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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935905/impacts-of-no-tillage-management-on-nitrate-loss-from-corn-soybean-and-wheat-cultivation-a-meta-analysis
#1
Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, Pierre-André Jacinthe
Although no-till (NT) has been promoted as an alternative land management practice to conventional tillage (CT), its impact on water quality, especially nitrate (NO3(-)) loss remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare NO3(-) concentration and load in NT and CT systems via two major transport pathways: runoff and leaching. Rainfall variability, aridity, soil texture, tillage duration, crop species, and fertilizer type were used as co-varying factors. In comparison to CT, NT resulted in an overall increase of runoff NO3(-) concentration, but similar runoff NO3(-) load...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934474/human-dna-polymerase-delta-double-mutant-d316a-e318a-interferes-with-dna-mismatch-repair-in-vitro
#2
Dekang Liu, Jane H Frederiksen, Sascha E Liberti, Anne Lützen, Guido Keijzers, Javier Pena-Diaz, Lene Juel Rasmussen
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly-conserved DNA repair mechanism, whose primary role is to remove DNA replication errors preventing them from manifesting as mutations, thereby increasing the overall genome stability. Defects in MMR are associated with increased cancer risk in humans and other organisms. Here, we characterize the interaction between MMR and a proofreading-deficient allele of the human replicative DNA polymerase delta, PolδD316A;E318A, which has a higher capacity for strand displacement DNA synthesis than wild type Polδ...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930657/foundations-of-immunometabolism-and-implications-for-metabolic-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Highly ordered interactions between immune and metabolic responses are evolutionarily conserved and paramount for tissue and organismal health. Disruption of these interactions underlies the emergence of many pathologies, particularly chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we examine decades of research identifying the complex immunometabolic signaling networks and the cellular and molecular events that occur in the setting of altered nutrient and energy exposures and offer a historical perspective...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928474/using-experimental-evolution-to-identify-druggable-targets-that-could-inhibit-the-evolution-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#4
Heer H Mehta, Amy G Prater, Yousif Shamoo
With multi-drug and pan-drug-resistant bacteria becoming increasingly common in hospitals, antibiotic resistance has threatened to return us to a pre-antibiotic era that would completely undermine modern medicine. There is an urgent need to develop new antibiotics and strategies to combat resistance that are substantially different from earlier drug discovery efforts. One such strategy that would complement current and future antibiotics would be a class of co-drugs that target the evolution of resistance and thereby extend the efficacy of specific classes of antibiotics...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927687/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-spleen-of-the-darkbarbel-catfish-pelteobagrus-vachellii-in-response-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#5
Chuanjie Qin, Quan Gong, Zhengyong Wen, Dengyue Yuan, Ting Shao, Jun Wang, Huatao Li
Intensive aquaculture has increased the susceptibility of fish to Aeromonas hydrophila, and this has led to severe economic damage. There has been little study of the host defense mechanism against A. hydrophila infection in scaleless fish. Therefore, in the present study, the transcriptome profiles of the spleen of Pelteobagrus vachellii were examined after infection with A. hydrophila. In total, 37,730 unigenes from 322 KEGG pathways were identified. Following A. hydrophila infection, 27,803 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 13,934 upregulated and 13,869 downregulated genes...
