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Zhe Xu, Feiluore Yibulayin, Ping Shi, Lei Feng
Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) and spindle cell melanoma (SCM) are 2 rare subtypes of melanoma. This study aims to investigate these 2 melanomas comprehensively by comparison.Cases were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2017).A total of 3657 DM and 4761 SCM cases were identified. DM's female-to-male ratio was 1:2 and SCM's was 0.62:1. The age distribution was similar. Both tumor mostly originated from skin and the eye and orbit was SCM-specific tumor site. Comparing both tumors with DM as reference, significant overall survival (OS) were found depending on sex (women, P < ...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrew Matthew Hsiao, Netan Choudhry
PURPOSE: Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare condition characterized by six main features. It has been previously observed that WS is also associated with hypopigmentation of the choroid through multimodal imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) on a patient with known WS. METHODS: Report of a single case. The swept-source OCT images were captured using Topcon DRI OCT Triton (Topcon, Inc, Tokyo, Japan), whereas swept-source OCTA images were captured by Optovue AngioVue (Optovue, Inc, Fremont, CA) using DualTrack Motion Correction Technology...
July 16, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Carlo Cota, Andrea Saggini, Viviana Lora, Heinz Kutzner, Arno Rütten, Omar Sangueza, Luis Requena, Lorenzo Cerroni
Despite new horizons opened by recent advances in molecular pathology, histological evaluation still remains the diagnostic gold standard regarding cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms. Several histological variants of melanoma have been described, and their knowledge is crucial for accurate diagnosis and classification of cases with unusual clinicopathological features. Uncommon histological variants of melanoma have been described based on a broad constellation of features, including architectural pattern, stromal alterations, cytological attributes, and other morphological properties...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Yelda Dere, Sümeyye Ekmekçi, Serkan Çelik, Özgür İlhan Çelik, Özcan Dere, Volkan Karakuş
Objective: In cases presenting with lymphadenopathies (LAP) without a primary focus detected by simple radiological methods, the primary tumor can be diagnosed by a histopathological evaluation of the metastatic lymph nodes. We aimed to discuss the nonhematological malignancies presenting with lymphadenopathies and the histopathological results for primary tumors. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, cases diagnosed with metastasis in excisional lymph nodes between January 2013 and June 2016 were assessed for a histopathological diagnostic approach...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Briana C Gapsis, Nichelle A Warren, Matthew J Nutaitis, Leah A Bonaparte, Samuel L Cooper, Michael Ashenafi, Hans E Grossniklaus, George N Magrath
Purpose: To describe the natural history and management of a rare case of iris melanoma in a pediatric patient. Observations: A Caucasian female presented with left pupillary abnormalities at age 7, progressive iris changes at age 9, and markedly elevated intraocular pressure with advanced optic nerve cupping at 11 years of age. She was found to have a pigmented lesion overlying her iris and invading her angle. Trans-corneal fine needle aspirate biopsy demonstrated malignant melanoma of the iris...
September 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
E Lenczowski, E Tung-Hahn, J Higareda, C McCormick, T Markoff, M Arffa, E Poon, K Lee, M Alam
Objective: Although dermatologists strive to provide patient education on sun protection and skin cancer, approximately 90% of Americans have limited health literacy skills. Little has been written about the means to best teach all levels of learners to recognize common benign and malignant skin lesions. Earlier work found that with advancing age, adults were less able to identify concerning lesions, thus underscoring the need for accessible education. Methods: We showed subjects a brief video (7th grade level) about common cutaneous growths, reducing the risk of skin cancer, and the importance of early detection...
