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Auditory working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771462/different-neural-activities-support-auditory-working-memory-in-musicians-and-bilinguals
#1
Claude Alain, Yasha Khatamian, Yu He, Yunjo Lee, Sylvain Moreno, Ada W S Leung, Ellen Bialystok
Musical training and bilingualism benefit executive functioning and working memory (WM)-however, the brain networks supporting this advantage are not well specified. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and the n-back task to assess WM for spatial (sound location) and nonspatial (sound category) auditory information in musician monolingual (musicians), nonmusician bilinguals (bilinguals), and nonmusician monolinguals (controls). Musicians outperformed bilinguals and controls on the nonspatial WM task...
May 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738793/modulation-of-motor-cortex-activity-in-a-visual-working-memory-task-of-hand-images
#2
Alejandro Galvez-Pol, Bettina Forster, Beatriz Calvo-Merino
Recent studies suggest that brain regions engaged in perception are also recruited during the consolidation interval of the percept in working memory (WM). Evidence for this comes from studies showing that maintaining arbitrary visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in WM elicits recruitment of the corresponding sensory cortices. Here we investigate if encoding and WM maintenance of visually perceived body-related stimuli engage just visual regions, or additional sensorimotor regions that are classically associated with embodiment processes in studies of body and action perception...
May 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738406/water-immersion-affects-episodic-memory-and-postural-control-in-healthy-older-adults
#3
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, Adam C Raikes, Sushma Alphonsa, Anastasia Kyvelidou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous research has reported that younger adults make fewer cognitive errors on an auditory vigilance task while in chest-deep water compared with on land. The purpose of this study was to extend this previous work to include older adults and to examine the effect of environment (water vs land) on linear and nonlinear measures of postural control under single- and dual-task conditions. METHODS: Twenty-one older adult participants (age = 71...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729278/restoration-of-sensory-input-may-improve-cognitive-and-neural-function
#4
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly Jenkins, Samira Anderson
Age-related hearing loss is one of the most prevalent health conditions among the elderly. Hearing loss may lead to social isolation, depression, and cognitive decline in older adults. The mechanistic basis for the association between hearing loss and decreased cognitive function remains unknown as does the potential for improving cognition through hearing rehabilitation. To that end, we asked whether the restoration of sensory input through the use of hearing aids would improve cognitive and auditory neural function...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709790/associations-between-cognition-and-internalizing-problems-in-young-adults-with-early-onset-schizophrenia-a-13-year-follow-up-study
#5
Benedicte Strugstad, Bjørn Lau, Merete Glenne Øie
The present follow-up study examines the associations between cognition and parent-rated internalizing problems among adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) at baseline (T1) and self-rated internalizing problems 13 years later (T2). Twelve individuals (8 male/4 female) with EOS and 30 healthy controls (16 male/14 female) were included in the study. All were between 12 and 18 years of age at T1. Internalizing problems were measured with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Internalizing Scale...
April 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698917/a-mania-related-memory-bias-is-associated-with-risk-for-relapse-in-bipolar-disorder
#6
Thomas D Meyer, Martin Hautzinger, Isabelle E Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has shown that neuropsychological performance can predict outcome of psychotherapy. The present paper explores whether an affective bias in verbal memory is associated with recurrence of mood episodes in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). METHOD: 76 euthymic adult patients with BD were randomly assigned to either 9 months of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Support Therapy (ST), and followed up for 2 years after completing therapy...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692702/an-fpga-based-massively-parallel-neuromorphic-cortex-simulator
#7
Runchun M Wang, Chetan S Thakur, André van Schaik
This paper presents a massively parallel and scalable neuromorphic cortex simulator designed for simulating large and structurally connected spiking neural networks, such as complex models of various areas of the cortex. The main novelty of this work is the abstraction of a neuromorphic architecture into clusters represented by minicolumns and hypercolumns, analogously to the fundamental structural units observed in neurobiology. Without this approach, simulating large-scale fully connected networks needs prohibitively large memory to store look-up tables for point-to-point connections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#8
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674984/rhythm-and-melody-tasks-for-school-aged-children-with-and-without-musical-training-age-equivalent-scores-and-reliability
#10
Kierla Ireland, Averil Parker, Nicholas Foster, Virginia Penhune
Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670934/musical-training-bilingualism-and-executive-function-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control
#11
Annalise A D'Souza, Linda Moradzadeh, Melody Wiseheart
The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663130/differences-in-modal-distortion-in-time-perception-due-to-working-memory-capacity-a-response-with-a-developmental-study-in-children-and-adults
#12
Sylvie Droit-Volet, Quentin Hallez
This study tested the modality effect on time judgment in a bisection task in children and adults when auditory and visual stimuli were presented in the same session. Cognitive capacities of children and adults were assessed with different neuropsychological tests. The results showed a modality effect, with the auditory stimuli judged longer than the visual stimuli. However, this modality distortion in time judgment was higher in the younger children. Statistical analyses revealed that the size of this time distortion was directly related to individual working memory capacities...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#13
