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Auditory working memory

Guy Griebel, Philippe Pichat, Denis Boulay, Vanessa Naimoli, Lisa Potestio, Robert Featherstone, Sukhveen Sahni, Henry Defex, Christophe Desvignes, Franck Slowinski, Xavier Vigé, Olivier E Bergis, Rosy Sher, Raymond Kosley, Sathapana Kongsamut, Mark D Black, Geoffrey B Varty
Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ(35)S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca(2+) mobilization assay...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sónia do Vale, Lenka Selinger, João Martin Martins, Manuel Bicho, Isabel do Carmo, Carles Escera
Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Antonio Arjona Valladares, Jaime Gómez González, Carlos M Gómez
The present study tries to analyze the neural basis of the so-called "Inter-trial Validity-Invalidity Effects" by means of Event-Related Potentials. The N1, P2, P3a and P3b components were examined. The aim is to show the sequential effects on Event-Related Potentials by analyzing the effect of previous trial condition (n-1) in the processing of current trial target (n). Event-Related Potentials results indicate that the N1 and P2 components show higher negativity in valid trials preceded by invalid trials with respect to valid trials preceded by valid trials, elicited by the so-called "Processing Negativity"...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Margherita Bechi, Marta Bosia, Marco Spangaro, Alessandro Pigoni, Mariachiara Buonocore, Diego Scrofani, Federica Cocchi, Laura Bianchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Enrico Smeraldi, Roberto Cavallaro
Deficits in emotion processing (EP) represent a target of rehabilitation in schizophrenia, as they have been related to poor personal and social functioning. To date neither the relationship between these deficits and the generalised cognitive impairment, nor the involvement of specific mechanisms of perception (visual or auditory) are fully comprehended. We developed two treatments targeting EP, through visual or auditory channels, with the aim of disentangling possible differences and/or interactions between the two modalities in schizophrenia-related impairments, also taking into account the role of cognition and social functioning...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Christiane M Thiel, Jale Özyurt, Waldo Nogueira, Sebastian Puschmann
Prior research suggests that acoustical degradation impacts encoding of items into memory, especially in elderly subjects. We here aimed to investigate whether acoustically degraded items that are initially encoded into memory are more prone to forgetting as a function of age. Young and old participants were tested with a vocoded and unvocoded serial list learning task involving immediate and delayed free recall. We found that degraded auditory input increased forgetting of previously encoded items, especially in older participants...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicoline Thorup, Sébastien Santurette, Søren Jørgensen, Erik Kjærbøl, Torsten Dau, Morten Friis
INTRODUCTION: Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often complain about difficulties communicating in the presence of background noise, although audibility may be restored by a hearing-aid (HA). The audiogram typically forms the basis for HA fitting, i.e. people with similar audiograms are given the same prescription by default. This study aimed at identifying clinically relevant tests that may serve as an informative addition to the audiogram and which may relate more directly to HA satisfaction than the audiogram does...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Thomas P Schmidt, David L Pennington, Stephanie L Cardoos, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
INTRODUCTION: Intact neurocognition and early cognitive recovery during abstinence are important for substance use treatment outcome. Yet, little is known about them in the largest group of treatment seekers today, individuals with polysubstance use disorders (PSU). This study primarily contrasted PSU and individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) on neurocognitive and inhibitory control measures and, secondarily, measured changes during abstinence in PSU. METHOD: At one month of abstinence from all substances except tobacco, 36 PSU and 69 AUD completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, general intelligence, auditory-verbal learning/memory, visuospatial learning/memory/skills, processing speed, working memory, fine motor skills, and cognitive efficiency...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Tiina Salminen, Simone Kühn, Peter A Frensch, Torsten Schubert
UNLABELLED: The dual n-back working memory (WM) training paradigm (comprising auditory and visual stimuli) has gained much attention since studies have shown widespread transfer effects. By including a multimodal dual-task component, the task is demanding to the human cognitive system. We investigated whether dual n-back training improves general cognitive resources or a task-specific WM updating process in participants. We expected: (1) widespread transfer effects and the recruitment of a common neuronal network by the training and the transfer tasks and (2) narrower transfer results and that a common activation network alone would not produce transfer, but instead an activation focus on the striatum, which is associated with WM updating processes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marion Castera, Véronique Kuhn, Franck Medina
OBJECTIVE: Anomia is the second most common disorder after episodic memory loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Our objective was to develop a speech therapy protocol for patients with Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination or MMSE≥15) and suffering from a lack of words, in order to improve access to words. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We stimulated the three stages in the men: - stimulation of lexical selection involved working on the multiple meanings of a word, searching for the relevant and specific features of a word in order to make a guess, and bringing to mind a target word from specific features; - stimulation of morphological encoding involved extracting the meaning of a morpheme by comparing two words, one of which is derived from the other, and then identifying the meaning of an affix by slipping it into a sentence; - phonological encoding was stimulated by the isolation of the initial two-syllable words and merging them to form a third word...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Katleen Geladé, Marleen Bink, Tieme W P Janssen, Rosa van Mourik, Athanasios Maras, Jaap Oosterlaan
Neurofeedback (NFB) is a potential alternative treatment for children with ADHD that aims to optimize brain activity. Whereas most studies into NFB have investigated behavioral effects, less attention has been paid to the effects on neurocognitive functioning. The present randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared neurocognitive effects of NFB to (1) optimally titrated methylphenidate (MPH) and (2) a semi-active control intervention, physical activity (PA), to control for non-specific effects. Using a multicentre three-way parallel group RCT design, children with ADHD, aged 7-13, were randomly allocated to NFB (n = 39), MPH (n = 36) or PA (n = 37) over a period of 10-12 weeks...