June 2018: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
Jingjing Li, Shi Yan, Nan Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kaiqin Wang, Hui Jiang, Wenshuang Li, Mingyue Qiang, Tianxiang Dong, Hongbin Li
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) plays an important role in maintaining skin health and can promote the differentiation of keratinocytes and decrease melanin synthesis, leading to antioxidant protection against UV-induced photodamage. Normal skin needs high concentrations of vitamin C, which plays many roles in the skin, including the formation of the skin barrier and collagen in the dermis, the ability to counteract skin oxidation, and the modulation of cell signal pathways of cell growth and differentiation. However, vitamin C deficiency can cause or aggravate the occurrence and development of some skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mohamad A Mouchli, Sarah E Kerr, Lewis Roberts
Calcified liver lesions are caused by a wide variety of factors. The most common lesions are inflammatory liver lesions followed by benign and malignant neoplasms. Hemangioma, one of the most common benign hepatic neoplasm in adults, often contains calcifications, in up to 20% of cases secondary to fibrosis and thrombosis of blood vessels. These calcifications are typically large, coarse, and located in the center of the lesions. Liver metastases, the most common malignant lesions found in the noncirrhotic liver, may contain areas of calcification...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Kentaro Ohuchi, Taku Fujimura, Yumi Kambayashi, Hisayuki Tono, Eika Ohtake, Akira Hashimoto, Setsuya Aiba
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), also known as an animal-type melanoma, is a distinctive group of melanocytic tumors with a more favorable prognosis than conventional melanoma. Since tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) extend in the premetastatic lymph nodes in several cancers, we hypothesized that the lower rate of lymph node metastasis in PEM might be correlated with the phenotypes of TAMs. Therefore, in this report, we further investigate the subpopulation of TAMs in PEM, revealing that the main population of TAMs in histiocytic lesion is CD163+CD206+PD-L1+ M2-polarized macrophages...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Kenneth Thomsen, Jon Diernaes, Trine Heide Øllegaard, Eva Spaun, Christian Vestergaard
Checkpoint inhibitors are novel and promising treatment options for different types of cancer. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab, have been shown to significantly raise the survival rates of disseminated malignant melanoma (MM). Autoimmune adverse reactions are very common in checkpoint inhibitors. We present 2 cases of bullous pemphigoid, as adverse reactions to pembrolizumab-treated MM.
May 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Else Helene Ibfelt, Marianne Steding-Jessen, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton, Sanne Lykke Lundstrøm, Merete Osler, Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich
Background: Socioeconomic differences in survival after melanoma may be due to late diagnosis of the disadvantaged patients. The aim of the study was to examine the association between educational level, disposable income, cohabitating status and region of residence with stage at diagnosis of melanoma, including adjustment for comorbidity and tumor type. Methods: From The Danish Melanoma Database, we identified 10,158 patients diagnosed with their first invasive melanoma during 2008-2014 and obtained information on stage, localization, histology, thickness and ulceration...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Luyao Zhang, Hongyao Yu, Otto Hemminki, Asta Försti, Kristina Sundquist, Kari Hemminki
Familial risks for testicular cancer (TC) are among the highest of all cancers. However, data are limited for histological types of TC and for possible familial associations of TC with other cancers. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database for years 1958 to 2015 to analyse familial relative risks (RR) for 11,138 TC patients when first-degree relatives were diagnosed with TC or other cancer in reference to those without a family history. A total of 191 familial TCs were found, which accounted for 2...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dafni Chondronasiou, Tracy-Jane T H D Eisden, Anita G M Stam, Qiana L Matthews, Mert Icyuz, Erik Hooijberg, Igor Dmitriev, David T Curiel, Tanja D de Gruijl, Rieneke van de Ven
To mount a strong anti-tumor immune response, non T cell inflamed (cold) tumors may require combination treatment encompassing vaccine strategies preceding checkpoint inhibition. In vivo targeted delivery of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) to dendritic cells (DCs), relying on the natural functions of primary DCs in situ, represents an attractive vaccination strategy. In this study we made use of a full-length MART-1 expressing C/B-chimeric adenoviral vector, consisting of the Ad5 capsid and the Ad3 knob (Ad5/3), which we previously showed to selectively transduce DCs in human skin and lymph nodes...
