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Auditory working memory

Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Liselotte C M Verhoeven, Marcel A van den Hout, Ivo Heitland
Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Marcela Lima Silagi, Camila Maia Rabelo, Eliane Schochat, Letícia Lessa Mansur
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. METHODS: A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands...
November 13, 2017: CoDAS
Ian S Ramsay, Sisi Ma, Melissa Fisher, Rachel L Loewy, J Daniel Ragland, Tara Niendam, Cameron S Carter, Sophia Vinogradov
Predicting treatment outcomes in psychiatric populations remains a challenge, but is increasingly important in the pursuit of personalized medicine. Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in cognition, and targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing and working memory has been shown to improve some of these impairments; but little is known about the baseline patient characteristics predictive of cognitive improvement. Here we use a model selection and regression approach called least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to examine predictors of cognitive improvement in response to TCT for patients with recent onset schizophrenia...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Julia Bauer, Susann Widmer, Martin Meyer
Cognitive abilities such as attention or working memory can support older adults during speech perception. However, cognitive abilities as well as speech perception decline with age, leading to the expenditure of effort during speech processing. This longitudinal study therefore investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological processes during speech discrimination, and assessed the extent of enhancement to such cognitive auditory processes through repeated auditory exposure. For that purpose, accuracy and reaction time were compared between 13 older adults (62-76y) and 15 middle-aged (28-52y) controls in an active oddball paradigm which was administered at three consecutive measurement time points at an interval of two weeks, while EEG was recorded...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ashley F Curtis, Gary R Turner, Norman W Park, Susan J E Murtha
Spatially informative auditory and vibrotactile (cross-modal) cues can facilitate attention but little is known about how similar cues influence visual spatial working memory (WM) across the adult lifespan. We investigated the effects of cues (spatially informative or alerting pre-cues vs. no cues), cue modality (auditory vs. vibrotactile vs. visual), memory array size (four vs. six items), and maintenance delay (900 vs. 1800 ms) on visual spatial location WM recognition accuracy in younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Katleen Geladé, Tieme W P Janssen, Marleen Bink, Jos W R Twisk, Rosa van Mourik, Athanasios Maras, Jaap Oosterlaan
To assess the long-term effects of neurofeedback (NFB) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we compared behavioral and neurocognitive outcomes at a 6-month naturalistic follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on NFB, methylphenidate (MPH), and physical activity (PA). Ninety-two children with a DSM-IV-TR ADHD diagnosis, aged 7-13, receiving NFB (n = 33), MPH (n = 28), or PA (n = 31), were re-assessed 6-months after the interventions. NFB comprised theta/beta training on the vertex (cortical zero)...
November 2, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
R Blakey, S Ranlund, E Zartaloudi, W Cahn, S Calafato, M Colizzi, B Crespo-Facorro, C Daniel, Á Díez-Revuelta, M Di Forti, C Iyegbe, A Jablensky, R Jones, M-H Hall, R Kahn, L Kalaydjieva, E Kravariti, K Lin, C McDonald, A M McIntosh, M Picchioni, J Powell, A Presman, D Rujescu, K Schulze, M Shaikh, J H Thygesen, T Toulopoulou, N Van Haren, J Van Os, M Walshe, R M Murray, E Bramon
BACKGROUND: A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related. METHODS: This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]...
November 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Aaron C Moberly, Derek M Houston, Michael S Harris, Oliver F Adunka, Irina Castellanos
Objectives: Neurocognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in postlingual adults with cochlear implants (CIs). In particular, better verbal working memory (WM) on modality-specific (auditory) WM tasks predicts better speech recognition. It remains unclear, however, whether this association can be attributed to basic underlying modality-general neurocognitive functions, or whether it is solely a result of the degraded nature of auditory signals delivered by the CI. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) Both modality-specific and modality-general tasks of verbal WM would predict scores of sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise; 2) Basic modality-general neurocognitive functions of controlled fluency and inhibition-concentration would predict both modality-specific and modality-general verbal WM; and 3) Scores on both tasks of verbal WM would mediate the effects of more basic neurocognitive functions on sentence recognition...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Tina Gupta, Jordan E DeVylder, Randy P Auerbach, Jason Schiffman, Vijay A Mittal
Psychotic disorders are characterized by auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and research has shown that AVHs are linked to deficits in working memory. Our understanding of AVHs across the psychosis continuum is limited. To date, little research has tested whether hallucination proneness (HP) is linked with abnormalities on experimental multispeaker babble tasks. Few investigations have been conducted to determine how task performance might be linked to cognitive functioning. The objective of the current study is to better understand this empirical gap...