September 24, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Ada W S Leung, Lauren M Barrett, Darcy Butterworth, Karin Werther, Deirdre R Dawson, E Sharon Brintnell
This case study examined the effects of auditory working memory (WM) training on neuroplastic changes in stroke survivors and how such effects might be influenced by self-perceived stress. Two participants with a history of stroke participated in the study. One of them had a higher level of self-perceived stress. Both participants underwent a course of auditory WM training and completed baseline and post-training assessments such as self-perceived stress, performance satisfaction questionnaires, behavioral task performance, and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Danielle Impey, Sara de la Salle, Ashley Baddeley, Verner Knott
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a weak constant current to alter cortical excitability and activity temporarily. tDCS-induced increases in neuronal excitability and performance improvements have been observed following anodal stimulation of brain regions associated with visual and motor functions, but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to auditory processing. Recently, pilot study results indicate that anodal tDCS can increase auditory deviance detection, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases auditory processing, as measured by a brain-based event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Leanne Tamm, Sarah B Brenner, Morgan E Bamberger, Stephen P Becker
The aim of this study is to investigate whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms are associated with neurocognitive task performance and ratings of real-world executive functioning (EF) in preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The associations between parent- and teacher-rated SCT symptoms and neuropsychological task performance and ratings of EF in 61 4-year-old preschool children (51 boys, 10 girls) with self-regulation difficulties were examined, with regression analyses controlling for the effects of ADHD inattention symptoms...
September 13, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Elise Labonte-Lemoyne, Daniel Curnier, Dave Ellemberg
Accumulating research indicates that the regular practice of physical exercise is beneficial to the human brain. From the improvement of academic achievement in children to the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly, exercise appears beneficial across the developmental spectrum. Recent work from animal studies also indicates that a pregnant mother can transfer the benefits of exercise during gestation to her offspring's brain. Exercising pregnant rats give birth to pups that have better memory and spatial learning as well as increased synaptic density...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Roberto Bottini, Stefania Mattioni, Olivier Collignon
Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Krysta J Trevis, Neil M McLachlan, Sarah J Wilson
The cognitive mechanisms underpinning chronic tinnitus (CT; phantom auditory perceptions) are underexplored but may reflect a failure to switch attention away from a tinnitus sound. Here, we investigated a range of components that influence the ability to switch attention, including cognitive control, inhibition, working memory and mood, on the presence and severity of CT. Our participants with tinnitus showed significant impairments in cognitive control and inhibition as well as lower levels of emotional well-being, compared to healthy-hearing participants...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
John J Foxe, Kelly M Burke, Gizely N Andrade, Aleksandra Djukic, Hans-Peter Frey, Sophie Molholm
BACKGROUND: Over the typical course of Rett syndrome, initial language and communication abilities deteriorate dramatically between the ages of 1 and 4 years, and a majority of these children go on to lose all oral communication abilities. It becomes extremely difficult for clinicians and caretakers to accurately assess the level of preserved auditory functioning in these children, an issue of obvious clinical import. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques allow for the interrogation of auditory cortical processing without the need for overt behavioral responses...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Erin C Schafer, Suzanne Wright, Christine Anderson, Jessalyn Jones, Katie Pitts, Danielle Bryant, Melissa Watson, Jerrica Box, Melissa Neve, Lauren Mathews, Mary Pat Reed
The goal of this study was to conduct assistive technology evaluations on 12 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to evaluate the potential benefits of remote-microphone (RM) technology. A single group, within-subjects design was utilized to explore individual and group data from functional questionnaires and behavioral test measures administered, designed to assess school- and home-based listening abilities, once with and once without RM technology. Because some of the children were unable to complete the behavioral test measures, particular focus was given to the functional questionnaires completed by primary teachers, participants, and parents...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
Melanie Ferguson, Helen Henshaw
Auditory training aims to compensate for degradation in the auditory signal and is offered as an intervention to help alleviate the most common complaint in people with hearing loss, understanding speech in a background noise. Yet there remain many unanswered questions. This article reviews some of the key pieces of evidence that assess the evidence for whether, and how, auditory training benefits adults with hearing loss. The evidence supports that improvements occur on the trained task; however, transfer of that learning to generalized real-world benefit is much less robust...
November 2015: Seminars in Hearing
Daniel Oberfeld, Felicitas Klöckner-Nowotny
Listeners with normal hearing show considerable individual differences in speech understanding when competing speakers are present, as in a crowded restaurant. Here, we show that one source of this variance are individual differences in the ability to focus selective attention on a target stimulus in the presence of distractors. In 50 young normal-hearing listeners, the performance in tasks measuring auditory and visual selective attention was associated with sentence identification in the presence of spatially separated competing speakers...
2016: ELife
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