September 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927270/proteomic-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmc-after-a-high-fat-high-carbohydrate-meal-with-orange-juice
#6
Daniela F Seixas Chaves, Paulo C Carvalho, Elisa Brasili, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto, Jolene K Diedrich, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Franco Maria Lajolo
Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in the physiopathology of insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A single high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meal induces an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Previous studies have shown that orange juice is able to prevent this response by inhibiting toll like receptors (TLR) expression and endotoxemia. Our goal was to study the proteome response in PBMC after the consumption of a HFHC meal consumed with water, orange juice or an isocaloric beverage (water with glucose)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926725/association-between-x-ray-repair-cross-complementing-group-1-xrcc1-arg399gln-polymorphism-and-endometriosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Mo-Qi Lv, Jin Wang, Xiao-Qing Yu, Hui-Hui Hong, Wen-Juan Ren, Pang Ge, Dang-Xia Zhou
OBJECTIVE(S): X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1(XRCC1) gene is one of the DNA repair pathway genes playing a vital role in endometriosis risk. Various studies have explored the association between them, however, the results remained inconsistent. So to confirm the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis, a meta-analysis was conducted. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Director, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data databases were searched to identify the all relevant studies before Sep...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926521/blockade-of-hla-antibody-triggered-classical-complement-activation-in-sera-from-subjects-dosed-with-the-anti-c1s-monoclonal-antibody-tnt009-results-from-a-randomized-first-in-human-phase-1-trial
#8
Jakob Mühlbacher, Bernd Jilma, Markus Wahrmann, Johann Bartko, Farsad Eskandary, Christian Schörgenhofer, Michael Schwameis, Graham C Parry, James C Gilbert, Sandip Panicker, Georg A Böhmig
BACKGROUND: Complement may play a key role in antibody-mediated rejection. A promising therapeutic approach may be classical pathway (CP) inhibition at the level of early component C1. METHODS: In this first-in-human, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety and complement inhibitory effect of TNT009, a humanized monoclonal anti-C1s antibody. Sixty-four adult healthy volunteers received either single (n = 48; 7 consecutive cohorts, 0...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924032/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-d2c-contains-mutations-in-major-regulatory-pathways-that-cripple-its-pathogenesis
#9
William E Sause, Richard Copin, Aidan O'malley, Rita Chan, Brian J Morrow, Peter T Buckley, Jeffrey Fernandez, A Simon Lynch, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that imposes a great burden on the healthcare system. In the development of anti-staphylococcal modalities intended to reduce the burden of staphylococcal disease, it is imperative to select appropriate models of S. aureus strains when assessing the efficacy of novel agents. Here, using whole genome sequencing, we reveal that the commonly used strain Newman D2C from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) contains mutations that render the strain essentially avirulent...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#10
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922794/genome-wide-variation-patterns-uncover-the-origin-and-selection-in-cultivated-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#11
Ming-Rui Li, Feng-Xue Shi, Ya-Ling Li, Peng Jiang, Lili Jiao, Bao Liu, Lin-Feng Li
Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921918/proteomic-response-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-to-histamine-stimulation
#12
Pelin Esma Emirbayer, Ankit Sinha, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Stefanie Hoyer, Jan Dörrie, Niels Schaft, Monika Pischetsrieder, Thomas Kislinger
The histamine receptors (HRs) represent a subclass of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and comprise four subtypes. Due to their numerous physiological and pathological effects, HRs are popular drug targets for the treatment of allergic reactions or the regulation of gastric acid secretion. Hence, an understanding of the functional selectivity of HR ligands has gained importance. These ligands can bind to specific GPCRs and selectively activate defined pathways. Supporting the activation of a therapeutically necessary pathway without the activation of other signaling cascades can result in drugs with more specific activity and fewer side effects...
September 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920104/variable-phenotypic-penetrance-of-thrombosis-in-adult-mice-after-tissue-selective-and-temporally-controlled-thbd-gene-inactivation
#13
Thijs E van Mens, Hai-Po H Liang, Sreemanti Basu, Irene Hernandez, Mark Zogg, Jennifer May, Min Zhan, Qiuhui Yang, Jamie Foeckler, Shawn Kalloway, Rashmi Sood, Caren Sue Karlson, Hartmut Weiler
Thrombomodulin (Thbd) exerts pleiotropic effects on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and complement system activity by facilitating the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and may have additional thrombin- and protein C (pC)-independent functions. In mice, complete Thbd deficiency causes embryonic death due to defective placental development. In this study, we used tissue-selective and temporally controlled Thbd gene ablation to examine the function of Thbd in adult mice...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919885/trypanosoma-cruzi-evades-the-complement-system-as-an-efficient-strategy-to-survive-in-the-mammalian-host-the-specific-roles-of-host-parasite-molecules-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-calreticulin