July 18, 2018: Vaccines
Douglas B Johnson, Jennifer M Bordeaux, Ju-Young Kim, Christine A Vaupel, David L Rimm, Thai H Ho, Richard W Joseph, Adil I Daud, Robert M Conry, Elizabeth M Gaughan, Leonel F Hernandez-Aya, Anastasios Dimou, Pauline Funchain, James W Smithy, John S Witte, Svetlana B McKee, Jennifer Ko, John Wrangle, Bashar Dabbas, Shabnam Tangri, Jelveh Lameh, Jeffrey M Hall, Joseph Markowitz, Justin M Balko, Naveen K Dakappagari
PURPOSE: PD-1/L1 axis-directed therapies produce clinical responses in a subset of patients, therefore, biomarkers of response are needed. We hypothesized quantifying key immunosuppression mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment by multiparameter algorithms would identify strong predictors of anti-PD1 response. METHODS: Pre-treatment tumor biopsies from 166 patients treated with anti-PD-1 across 10 academic cancer centers were fluorescently stained with multiple markers in discovery (n = 24) and validation (n = 142) cohorts...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Scott J Rodig, Daniel Gusenleitner, Donald G Jackson, Evisa Gjini, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Chelsea Jin, Han Chang, Scott B Lovitch, Christine Horak, Jeffrey S Weber, Jason L Weirather, Jedd D Wolchok, Michael A Postow, Anna C Pavlick, Jason Chesney, F Stephen Hodi
Combination anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy promotes antitumor immunity and provides superior benefit to patients with advanced-stage melanoma compared with either therapy alone. T cell immunity requires recognition of antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II proteins by CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively. We examined MHC class I and class II protein expression on tumor cells from previously untreated melanoma patients and correlated the results with transcriptional and genomic analyses and with clinical response to anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, or combination therapy...
July 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Douglas Grossman, Dileep Kumar, Hafeez Rahman, Ethika Tyagi, Tong Liu, Chelsea Li, Ran Lu, David Lum, Sheri L Holmen, John A Maschek, James E Cox, Matthew W VanBrocklin
There are conflicting epidemiologic data on whether chronic aspirin (ASA) use may reduce melanoma risk in humans. Potential anti-cancer effects of ASA may be mediated by its ability to suppress prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and activate 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We investigated the inhibitory effects of ASA in a panel of melanoma and transformed melanocyte cell lines, and on tumor growth in a preclinical model. ASA and the COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib did not affect melanoma cell viability, but significantly reduced colony formation, cell motility, and pigmentation (melanin production) in vitro at concentrations of 1 mM and 20 uM, respectively...
July 18, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Mulan Wei, Xujie Liu, Chunyu Cao, Jianlin Yang, Yafeng Lv, Jiaojiao Huang, Yanlin Wang, Ye Qin
Recent studies showed that the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade is a dramatic therapy for melanoma by enhancing antitumor immune activity. Currently, major strategies for the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have mainly focused on the use of antibodies and compounds. Seeking an alternative approach, others employ endogenous proteins as blocking agents. The extracellular domain of PD-1 (ePD1) includes the binding site with PD-L1. Accordingly, we constructed a PD-1-based recombinantly tailored fusion protein (dFv-ePD1) that consists of bivalent variable fragments (dFv) of an MMP-2/9-targeted antibody and ePD1...
July 19, 2018: BMB Reports
Lindsay Volk, Hirohisa Ikegami, Leonard Y Lee, Anthony Lemaire
BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusion (PE) is a common finding in patients who have chronic cardiac failure, who had undergone cardiac surgery, or who have certain other benign and malignant diseases. Pericardial drainage procedures are often requested for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The perceived benefit is that it allows for diagnosis of malignancy or infection for patients with PEs of unclear etiology. The purpose of the study is to determine the diagnostic yield of surgical drainage procedures...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Seo Hyun Kim, Sung Won Lee, Hyun Jung Park, Sang Hee Lee, Won Kyun Im, Young Dong Kim, Kyung Hee Kim, Sang Jae Park, Seokmann Hong, Sung Ho Jeon
BACKGROUND: The polysaccharide component of Angelica gigas induces immuno-stimulatory effects on innate immune cells. However, it is unclear whether A. gigas' adjuvant activity on the immune system can elicit anti-cancer responses. METHODS: A water-soluble immuno-stimulatory component of A. gigas was prepared. How this ISAg modulated the activation of innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) was examined. ISAg-induced cytotoxic activity via natural killer (NK) and NKT cells was also tested using a tumor-bearing mouse model...
July 18, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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