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Auditory working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088681/maintenance-effects-of-working-memory-intervention-cogmed-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#1
Amanda Fuentes, Elizabeth N Kerr
PURPOSE: To extend previous research documenting the benefits of working memory (WM) intervention (Cogmed) immediately post-intervention in children with epilepsy by assessing the 3-month maintenance effects. METHODS: Participants involved in a previous randomized clinical trial (RCT) were invited to participate if they completed Cogmed within the last 3months (n=15) and additional participants (n=13) were prospectively recruited. Standardized assessments of near-transfer effects (i...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080086/attentional-capture-by-taboo-words-a-functional-view-of-auditory-distraction
#2
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the present article, we tested whether taboo words are more difficult to ignore than neutral words. Taboo words or neutral words were presented as (a) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated, (b) changing state sequences in which different distractor words were presented, and (c) auditory deviant sequences in which a single distractor word deviated from a sequence of repeated words...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#3
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076647/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#4
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071929/effects-of-smartphone-based-memory-training-for-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Seo Jin Oh, Sungmin Seo, Ji Hyun Lee, Myeong Ju Song, Min-Sup Shin
OBJECTIVES: We explored whether newly developed application (Smartphone-based brain Anti-aging and memory Reinforcement Training, SMART) improved memory performance in older adults with subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHOD: A total of 53 adults (range: 50-68 years; 52.8% female) were randomized into either one of two intervention groups [SMART (n = 18) vs. Fit Brains® (n = 19)] or a wait-list group (n = 16). Participants in the intervention groups underwent 15-20 minutes of training per day, five days per week for 8 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063244/single-sided-deafness-affects-language-and-auditory-development-a-case-control-study
#6
Anouk Sangen, Liesbeth Royackers, Christian Desloovere, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: To examine auditory, linguistic and cognitive outcomes of children with single sided deafness (SSD). An increasing body of research suggests that children with SSD lag behind with respect to their normal hearing (NH) peers. In the present study we tap into certain developmental skills. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 21 children with SSD between 5 and 15 years of age participated. Per child with SSD two NH control children were matched on age and gender...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054825/the-relationship-between-premorbid-iq-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorders
#7
James J Mahoney, Ari D Kalechstein, Anthony P De Marco, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether premorbid IQ mediates performance on neurocognitive tests in individuals diagnosed with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHOD: Recently abstinent cocaine users (N = 113) completed measures sensitive to the effects of cocaine on cognition: Conners' Continuous Performance Task-II (CPT-II), n-back working memory test, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised (HVLT-R). Premorbid IQ was calculated using the Oklahoma Premorbid Intelligence Estimate, which integrates scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and demographic variables...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#8
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032373/meaningful-memory-in-acute-anorexia-nervosa-patients-comparing-recall-learning-and-recognition-of-semantically-related-and-semantically-unrelated-word-stimuli
#9
Valentin Terhoeven, Ursula Kallen, Katrin Ingenerf, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Matthias Weisbrod, Wolfgang Herzog, Timo Brockmeyer, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Christoph Nikendei
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether observed memory impairment in anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the semantic structure (categorized words) of material to be encoded. We aimed to investigate the processing of semantically related information in AN. METHOD: Memory performance was assessed in a recall, learning, and recognition test in 27 adult women with AN (19 restricting, 8 binge-eating/purging subtype; average disease duration: 9.32 years) and 30 healthy controls using an extended version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, applying semantically related and unrelated word stimuli...
December 29, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025813/the-sensory-neocortex-and-associative-memory
#10
Dominik Aschauer, Simon Rumpel
Most behaviors in mammals are directly or indirectly guided by prior experience and therefore depend on the ability of our brains to form memories. The ability to form an association between an initially possibly neutral sensory stimulus and its behavioral relevance is essential for our ability to navigate in a changing environment. The formation of a memory is a complex process involving many areas of the brain. In this chapter we review classic and recent work that has shed light on the specific contribution of sensory cortical areas to the formation of associative memories...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010876/central-ghrelin-resistance-permits-the-overconsolidation-of-fear-memory
#11
Elia S Harmatz, Lauren Stone, Seh Hong Lim, Graham Lee, Anna McGrath, Barbara Gisabella, Xiaoyu Peng, Eliza Kosoy, Junmei Yao, Elizabeth Liu, Nuno J Machado, Veronica S Weiner, Warren Slocum, Rodrigo A Cunha, Ki A Goosens
BACKGROUND: There are many contradictory findings about the role of the hormone ghrelin in aversive processing, with studies suggesting that ghrelin signaling can both inhibit and enhance aversion. Here, we characterize and reconcile the paradoxical role of ghrelin in the acquisition of fearful memories. METHODS: We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure endogenous acyl-ghrelin and corticosterone at time points surrounding auditory fear learning. We used pharmacological (systemic and intra-amygdala) manipulations of ghrelin signaling and examined several aversive and appetitive behaviors...
