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mitochondrial copy number detect

Kirsty Foote, Johannes Reinhold, Emma P K Yu, Nichola L Figg, Alison Finigan, Michael P Murphy, Martin R Bennett
Aging is the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular aging remain unclear. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is linked to aging, but whether mtDNA damage or mitochondrial dysfunction is present and directly promotes vascular aging is unknown. Furthermore, mechanistic studies in mice are severely hampered by long study times and lack of sensitive, repeatable and reproducible parameters of arterial aging at standardized early time points. We examined the time course of multiple invasive and noninvasive arterial physiological parameters and structural changes of arterial aging in mice, how aging affects vessel mitochondrial function, and the effects of gain or loss of mitochondrial function on vascular aging...
May 9, 2018: Aging Cell
Isao Masuda, Masato Koike, Shohei Nakashima, Yu Mizutani, Yusuke Ozawa, Kenji Watanabe, Yoko Sawada, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Atsushi Sugimoto, Hidetoshi Nojiri, Koichi Sashihara, Koutaro Yokote, Takahiko Shimizu
Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rebecca Hanna, Jonathan M Crowther, Pallav A Bulsara, Xuying Wang, David J Moore, Mark A Birch-Machin
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that induce cellular oxidative stress damage tissue integrity and promote ageing, resulting in accumulative strand breaks to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. Limited repair mechanisms and close proximity to superoxide generation make mtDNA a prominent biomarker of oxidative damage. Using human DNA we describe an optimised long-range qPCR methodology that sensitively detects mtDNA strand breaks relative to a suite of short mitochondrial and nuclear DNA housekeeping amplicons, which control for any variation in mtDNA copy number...
May 3, 2018: Mitochondrion
G X Zhang, Y D Du, X H Li, Z T Feng, H Zhao, Y Sun, J J Jin, X J Li
Recent studies have shown that liver dysfunction is an early event in sepsis. Pre-existing liver dysfunction is a risk factor for progression of infection to sepsis. However, the mechanism of the liver immune response in promoting sepsis and the importance of liver function are not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) against mitochondrial dysfunction in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model, and examined the underlying signaling mechanisms...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
I V Chestkov, E M Jestkova, E S Ershova, V G Golimbet, T V Lezheiko, N Yu Kolesina, O A Dolgikh, V L Izhevskaya, G P Kostyuk, S I Kutsev, N N Veiko, S V Kostyuk
Objective: The aim of this study was (1) to examine the leukocyte mtDNA copy number ( CN ) in unmedicated (SZ (m-)) and medicated (SZ (m+)) male patients with paranoid schizophrenia (SZ) in comparison with the healthy male controls (HC) and (2) to compare the leukocyte mtDNA CN with the content of an oxidation marker 8-oxodG in lymphocytes of the SZ (m-) patients. Methods: We evaluated leukocyte mtDNA CN of 110 subjects with SZ in comparison with 60 male HC by the method qPCR (ratio mtDNA/nDNA (gene B2M) was detected)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Raúl Bonal, Enrique Vargas-Osuna, Juan Diego Mena, José Miguel Aparicio, María Santoro, Angela Martín
The quick spread of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Europe constitutes an outstanding example of recent human-aided biological invasion with dramatic economic losses. We screened for the first time a set of five nuclear and mitochondrial genes from D. kuriphilus collected in the Iberian Peninsula, and compared the sequences with those available from the native and invasive range of the species. We found no genetic variability in Iberia in none of the five genes, moreover, the three genes compared with other European samples showed no variability either...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kazuki Kansaku, Yasuhisa Munakata, Nobuhiko Itami, Koumei Shirasuna, Takehito Kuwayama, Hisataka Iwata
This study examined the concentration of cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mtDNA) in porcine follicular fluid (FF) and explored whether the cfDNA level in the culture medium could reflect mitochondrial dysfunction in cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs). cfDNA concentration was higher in the fluid of small-sized follicles, compared to that in larger follicles. The length of cfDNA ranged from short (152 bp) to long (1,914 bp) mtDNA in FF, detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). cfDNA concentration in FF significantly correlated with the mtDNA copy number in FF but not with the number of one-copy gene (nuclear DNA) in FF...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Nisha Singh, Hannah McMahon, Amy Bilderbeck, Zoe E Reed, Elizabeth Tunbridge, Daniel Brett, John R Geddes, Grant C Churchill, Guy M Goodwin
OBJECTIVES: We previously demonstrated oxidative stress in bipolar patients and a relationship between the age of illness onset and total glutathione, a principal antioxidant. In this study, we sought to replicate these findings in a new cohort of patients. METHODS: We recruited bipolar patients from Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK, of similar age and grouped them according to age of onset of illness. The early-onset group comprised patients with onset at <23 years, and the late group comprised patients with onset at >30 years...
