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Auditory working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#1
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929903/predictors-of-hearing-aid-outcomes
#2
Enrique A Lopez-Poveda, Peter T Johannesen, Patricia Pérez-González, José L Blanco, Sridhar Kalluri, Brent Edwards
Over 360 million people worldwide suffer from disabling hearing loss. Most of them can be treated with hearing aids. Unfortunately, performance with hearing aids and the benefit obtained from using them vary widely across users. Here, we investigate the reasons for such variability. Sixty-eight hearing-aid users or candidates were fitted bilaterally with nonlinear hearing aids using standard procedures. Treatment outcome was assessed by measuring aided speech intelligibility in a time-reversed two-talker background and self-reported improvement in hearing ability...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929305/auditory-display-for-fluorescence-guided-open-brain-tumor-surgery
#3
David Black, Horst K Hahn, Ron Kikinis, Karin Wårdell, Neda Haj-Hosseini
PURPOSE: Protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence allows discrimination of tumor and normal brain tissue during neurosurgery. A handheld fluorescence (HHF) probe can be used for spectroscopic measurement of 5-ALA-induced PpIX to enable objective detection compared to visual evaluation of fluorescence. However, current technology requires that the surgeon either views the measured values on a screen or employs an assistant to verbally relay the values. An auditory feedback system was developed and evaluated for communicating measured fluorescence intensity values directly to the surgeon...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922999/pattern-of-near-transfer-effects-following-working-memory-training-with-a-dual-n-back-task
#4
Anna Soveri, Eric P A Karlsson, Otto Waris, Petra Grönholm-Nyman, Matti Laine
In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the pattern of near transfer effects of working memory (WM) training with an adaptive auditory-visuospatial dual n-back training task in healthy young adults. The results revealed significant task-specific transfer to an untrained single n-back task, and more general near transfer to a WM updating composite score plus a nearly significant effect on a composite score measuring interference control in WM. No transfer effects were seen on Active or Passive WM composites...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906586/equivalent-linear-change-in-cognition-between-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls-over-5%C3%A2-years
#5
Kelly A Ryan, Shervin Assari, Kaley Angers, David F Marshall, Kristin Hinrichs, Rebecca Easter, Pallavi Babu, Bethany D Pester, Scott A Langenecker, Melvin G McInnis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction is a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD). However, not much is known about its temporal stability, as some studies have demonstrated a neurodegenerative model in BD while others have shown no change in cognitive functioning over time. Building upon our prior work, which examined the natural course of executive functioning, the current study aimed to investigate the natural course of memory, emotion processing, and fine motor dexterity over a 5-year period in BD and healthy control (HC) samples...
September 14, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906246/the-relationship-between-central-auditory-processing-language-and-cognition-in-children-being-evaluated-for-central-auditory-processing-disorder
#6
Lauren Brenneman, Elizabeth Cash, Gail D Chermak, Linda Guenette, Gay Masters, Frank E Musiek, Mallory Brown, Julianne Ceruti, Krista Fitzegerald, Kristin Geissler, Jennifer Gonzalez, Jeffrey Weihing
BACKGROUND: Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. PURPOSE: The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902903/visuo-perceptual-capabilities-predict-sensitivity-for-coinciding-auditory-and-visual-transients-in-multi-element-displays
#7
Hauke S Meyerhoff, Nina A Gehrer
In order to obtain a coherent representation of the outside world, auditory and visual information are integrated during human information processing. There is remarkable variance among observers in the capability to integrate auditory and visual information. Here, we propose that visuo-perceptual capabilities predict detection performance for audiovisually coinciding transients in multi-element displays due to severe capacity limitations in audiovisual integration. In the reported experiment, we employed an individual differences approach in order to investigate this hypothesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901210/does-working-memory-impact-functional-outcomes-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-qualitative-and-comprehensive-literature-review
#8
Ronna Fried, Jessica Abrams, Anna Hall, Leah Feinberg, Amanda Pope, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Working Memory (WM) is a domain of executive functioning often impaired in individuals with ADHD. Although assumed to cause difficulties across functioning, the scope of impairments from WM deficits in ADHD has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes associated with WM deficits in ADHD. METHOD: We conducted a search of the scientific literature on WM deficits, and Freedom From Distractibility (FFD), in ADHD using PubMed and PsycInfo databases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890684/neural-correlates-of-early-sound-encoding-and-their-relationship-to-speech-in-noise-perception
#9
Emily B J Coffey, Alexander M P Chepesiuk, Sibylle C Herholz, Sylvain Baillet, Robert J Zatorre
Speech-in-noise (SIN) perception is a complex cognitive skill that affects social, vocational, and educational activities. Poor SIN ability particularly affects young and elderly populations, yet varies considerably even among healthy young adults with normal hearing. Although SIN skills are known to be influenced by top-down processes that can selectively enhance lower-level sound representations, the complementary role of feed-forward mechanisms and their relationship to musical training is poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877465/dynamics-of-presynaptic-diacylglycerol-in-a-sensory-neuron-encode-differences-between-past-and-current-stimulus-intensity
#10
Hayao Ohno, Naoko Sakai, Takeshi Adachi, Yuichi Iino