#14
REVIEW
Galia Ramírez-Toloza, Arturo Ferreira
American Trypanosomiasis is an important neglected reemerging tropical parasitism, infecting about 8 million people worldwide. Its agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibits multiple mechanisms to evade the host immune response and infect host cells. An important immune evasion strategy of T. cruzi infective stages is its capacity to inhibit the complement system activation on the parasite surface, avoiding opsonizing, immune stimulating and lytic effects. Epimastigotes, the non-infective form of the parasite, present in triatomine arthropod vectors, are highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis while trypomastigotes, the infective form, present in host bloodstream, are resistant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#15
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918528/signaling-of-the-complement-cleavage-product-anaphylatoxin-c5a-through-c5ar-cd88-contributes-to-pharmacological-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization
#16
Kamila Bujko, Sylwia Rzeszotek, Kai Hoehlig, Jun Yan, Axel Vater, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Several mechanisms have been postulated for orchestrating the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and we previously proposed that activation of the complement cascade plays a crucial role in the initiation and execution of the egress of HSPCs from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB). In support of this notion, we demonstrated that mice deficient in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway, which activates the proximal part of the complement cascade, as well as mice deficient in the fifth component of the complement cascade (C5), which is part of the distal part of the complement cascade, are poor mobilizers...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918485/the-5-oxoprolinase-is-required-for-conidiation-sexual-reproduction-virulence-and-deoxynivalenol-production-of-fusarium-graminearum
#17
Piao Yang, Yunyun Chen, Huiming Wu, Wenqin Fang, Qifu Liang, Yangling Zheng, Stefan Olsson, Dongmei Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang, Wenhui Zheng
In eukaryotic organisms, the 5-oxoprolinase is one of the six key enzymes in the γ-glutamyl cycle that is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of glutathione (GSH, an antioxidative tripeptide counteracting the oxidative stress). To date, little is known about the biological functions of the 5-oxoprolinase in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the 5-oxoprolinase in Fusarium graminearum for the first time. In F. graminearum, two paralogous genes (FgOXP1 and FgOXP2) were identified to encode the 5-oxoprolinase while only one homologous gene encoding the 5-oxoprolinase could be found in other filamentous phytopathogenic fungi or Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917486/effects-of-the-potential-probiotics-bacillus-aerophilus-kadr3-in-inducing-immunity-and-disease-resistance-in-labeo-rohita
#18
Dharmaraj Ramesh, Sami Souissi, Tharifkhan Shan Ahamed
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dietary administration of Bacillus aerophilus KADR3 on enhancing the immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Labeo rohita. B. aerophilus culture supernatant exhibited antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria in an agar well diffusion assay. Four fish groups were fed with either of following diets containing different concentrations of B. aerophilus KADR3 (cfu g(-1)): 0 (control), 1 × 10(7) (DI), 1 × 10(8) (DII), and 1 × 10(9) (DIII) -cfu g(-1)...
September 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916360/trancriptome-profiles-of-amur-sturgeon-spleen-in-response-to-yersinia-ruckeri-infection
#19
Shaowu Li, Ying Zhang, Yongsheng Cao, Di Wang, Hongbai Liu, Tongyan Lu
Yersinia ruckeri (YR) is the causative agent of yersiniosis which has caused significant economic losses in fish culture worldwide, including in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) culture. To better understand the mechanism of the immune responses to YR in Amur sturgeon, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from YR-infected and non-infected groups were obtained using RNA-seq techniques. The de novo assemblies yielded totally 145 670 unigenes from the two libraries. The total numbers of transcripts in YR-infected and non-infected groups were from 110 893 to 147 336, with the mean length varying from 560 to 631 (N50: from 882 to 1083)...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915042/mode-of-peg-coverage-on-carbon-nanotubes-affects-binding-of-innate-immune-protein-c1q
#20
Agathe Belime, Edmond Gravel, Sophie Brenet, Sarah Ancelet, Charlotte Caneiro, Yanxia Hou, Nicole Thielens, Eric Doris, Wai Li Ling
Surface modification of nanoparticles with poly(ethylene glycol) PEG is used in biomedicines to increase the circulation time of the particles after intravenous injection. Here, we study the interaction of PEG-covered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the serum complement protein C1q. Besides being the target-recognizing unit of the initiating complex for the classical pathway of complement in our innate immune system, C1q is involved in a range of important physiological processes. We modified the surface of multi-walled CNTs with covalently grafted PEG and physically adsorbed PEG...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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