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Auditory working memory

Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
M V Ivanova, O V Dragoy, S V Kuptsova, S Akinina Yu, A G Petrushevskii, O N Fedina, A Turken, V M Shklovsky, N F Dronkers
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jessica Lee, Amanda S Russo, Ryan G Parsons
Classical fear conditioning is perhaps the premier model system used to study the neurobiological basis of memory formation. Prior work has resulted in a good understanding of both the molecular mechanisms and neural circuits supporting this form of learning. However, much of what is known about these mechanisms comes from studies in which fear memory is acquired using a single, isolated training session. Given that we cannot divorce the acquisition of new information from the backdrop on which it occurs, studies are needed to determine how the acquisition of fear memory is affected by other learning events...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sung-Joo Lim, Malte Wöstmann, Frederik Geweke, Jonas Obleser
Humans can be cued to attend to an item in memory, which facilitates and enhances the perceptual precision in recalling this item. Here, we demonstrate that this facilitating effect of attention-to-memory hinges on the overall degree of memory load. The benefit an individual draws from attention-to-memory depends on her overall working memory performance, measured as sensitivity ( d' ) in a retroactive cue (retro-cue) pitch discrimination task. While listeners maintained 2, 4, or 6 auditory syllables in memory, we provided valid or neutral retro-cues to direct listeners' attention to one, to-be-probed syllable in memory...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Claude Alain, Madeline Cusimano, Linda Garami, Kristina C Backer, Bettina Habelt, Vanessa Chan, Lynn Hasher
We examined the effect of age on listeners' ability to orient attention to an item in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) using high-density electroencephalography, while participants completed a delayed match-to-sample task. During the retention interval, an uninformative or an informative visual retro-cue guided attention to an item in ASTM. Informative cues speeded response times, but only for young adults. In young adults, informative retro-cues generated greater event-related potential amplitude between 450 and 650 ms at parietal sites, and an increased sustained potential over the left central scalp region, thought to index the deployment of attention and maintenance of the cued item in ASTM, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adriana A Zekveld, Marieke Pronk, Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg
Purpose: The visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test (Zekveld et al., 2007) has been designed to assess modality-general factors relevant for speech perception in noise. In the last decade, the test has been adopted in audiology labs worldwide. The 1st aim of this study was to examine which factors best predict interindividual differences in the TRT. Second, we aimed to assess the relationships between the TRT and the speech reception thresholds (SRTs) estimated in various conditions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Margaret A Koeritzer, Chad S Rogers, Kristin J Van Engen, Jonathan E Peelle
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how background noise, linguistic properties of spoken sentences, and listener abilities (hearing sensitivity and verbal working memory) affect cognitive demand during auditory sentence comprehension. Method: We tested 30 young adults and 30 older adults. Participants heard lists of sentences in quiet and in 8-talker babble at signal-to-noise ratios of +15 dB and +5 dB, which increased acoustic challenge but left the speech largely intelligible...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Sarah Tune, Malte Wöstmann, Jonas Obleser
In recent years, hemispheric lateralization of alpha power has emerged as a neural mechanism thought to underpin spatial attention across sensory modalities. Yet, how healthy aging, beginning in middle adulthood, impacts the modulation of lateralized alpha power supporting auditory attention remains poorly understood. In the current electroencephalography (EEG) study, middle-aged and older adults (N = 29; ~40-70 years) performed a dichotic listening task that simulates a challenging, multi-talker scenario. We examined the extent to which the modulation of 8-12 Hz alpha power would serve as neural marker of listening success across age...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ryan P Atherton, Quin M Chrobak, Frances H Rauscher, Aaron T Karst, Matt D Hanson, Steven W Steinert, Kyra L Bowe
The present study sought to explore whether musical information is processed by the phonological loop component of the working memory model of immediate memory. Original instantiations of this model primarily focused on the processing of linguistic information. However, the model was less clear about how acoustic information lacking phonological qualities is actively processed. Although previous research has generally supported shared processing of phonological and musical information, these studies were limited as a result of a number of methodological concerns (e...
January 2018: Experimental Psychology
Athena Akrami, Charles D Kopec, Mathew E Diamond, Carlos D Brody
Many models of cognition and of neural computations posit the use and estimation of prior stimulus statistics: it has long been known that working memory and perception are strongly impacted by previous sensory experience, even when that sensory history is not relevant to the current task at hand. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms and regions of the brain that are necessary for computing and using such prior experience are unknown. Here we report that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information...
February 7, 2018: Nature
Leigh E Colvin, Matteo Malgaroli, Silvia Chapman, Anna MacKay-Brandt, Stephanie Cosentino
OBJECTIVES: Emerging work reveals the neuroanatomic changes that compromise metacognition; however, little is known about the impact of premorbid factors. Research suggests that psychological variables influence the perception of cognition, but whether they influence the accuracy of those perceptions (i.e., metacognition) has not been directly examined. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), we tested for discrete personality (NEOFFI) and mood (STAI, BDI-II, and GDS) classes among a community-based cohort of 151 older adults, enrolled in the NKI-Rockland study...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Jens Hjortkjaer, Jonatan Märcher-Rørsted, Søren A Fuglsang, Torsten Dau
Neuronal oscillations are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM) and speech processing. Listening to speech in real-life situations is often cognitively demanding but it is unknown whether WM load influences how auditory cortical activity synchronizes to speech features. Here we developed an auditory n-back paradigm to investigate cortical entrainment to speech envelope fluctuations under different degrees of WM load. We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG), pupil dilations, and behavioural performance from 22 subjects listening to continuous speech with an embedded n-back task...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Frida H Rångtell, Swathy Karamchedu, Peter Andersson, Lisanne Liethof, Marcela Olaya Búcaro, Lauri Lampola, Helgi B Schiöth, Jonathan Cedernaes, Christian Benedict
Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Aileen J Zhou, Nicole E Carmona, Danielle S Cha, Joshua D Rosenblat, Robert Bruins, Ron Kakar, Natalie L Rasgon, Julie A Lovshin, Tonita E Wroolie, Kang Sim, Elisa Brietzke, Hertzel C Gerstein, Carola Rong, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains; however, the determinants of cognitive impairment in T2DM are not well characterized. We aimed to evaluate body mass index (BMI), glycemic control, and T2DM duration as moderators of cognitive dysfunction in T2DM. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analytic review of the literature reporting data on BMI, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), T2DM duration, and validated measures of processing speed (ie, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Test [TMT]-A), verbal learning and memory (ie, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), and working memory/executive function (ie, TMT-B) among individuals with vs without T2DM...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Ulrike Körner, Jan Philipp Röer, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jennine Harvey, Deborah von Hapsburg, Scott Seeman
PURPOSE: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WCJ-III) assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11) who were 41-61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD) = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9) who were 63-81 years old (mean = 72...
November 2017: Noise & Health
So Young Park, Min Jung Kim, Hong Lim Kim, Dong Kee Kim, Sang Won Yeo, Shi Nae Park
Hearing and cognition are commonly involved in both normal and pathological aging. Current clinical interest lies in whether peripheral hearing loss promotes cognitive decline. In our previous publication, the authors have shown a causal relationship between hearing and cognitive impairments in C57BL/6 mice. Here we extended the follow-up to 12 months to determine the long-term effects of hearing loss on cognition and to observe hippocampal p-tau and lipofuscin. One month old male mice were randomly allocated into two groups, the control (n = 12) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (n = 12)...
January 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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