March 30, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Brandi L Rollins, Ling Morgan, Brooke E Hjelm, Adolfo Sequeira, Alan F Schatzberg, Jack D Barchas, Francis S Lee, Rick M Myers, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Steven G Potkin, William E Bunney, Marquis P Vawter
Subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) show decreased protein and transcript levels for mitochondrial complex I. In vitro results suggest antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs may be responsible. We measured complex I activity in BD, SZ, and controls and presence of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, and the mtDNA "common deletion" in the brain. Complex I activity in the prefrontal cortex was decreased by 45% in SZ compared to controls ( p = 0...
February 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
S S-S Chen, L-P Chiu
To investigate the association between the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) gene Ser326Cys polymorphism and male subfertility in Taiwanese patients with varicocele, we made a prospective study. Ninety young male patients with varicocele (group 1), 50 young male patients with subclinical varicocele (group 2) and 30 normal young male patients without varicocele (group 3) were recruited in this study. The hOGG1 null homozygous genotype (Cys/Cys) and the occurrence of a 4,977-bp deletion in mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial copy number in spermatozoa were determined by polymerase chain reaction...
March 26, 2018: Andrologia
Bradley Peter, Christie L Waddington, Monika Oláhová, Ewen W Sommerville, Sila Hopton, Angela Pyle, Michael Champion, Monica Ohlson, Triinu Siibak, Zofia M A Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Robert W Taylor, Maria Falkenberg, Robert N Lightowlers
LonP1 is a mitochondrial matrix protease whose selective substrate specificity is essential for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Recessively inherited, pathogenic defects in LonP1 have been previously reported to underlie cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular and skeletal anomalies (CODAS) syndrome, a complex multisystemic and developmental disorder. Intriguingly, although classical mitochondrial disease presentations are well-known to exhibit marked clinical heterogeneity, the skeletal and dental features associated with CODAS syndrome are pathognomonic...
May 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Z-Y Le, S Dong, R Zhang, X-P Cai, A Gao, R Xiao, H-L Yu
It was reported that high blood cholesterol levels increased the susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction. This study hypothesized that the gestational hypercholesterolemia (HC) could induce the mitochondrial dysfunction in term human placenta. The eligible pregnant women were recruited from Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing during their first prenatal visit (before their 10th week of pregnancy). In total, 19 pregnant women whose serum total cholesterol levels were higher than 7.25 mm at third trimester (measured at 36-38 weeks) were selected as gestational HC...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Xiaoman Li, Xiaodan Zha, Yongan Wang, Rong Jia, Burong Hu, Baoquan Zhao
Proton is a major particle of space radiation environment and a prospective radiotherapy beam. However, its risk needs to be fully evaluated for the understanding and to establish the better protective strategy for astronaut and patient. Zebrafish is an ideal model for the toxicity studies on medicines and environmental genetic toxicants. In the current study, embryos of zebrafish at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to proton beam. Some toxic parameters of embryo-larval development were investigated...
June 2018: Chemosphere
Chang Yu, Xuefeng Wang, Lifeng Huang, Ying Tong, Lili Chen, Hailong Wu, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
AIM: Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations has been proposed to contribute to initiation and progression of tumors. METHODS: By using high-through sequencing strategies, we measured 33 specimens including: 11 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, 11 corresponding adjacent tissues and 11 normal liver tissues. RESULTS: We identified 194 Single Nucleotide Variants (SNV, including insert and deletion) in 33 liver tissues. And 13 somatic novel mutations were detected, including 7 mutations in the coding region...