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658746/older-adults-show-impaired-modulation-of-attentional-alpha-oscillations-evidence-from-dichotic-listening
#14
Chad S Rogers, Lisa Payne, Sujala Maharjan, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory attention is critical for selectively listening to speech from a single talker in a multitalker environment (e.g., Cherry, 1953). Listening in such situations is notoriously more difficult and more poorly encoded to long-term memory in older than in young adults (Tun, O'Kane, & Wingfield, 2002). Recent work by Payne, Rogers, Wingfield, and Sekuler (2017) in young adults demonstrated a neural correlate of auditory attention in the directed dichotic listening task (DDLT), where listeners attend to one ear while ignoring the other...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655595/working-memory-training-in-congenitally-blind-individuals-results-in-an-integration-of-occipital-cortex-in-functional-networks
#15
Helene Gudi-Mindermann, Johanna M Rimmele, Guido Nolte, Patrick Bruns, Andreas K Engel, Brigitte Röder
The functional relevance of crossmodal activation (e.g. auditory activation of occipital brain regions) in congenitally blind individuals is still not fully understood. The present study tested whether the occipital cortex of blind individuals is integrated into a challenged functional network. A working memory (WM) training over four sessions was implemented. Congenitally blind and matched sighted participants were adaptively trained with an n-back task employing either voices (auditory training) or tactile stimuli (tactile training)...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649712/sexual-abuse-but-not-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-is-associated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-south-african-traumatized-adolescents
#16
Sarah V Biedermann, Stefanie Meliss, Candice Simmons, Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Soraya Seedat
OBJECTIVES: Neurocognitive impairments are commonly observed in adults suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The picture is less clear in adolescents. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have an independent influence on neuropsychological test performance and provide partial explanatory power of the inconsistent findings. We hypothesized that adolescents with PTSD who have also suffered sexual abuse would have most pronounced deficits on neurocognitive testing. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 105 traumatized South African adolescents, of whom 52 fulfilled criteria of PTSD and 34 reported CSA, were studied...
April 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627592/alignment-of-alpha-band-desynchronization-with-syntactic-structure-predicts-successful-sentence-comprehension
#17
Benedict Vassileiou, Lars Meyer, Caroline Beese, Angela D Friederici
Sentence comprehension requires the encoding of phrases and their relationships into working memory. To date, despite the importance of neural oscillations in language comprehension, the neural-oscillatory dynamics of sentence encoding are only sparsely understood. Although oscillations in a wide range of frequency bands have been reported both for the encoding of unstructured word lists and for working-memory intensive sentences, it is unclear to what extent these frequency bands subserve processes specific to the working-memory component of sentence comprehension or to general verbal working memory...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611255/translational-validity-of-pasat-and-the-effect-of-fatigue-and-mood-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-ms-a-functional-mri-study
#18
Dessislava Iancheva, Anastasiya G Trenova, Kiril Terziyski, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefka Mantarova
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used for assessment of information processing speed, attention, and working memory, which are the most frequently affected cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may be significantly affected by fatigue. However, the effect of fatigue and mood on the PASAT performance in MS patients translationally validated by fMRI has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the translational validity of the PASAT, using fMRI during a paced visual serial addition test (PVSAT) paradigm in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and to assess the impact of fatigue and mood on test performance...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594073/enhancing-working-memory-capacity-in-persian-cochlear-implanted-children-a-clinical-trial-study
#19
Afsaneh Doosti, Maryam Jalalipour, Tayebeh Ahmadi, Seyed Basir Hashemi, Shapour Haghjou, Enayatollah Bakhshi
Introduction: Sensory deprivations such as hearing impairment that affect sensory input have a secondary impact on cognitive functions such as working memory (WM). WM capacity is an important cognitive component that processes language-related activities. Moreover, several studies have shown a deficit in WM in children with a cochlear implant (CI). We aimed to assess the performance of children with CIs in pre- and post-training sessions and compare their scores on a battery of WM tests to investigate the efficacy of a WM training program...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578754/auditory-task-irrelevance-a-basis-for-inattentional-deafness
#20
Menja Scheer, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Lewis L Chuang
Objective This study investigates the neural basis of inattentional deafness, which could result from task irrelevance in the auditory modality. Background Humans can fail to respond to auditory alarms under high workload situations. This failure, termed inattentional deafness, is often attributed to high workload in the visual modality, which reduces one's capacity for information processing. Besides this, our capacity for processing auditory information could also be selectively diminished if there is no obvious task relevance in the auditory channel...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
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