives become involved in lifelong learning by means of self-directed learning (SDL) for delivering quality healthcare. More evidence is available for the self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) of nursing and midwifery students, less is systematically derived on predictors for nurses and midwives' readiness to SDL...
July 5, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Kathleen A Calzone, Maggie Kirk, Emma Tonkin, Laurie Badzek, Caroline Benjamin, Anna Middleton
BACKGROUND: Global genomic literacy of all health professions, including nurses, remains low despite an inundation of genomic information with established clinical and analytic validity and clinical utility. Genomic literacy and competency deficits contribute to lost opportunities to take advantage of the benefits that genomic information provides to improve health outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and increase patient quality and safety. Nurses are essential to the integration of genomics into healthcare...
July 6, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Ozren Stojanović, Silas Kieser, Mirko Trajkovski
Adipose tissues play an essential role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and can be found in almost all parts of the body. Excessive adiposity leads to obesity and can contribute to metabolic and other disorders. Adipocytes show remarkable plasticity in their function, which can be pushed toward energy storage, or energy expenditure-a `browning' of fat. Browning is controlled by the cellular milieu of the adipose tissue, with sympathetic innervation and by immune responses as key integrators of the signals that promote browning...
July 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Allison Louthan, Daniel Doak
Integral projection and matrix population models are commonly used in ecological and conservation studies to assess the health and extinction risk of populations. These models use one (or more) measurable state variable(s), such as size or age, to predict individual performance which, ideally, is the sole determinant of an individual's expected fate. However, even if ecologists successfully identify and measure the observable state variable(s) that best predicts individual fate, we are rarely if ever able to perfectly measure state for many species, especially those with size structure, where total plant biomass or starch stores, for example, may be the best predictors of fate...
July 14, 2018: Ecology
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