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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441281/pharmacologic-management-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review-for-practitioners
#1
REVIEW
Kelly A Brown, Sharmeen Samuel, Dilip R Patel
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents. ADHD affects multiple aspects of an individual's life and functioning in family, social, and academic realms. Effective management of ADHD is necessary for children and adolescents and may include non-pharmacologic treatments, pharmacologic therapy including use of stimulant and non-stimulant medications, or a combination of the different treatment modalities. In general, medications used to treat ADHD are safe and effective...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441280/pharmacological-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-a-review-for-practitioners
#2
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Cynthia Feucht, Kelly Brown, Jessica Ramsay
Anxiety disorders are common in children and adolescents with reported prevalence rates between 10% and 30%. A combined approach to treatment has been found to be the most effective for optimal outcomes and is typically comprised of psychotherapy (especially exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy), family and patient education, and use of medication if indicated. In children and adolescents who might benefit from use of medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the drugs of choice...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432238/nervous-system-malformations
#3
John Gaitanis, Tomo Tarui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of the most common nervous system malformations and serves as a reference for the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Major advances have occurred in recognizing the genetic basis of nervous system malformations. Environmental causes of nervous system malformations, such as perinatal infections including Zika virus, are also reviewed. Treatment for nervous system malformations begins prior to birth with prevention...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431486/reducing-recurrent-hospital-admissions-in-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#4
Richard J Aspinall
Recurrent admissions to hospital are a major issue for people living with decompensated cirrhosis, particularly those who develop chronic hepatic encephalopathy, a condition that leads to significantly impaired quality of life for patients and their family caregivers. Such patients have high health-care use costs but recent data have shown how the appropriate use of effective medical therapy can significantly reduce hospital admissions, length of stay and unplanned readmissions. Redesigning clinical services to optimize access to specialist care and improving the education and support of patients and their carers can further help to reduce the burden of this disease...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429768/are-senna-based-laxatives-safe-when-used-as-long-term-treatment-for-constipation-in-children
#5
Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Alessandra C Gasior, Nicole Toocheck, Laura Weaver, Richard J Wood, Carlos A Reck, Andrea Wagner, Erin Hoover, Renae Gagnon, Jordon Jaggers, Tassiana Maloof, Onnalisa Nash, Charae Williams, Marc A Levitt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Senna is a stimulant laxative commonly used by pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, and pediatric surgeons. Many clinicians avoid Senna for reasons such as tolerance or side effects but this has little scientific justification. We recently found several patients we were caring for developed perineal blistering during the course of Senna treatment. Because of this we chose to review the literature to identify side effects in children taking this medication as well as to analyze our Center's experience with Senna's secondary effects...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427739/predictors-of-late-palliative-care-referral-in-children-with-cancer
#6
Erica C Kaye, Jonathan Jerkins, Courtney A Gushue, Samantha DeMarsh, April Sykes, Zhaohua Lu, Jennifer M Snaman, Lindsay Blazin, Liza-Marie Johnson, Deena R Levine, R Ray Morrison, Justin N Baker
CONTEXT: Early integration of palliative care (PC) in the management of children with high-risk cancer is widely endorsed by patients, families, clinicians, and national organizations. However, optimal timing for PC consultation is not standardized, and variables that influence timing of PC integration for children with cancer remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between demographic, disease, treatment, and end-of-life attributes and timing of PC consultation for children with high-risk cancer enrolled on a PC service...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427137/childhood-peripheral-facial-palsy
#7
Zeynep Selen Karalok, Birce Dilge Taskin, Zeynep Ozturk, Esra Gurkas, Tuba Bulut Koc, Alev Guven
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics, causes, treatment patterns, outcome, and recurrence of childhood peripheral facial palsy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 144 peripheral facial palsy patients, under 18 years old in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Medical charts were reviewed to analyze the age, gender, side of facial nerve paralysis, family history, cause, grading by the House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading Scale (HBS), results of diagnostic tests, therapies, outcomes, and recurrence...