November 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002080/on-the-etiology-of-listening-difficulties-in-noise-despite-clinically-normal-audiograms
#12
Martin Pienkowski
Many people with difficulties following conversations in noisy settings have "clinically normal" audiograms, that is, tone thresholds better than 20 dB HL from 0.1 to 8 kHz. This review summarizes the possible causes of such difficulties, and examines established as well as promising new psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic approaches to differentiate between them. Deficits at the level of the auditory periphery are possible even if thresholds remain around 0 dB HL, and become probable when they reach 10 to 20 dB HL...
December 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996635/disengagement-from-tasks-as-a-function-of-cognitive-load-and-depressive-symptom-severity
#13
Christopher R Bowie, Melissa Milanovic, Tanya Tran, Sarah Cassidy
INTRODUCTION: Depression is associated with impairment in cognition and everyday functioning. Mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in depression and the factors that influence strategic deployment of cognitive abilities in complex environments remain elusive. In this study we investigated whether depression symptom severity is associated with disengagement from a working memory task (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task; PASAT) with parametric adjustment of task difficulty. METHODS: 235 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, low and high cognitive load conditions of the PASAT, and quality of life...
December 20, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994565/have-we-forgotten-auditory-sensory-memory-retention-intervals-in-studies-of-nonverbal-auditory-working-memory
#14
Michael A Nees
Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3-5 s) are compared, and a "same" or "different" judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detail in this comment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991935/is-there-a-link-between-tnf-gene-expression-and-cognitive-deficits-in-depression
#15
Kinga Bobińska, Elżbieta Gałecka, Janusz Szemraj, Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
: Neuroinflammation is a known factor in the pathogenesis of recurrent depressive disorders. Depression is accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory pathways including increased levels of TNFα, sTNFR1and sTNFR2.The purpose of this study was to analyse the TNF-α, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B genes on both mRNA and protein levels in patients with rDD, and to investigate the relationship between TNF-α,TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B gene expression and cognitive performance. The study comprised 158 subjects: patients with recurrent depressive disorder (n=89) and healthy subjects (n=69)...
December 16, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990134/allocentric-spatial-memory-testing-predicts-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-an-initial-proof-of-concept-study
#16
Ruth A Wood, Kuven K Moodley, Colin Lever, Ludovico Minati, Dennis Chan
The hippocampus is one of the first regions to exhibit neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and knowledge of its role in allocentric spatial memory may therefore aid early diagnosis of AD. The 4 Mountains Test (4MT) is a short and easily administered test of spatial memory based on the cognitive map theory of hippocampal function as derived from rodent single cell and behavioral studies. The 4MT has been shown in previous cross-sectional studies to be sensitive and specific for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981855/individual-differences-in-language-and-working-memory-affect-children-s-speech-recognition-in-noise
#17
Ryan W McCreery, Meredith Spratford, Benjamin Kirby, Marc Brennan
OBJECTIVE: We examined how cognitive and linguistic skills affect speech recognition in noise for children with normal hearing. Children with better working memory and language abilities were expected to have better speech recognition in noise than peers with poorer skills in these domains. DESIGN: As part of a prospective, cross-sectional study, children with normal hearing completed speech recognition in noise for three types of stimuli: (1) monosyllabic words, (2) syntactically correct but semantically anomalous sentences and (3) semantically and syntactically anomalous word sequences...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932975/adaptations-of-prefrontal-brain-activity-executive-functions-and-gait-in-healthy-elderly-following-exergame-and-balance-training-a-randomized-controlled-study
#18
Alexandra Schättin, Rendel Arner, Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP) of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF), and gait performance...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924444/bindings-in-working-memory-the-role-of-object-based-attention
#19
Zaifeng Gao, Fan Wu, Fangfang Qiu, Kaifeng He, Yue Yang, Mowei Shen
Over the past decade, it has been debated whether retaining bindings in working memory (WM) requires more attention than retaining constituent features, focusing on domain-general attention and space-based attention. Recently, we proposed that retaining bindings in WM needs more object-based attention than retaining constituent features (Shen, Huang, & Gao, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, doi: 10.1037/xhp0000018 ). However, only unitized visual bindings were examined; to establish the role of object-based attention in retaining bindings in WM, more emperical evidence is required...
December 6, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909448/a-comparative-study-of-computerized-memory-test-and-the-korean-version-of-the-consortium-to-establish-a-registry-for-alzheimer-s-disease-assessment-packet-for-assessing-memory-function-in-the-elderly
#20
Min-Sup Shin, Jayun Choi, Ryu-Yeon Ahn, Dong-Young Lee, Jun-Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of a newly developed computerized memory diagnostic system (MDS) with the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K). METHODS: Subtests of the MDS and CERAD-K, including the auditory-verbal, visuo-spatial, and working memory tests, were administered to 43 adults aged 60 to 74 years. We calculated the correlations between the subtest scores of the MDS and CERAD-K to examine the concurrent validity of the MDS...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
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