February 20, 2018: Gene Expression
Ruo-Hong Xiong, Shi-Lei Wen, Qiang Wang, Hong-Ying Zhou, Shi Feng
Female athletes may experience difficulties in achieving pregnancy due to athletic amenorrhea (AA); however, the underlying mechanisms of AA remain unknown. The present study focuses on the mitochondrial alteration and its function in detecting the possible mechanism of AA. An AA rat model was established by excessive swimming. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopic methods were performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the ovary, immunohistochemical examinations and radioimmunoassays were used to detect the reproductive hormones and corresponding receptors...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Natalie Ellen Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Lacerda, Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Andrea Kuehn, Andre M Siqueira, Ingrid Felger
A distinctive feature of Plasmodium vivax infections is the overall low parasite density in peripheral blood. Thus, identifying asymptomatic infected individuals in endemic communities requires diagnostic tests with high sensitivity. The detection limits of molecular diagnostic tests are primarily defined by the volume of blood analysed and by the copy number of the amplified molecular marker serving as the template for amplification. By using mitochondrial DNA as the multi-copy template, the detection limit can be improved more than tenfold, compared to standard 18S rRNA targets, thereby allowing detection of lower parasite densities...
January 30, 2018: Malaria Journal
Marina Bartsakoulia, Angela Pyle, Diego Troncoso-Chandía, Josefa Vial-Brizzi, Marysol V Paz-Fiblas, Jennifer Duff, Helen Griffin, Veronika Boczonadi, Hanns Lochmüller, Stephanie Kleinle, Patrick F Chinnery, Sarah Grünert, Janbernd Kirschner, Verónica Eisner, Rita Horvath
Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in cellular homeostasis and a variety of human diseases are linked to its dysregulated function. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy with a novel disease caused by altered mitochondrial dynamics. The patient was the second child of consanguineous Jewish parents. He developed progressive muscle weakness and exercise intolerance at 6 years of age. His muscle biopsy revealed mitochondrial myopathy with numerous ragged red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) negative fibers and combined respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiency...
April 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
M Calzetta, E Perugini, G Seixas, C A Sousa, W M Guelbeogo, N Sagnon, A Della Torre, J Pinto, M Pombi, E Mancini
Sensitive techniques for the detection of Plasmodium (Aconoidasida: Plasmodiidae) sporozoites in field-collected malaria vectors are essential for the correct assessment of risk for malaria transmission. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol targeting Plasmodium mtDNA proved to be much more sensitive in detecting sporozoites in mosquitoes than the widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeting Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP-ELISA). However, because of the relatively high costs associated with equipment and reagents, RT-PCRs are mostly used to assess the outcomes of experimental infections in the frame of research experiments, rather than in routine monitoring of mosquito infection in the field...
January 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Dóra Melicher, Anett Illés, Éva Pállinger, Árpád Ferenc Kovács, Levente Littvay, Ádám Domonkos Tárnoki, Dávid László Tárnoki, András Bikov, Mária Judit Molnár, Edit Irén Buzás, András Falus
Our study analyzed lymphocyte subpopulations of 32 monozygotic twins and compared the level of the catalytic reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) in T lymphocytes (Tly), helper- (Th), cytotoxic- (Tc) and regulatory T cell (Treg) subgroups. Four variables related to telomere and mitochondrial biology were simultaneously assessed, applying multi-parametric flow cytometry, TRAP-ELISA assay and qPCR standard curve method on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of genetically matched individuals...
December 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Gabriel R Fries, Isabelle E Bauer, Giselli Scaini, Mon-Ju Wu, Iram F Kazimi, Samira S Valvassori, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Jair C Soares, Joao Quevedo
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been previously associated with accelerated aging; yet, the mechanisms underlying this association are largely unknown. The epigenetic clock has been increasingly recognized as a valuable aging marker, although its association with other biological clocks in BD patients and high-risk subjects, such as telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, has never been investigated. We included 22 patients with BD I, 16 siblings of BD patients, and 20 healthy controls in this analysis...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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