February 9, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425707/dementia
#8
REVIEW
Seth A Gale, Diler Acar, Kirk R Daffner
Dementia is any decline in cognition that is significant enough to interfere with independent, daily functioning. Dementia is best characterized as a syndrome rather than as one particular disease. The causes of dementia are myriad and include primary neurologic, neuropsychiatric, and medical conditions. It is common for multiple diseases to contribute to any one patient's dementia syndrome. Neurodegenerative dementias, like Alzheimer disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, are most common in the elderly, while traumatic brain injury and brain tumors are common causes in younger adults...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414257/new-therapeutic-approaches-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#9
Ezim Ajufo, Daniel J Rader
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic condition characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and considerable unmet medical need with conventional LDL-C-lowering therapies. Between 2012 and 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved four novel LDL-C-lowering agents for use in patients with FH based on the pronounced LDL-C-lowering efficacy of these medicines. We review the four novel approved agents, as well as promising LDL-C-lowering agents in clinical development, with a focus on their mechanism of action, efficacy in FH cohorts, and safety...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413819/caregiver-burden-and-illness-perceptions-in-caregivers-of-medically-hospitalized-youth-with-anorexia-nervosa
#10
Abigail Matthews, Katrina R Lenz, James Peugh, Emily C Copps, Claire M Peterson
Caregiver burden is common in caregivers of youth with anorexia nervosa (AN) and could impede the successful implementation of family-based therapy (FBT). Thus, it is important to better understand mechanisms by which caregiver burden is developed and maintained. This study aimed to examine the relation between caregiver illness perceptions about AN, symptom severity indicators, and caregiver burden in a sample of medically hospitalized youth with AN. Fifty-one youth with AN (N = 34) or Atypical AN (AAN; N = 17; mean age = 14...
February 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412536/introducing-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-in-a-children-s-hospital
#11
Sally Bolsover
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) offers an alternative to inpatient care for delivering intravenous antibiotics in patients' homes or in a day care clinic setting. It was first introduced in North America in the 1970s and has evolved over the years, starting with the adult population and now moving to the paediatric population ( Chapman 2013 ). OPAT has the potential to offer excellent, patient-centred, high-quality care to treat a wide variety of infectious conditions in patients who are medically stable and do not need hospitalisation...
February 7, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411291/post-liver-transplantation-diabetes-mellitus-a-review-of-relevance-and-approach-to-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Maria J Peláez-Jaramillo, Allison A Cárdenas-Mojica, Paula V Gaete, Carlos O Mendivil
Post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PLTDM) develops in up to 30% of liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased risk of mortality and multiple morbid outcomes. PLTDM is a multicausal disorder, but the main risk factor is the use of immunosuppressive agents of the calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) family (tacrolimus and cyclosporine). Additional factors, such as pre-transplant overweight, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C virus infection, may further increase risk of developing PLTDM...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409702/telangiectatic-matting-is-associated-with-hypersensitivity-and-a-bleeding-tendency
#13
Pooja Kadam, Jerrick Lim, Ian Paver, David E Connor, Kurosh Parsi
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the pathogenesis of telangiectatic matting (TM) and identify possible risk factors. METHODS: This study had two parts. The clinical records of consecutive patients were retrospectively analysed to identify risk factors for TM. In the second part, the haemostatic and coagulation profile of the subset of patients with TM were analysed and compared with controls using standard coagulation tests, platelet function and a global assay of coagulation (rotational thromboelastometry, ROTEM)...
February 3, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409576/naloxone-for-opioid-overdose-and-the-role-of-the-pharmacist
#14
Yuliana Toderika, Shalonda Williams
With the rise of the opioid epidemic in the United States and increased mortality as a result of opioid overdoses, there have been many national and statewide initiatives to combat this health crisis. Many states have expanded accessibility to naloxone, an opioid-reversal agent. Naloxone is safe, cost-effective, and nonaddictive. In addition, simple administration allows naloxone to be used by patients, family members, caregivers, and bystanders in the event of an opioid overdose. While a great emphasis has been placed on the prescribing practices of health care providers as it pertains to opioid therapy for chronic pain, a new focus has been placed on coprescribing naloxone with opioids for high-risk patients...