Memorizing the intensity of sensory stimuli enables animals to successfully deal with changing environmental conditions and contributes to cognitive functions such as auditory and visual working memory. However, how nervous systems process past and current stimulus intensity is largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we employ in vivo diacylglycerol (DAG) imaging in the ASER taste neuron of Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstrate that associative learning between ambient salt concentrations and food can be explained by changes in presynaptic DAG...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870702/automatic-frequency-shift-detection-in-the-auditory-system-a-review-of-psychophysical-findings
#11
Laurent Demany, Catherine Semal
The human brain has the task of binding successive sounds produced by the same acoustic source into a coherent perceptual stream, and binding must be selective when several sources are concurrently active. Binding appears to obey a principle of spectral proximity: pure tones close in frequency are more likely to be bound than pure tones with remote frequencies. It has been hypothesized that the binding process is realized by automatic "frequency-shift detectors" (FSDs), comparable to the detectors of spatial motion in the visual system...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869475/effect-of-attention-training-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-subcortical-vascular-changes-the-rehatt-study
#12
Leonardo Pantoni, Anna Poggesi, Stefano Diciotti, Raffaella Valenti, Stefano Orsolini, Eleonora Della Rocca, Domenico Inzitari, Mario Mascalchi, Emilia Salvadori
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are at high dementia risk. We tested the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in these patients using the Attention Process Training-II (APT-II) program in a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Patients were randomized to APT-II or standard care and evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 months with functional, quality of life, cognitive tests, and resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864916/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-the-auditory-mismatch-negativity-response-and-working-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#13
Danielle Impey, Ashley Baddeley, Renee Nelson, Alain Labelle, Verner Knott
Cognitive impairment has been proposed to be the core feature of schizophrenia (Sz). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which can improve cognitive function in healthy participants and in psychiatric patients with cognitive deficits. tDCS has been shown to improve cognition and hallucination symptoms in Sz, a disorder also associated with marked sensory processing deficits. Recent findings in healthy controls demonstrate that anodal tDCS increases auditory deviance detection, as measured by the brain-based event-related potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), which is a putative biomarker of Sz that has been proposed as a target for treatment of Sz cognition...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856955/long-term-pitch-memory-for-music-recordings-is-related-to-auditory-working-memory-precision
#14
Stephen C Van Hedger, Shannon L M Heald, Howard C Nusbaum
Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training, and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856615/effects-of-capacity-limits-memory-loss-and-sound-type-in-change-deafness
#15
Melissa K Gregg, Vanessa C Irsik, Joel S Snyder
Change deafness, the inability to notice changes to auditory scenes, has the potential to provide insights about sound perception in busy situations typical of everyday life. We determined the extent to which change deafness to sounds is due to the capacity of processing multiple sounds and the loss of memory for sounds over time. We also determined whether these processing limitations work differently for varying types of sounds within a scene. Auditory scenes composed of naturalistic sounds, spectrally dynamic unrecognizable sounds, tones, and noise rhythms were presented in a change-detection task...
August 30, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835619/the-zero-effect-voxel-based-lesion-symptom-mapping-of-number-transcoding-errors-following-stroke
#16
Marleen Haupt, Céline R Gillebert, Nele Demeyere
Zero represents a special case in our numerical system because it is not represented on a semantic level. Former research has shown that this can lead to specific impairments when transcoding numerals from dictation to written digits. Even though, number processing is considered to be dominated by the left hemisphere, studies have indicated that both left as well as right hemispheric stroke patients commit errors when transcoding numerals including zeros. Here, for the first time, a large sample of subacute stroke patients (N = 667) was assessed without being preselected based on the location of their lesion, or a specific impairment in transcoding zero...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#17
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814467/input-from-the-medial-geniculate-nucleus-modulates-amygdala-encoding-of-fear-memory-discrimination
#18
Nicole C Ferrara, Patrick K Cullen, Shane P Pullins, Elena K Rotondo, Fred J Helmstetter
Generalization of fear can involve abnormal responding to cues that signal safety and is common in people diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Differential auditory fear conditioning can be used as a tool to measure changes in fear discrimination and generalization. Most prior work in this area has focused on elevated amygdala activity as a critical component underlying generalization. The amygdala receives input from auditory cortex as well as the medial geniculate nucleus (MgN) of the thalamus, and these synapses undergo plastic changes in response to fear conditioning and are major contributors to the formation of memory related to both safe and threatening cues...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#19
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802387/sleep-quality-and-communication-aspects-in-children
#20
Camila de Castro Corrêa, Maria Renata José, Eduardo Carvalho Andrade, Mariza Ribeiro Feniman, Ana Paula Fukushiro, Giédre Berretin-Felix, Luciana Paula Maximino
OBJECTIVES: To correlate quality of life of children in terms of sleep, with their oral language skills, auditory processing and orofacial myofunctional aspects. METHODS: Nineteen children (12 males and seven females, in the mean age 9.26) undergoing otorhinolaryngological and speech evaluations participated in this study. The OSA-18 questionnaire was applied, followed by verbal and nonverbal sequential memory tests, dichotic digit test, nonverbal dichotic test and Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test, related to auditory processing...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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