October 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Olga Lucía Gamboa, Kenneth Sung Lai Yuen, Frederic von Wegner, Marion Behrens, Helmuth Steinmetz
Directed forgetting (DF) is considered an adaptive mechanism to cope with unwanted memories. Understanding it is crucial to develop treatments for disorders in which thought control is an issue. With an item-method DF paradigm in an auditory form, the underlying neurocognitive processes that support auditory DF were investigated. Subjects were asked to perform multi-modal encoding of word-stimuli before knowing whether to remember or forget each word. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that DF is subserved by a right frontal-parietal-cingulate network...
October 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Juho M Strömmer, Nele Põldver, Tomi Waselius, Ville Kirjavainen, Saara Järveläinen, Sanni Björksten, Ina M Tarkka, Piia Astikainen
In normal ageing, structural and functional changes in the brain lead to an altered processing of sensory stimuli and to changes in cognitive functions. The link between changes in sensory processing and cognition is not well understood, but physical fitness is suggested to be beneficial for both. We recorded event-related potentials to somatosensory and auditory stimuli in a passive change detection paradigm from 81 older and 38 young women and investigated their associations with cognitive performance. In older adults also associations to physical fitness were studied...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jonathon P Whitton, Kenneth E Hancock, Jeffrey M Shannon, Daniel B Polley
Sensory and motor skills can be improved with training, but learning is often restricted to practice stimuli. As an exception, training on closed-loop (CL) sensorimotor interfaces, such as action video games and musical instruments, can impart a broad spectrum of perceptual benefits. Here we ask whether computerized CL auditory training can enhance speech understanding in levels of background noise that approximate a crowded restaurant. Elderly hearing-impaired subjects trained for 8 weeks on a CL game that, like a musical instrument, challenged them to monitor subtle deviations between predicted and actual auditory feedback as they moved their fingertip through a virtual soundscape...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Krishna C Puvvada, Ann Summerfelt, Xiaoming Du, Nithin Krishna, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Jonathan Z Simon, L Elliot Hong
Background: Delta band (1-4 Hz) neuronal responses support the precision and stability of auditory processing, and a deficit in delta band synchrony may be relevant to auditory domain symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Delta band synchronization elicited by a 2.5 Hz auditory steady state response (ASSR) paradigm, along with those from theta (5 Hz), alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), gamma (40 Hz), and high gamma (80 Hz) frequency ASSR, were compared in 128 patients with schizophrenia, 108 healthy controls, and 55 first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sander M Weckstein, Ethan J Weckstein, Christopher D Parker, Matthew W Westerman
BACKGROUND This case study was undertaken in an effort to assess whether children/adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience improvement in comorbid ADHD following Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT). This treatment intervention has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents; however, there have been no studies on its use with individuals with ASD. MATERIAL AND METHODS CWMT is a computer-based program that consists of 13 auditory, visual, visual spatial, and combined exercises that are practiced for 45 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks...
October 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Steve Majerus, Frédéric Péters, Marion Bouffier, Nelson Cowan, Christophe Phillips
The dorsal attention network is consistently involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM) tasks and has been associated with task-related, top-down control of attention. At the same time, WM capacity has been shown to depend on the amount of information that can be encoded in the focus of attention independently of top-down strategic control. We examined the role of the dorsal attention network in encoding load and top-down memory control during WM by manipulating encoding load and memory control requirements during a short-term probe recognition task for sequences of auditory (digits, letters) or visual (lines, unfamiliar faces) stimuli...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Marianna Katsoulaki, Alexandros Kastrinis, Maria Tsekoura
The aim of this paper was to review the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tdcs) on working memory in healthy population. Ten studies were identified involving 319 subjects. Working memory performance was measured using cognitive tasks such as the n-back task, digit span forward or digit span backwards test, Sternberg WM task, the Pacet Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) and the Pacet Auditory Serial Subtraction Task (PASST), verbal and visuospatial tasks and the Operation Span (OSpan) task...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Natalia A Contreras, Eric J Tan, Stuart J Lee, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
Approaches to cognitive remediation (CR) that address sensory perceptual skills before higher cognitive skills, have been found to be effective in enhancing cognitive performance in schizophrenia. To date, however, most of the conducted trials have concentrated on auditory processing. The aim of this study was to explore whether the addition of visual processing training could enhance standard cognitive remediation outcomes in a schizophrenia population. Twenty participants were randomised to either receive 20h of computer-assisted cognitive remediation alone or 20h of visual processing training modules and cognitive remediation training...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Martin Wegrzyn, Cornelia Herbert, Thomas Ethofer, Tobias Flaisch, Johanna Kissler
Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing...
September 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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