February 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409092/-gallop-in-the-routineergometrie-only-chore-or-diagnostic-challenge
#15
Stephan Knöchner, K Kronberg, U Schumann
ANAMNESIS:  A 47-year-old recreational sportsman showed in a routine ergometry polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles with good physical performance. INVESTIGATIONS:  In resting ECG impressed ventricular extrasystoles (VES) predominantly right-hand-block-like with superior axis, a long-term ECG yielded up to 100 VES per hour. Echocardiographically imposing 4 - 5 trabeculae, feathered, reticular structures apically in the left and lower in the right ventricle...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408488/regulation-and-function-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-ask1-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Gyrid Nygaard, Julie A Di Paolo, Deepa Hammaker, David L Boyle, Grant Budas, Gregory T Notte, Igor Mikaelian, Vivian Barry, Gary S Firestein
Despite improved therapy, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains an unmet medical need. Previous efforts to validate therapeutic targets in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have had minimal success. Therefore, we evaluated the potential for targeting an upstream MAPK, namely apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), as an alternative approach. ASK1 protein and gene expression were observed in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qPCR, respectively, particularly in the synovial intimal lining...
February 2, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405942/hypophosphatasia-the-patient-s-and-patient-s-family-s-point-of-view
#17
S Ursprung
Today, public opinion and the French authorities are more aware of rare diseases, in particular due to the implementation of national plans for rare diseases (PNMR I: 2005-2008 and PNMR II: 2011-2016), the existence of national networks and the current organization of the reference expert centers for rare diseases. While the management of rare diseases is now better structured, it remains long for the patients to be diagnosed. It is not always easy for physicians to clearly identify one of the 7,000 rare diseases even though they increasingly ask themselves the question: is this a rare disease? A person diagnosed with a rare disease lives in a familial, social and professional environment that has not prepared him or her, suddenly or after years of uncertainty, for such an experience...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403612/evaluation-of-cardiac-functions-in-children-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-prospective-case-control-study
#18
Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Shaimaa Mohamed Mahmoud, Mohammed Abd El-Aal, Ahmed Ahmed Allam, Walaa Ibrahim Abd El-Halim
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in DMD increases with age, so its early detection is important because institution of cardioprotective medical therapies may slow adverse remodeling and attenuate heart failure symptoms in these patients. Objective: To assess the cardiac functions in children clinically suspected to have DMD. Methods: Over a one-year period, 28 male children aged from 3 to 18 years old, who met the criteria for diagnosis of DMD compared to 47 healthy controls children, were approached to participate in the study...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390382/brain-metastasis-in-a-patient-with-melanoma-receiving-pembrolizumab-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Jin-Cheng Song, Xiao-Lei Ding, Xiu-Hua Sun, Mohammed Safi, Juan Tian
RATIONALE: Melanoma with brain metastasis is associated with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. As patients with this condition have been excluded from most clinical trials, data on the use of anti-programmed death 1 therapy for these patients are limited. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 62-year-old man with a 10-year history of melanotic nevus in his right forearm. He was admitted to another hospital in August 2015 due to the growth of the melanotic nevus over 1 year and complaint of a mass in the right mid-axillary area...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390323/liver-transplantation-for-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis-caused-by-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-3-a-case-report
#20
Deng Xiang, Jiannan He, Hongmei Wang, Fangfang Xiong, Hao Cheng, Junhua Ai, Renfeng Shan, Renhua Wan, Lunli Zhang, Jun Shi
RATIONALE: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 3, characterized by high gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), is an autosomal recessive genetic disease. It often occurs in patients' first years of age. However, high GGT type PFIC is still rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: The present study reports a case of liver transplantation for decompensated liver cirrhosis caused by PFIC type 3. An 18-year-old male presented with a history of abdominal distension and jaundice for 2 months...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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