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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346710/the-arabidopsis-thiamin-deficient-mutant-pale-green1-lacks-thiamin-monophosphate-phosphatase-of-the-vitamin-b1-biosynthesis-pathway
#1
Wei-Yu Hsieh, Jo-Chien Liao, Hsin-Tzu Wang, Tzu-Huan Hung, Ching-Chih Tseng, Tsui-Yun Chung, Ming-Hsiun Hsieh
Thiamin diphosphate (TPP, vitamin B1) is an essential coenzyme present in all organisms. Animals obtain TPP from their diets, but plants synthesize TPP de novo. We isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis pale green1 (pale1) mutant that contained higher concentrations of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) and less thiamin and TPP than the wild type. Supplementation with thiamin, but not the thiazole and pyrimidine precursors, rescued the mutant phenotype, indicating that the pale1 mutant is a thiamin-deficient mutant...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345838/ercc1-expression-in-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#2
Mohamed Ali EL Baiomy, Wagdi F El Kashef
Background: Possible targeted therapies for metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) include cytotoxic chemotherapy that causes interstrand breaks (platinum-based drugs). The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays an essential role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, removing platinum-induced DNA adducts and contributing to cisplatin resistance. Detecting ERCC1 overexpression is important in considering treatment options for metastatic TNBC, including individualized approaches to therapy, and may facilitate improved responses or reduction of unnecessary toxicity...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344054/the-role-of-cardiac-energy-metabolism-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-failure
#3
REVIEW
Tomi Tuomainen, Pasi Tavi
In mammalian heart, incessant production of cellular energy is vital for maintaining continuous mechanical pumping function providing the body for oxygen and nutrients. To ensure this essential function, cardiac muscle adapt to increased energy demand or compromised energy supply by reprogramming the network of genes whose products are necessary to match the production of energy to consumption. Failure in this regulation leads to severe cardiac dysfunction and has been associated with cardiac pathogenesis including cardiac hypertrophy, failure and diabetes...
March 24, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343064/a-barley-homolog-of-yeast-atg6-is-involved-in-multiple-abiotic-stress-responses-and-stress-resistance-regulation
#4
Xiaowei Zeng, Zhanghui Zeng, Cuicui Liu, Weiyi Yuan, Ning Hou, Hongwu Bian, Muyuan Zhu, Ning Han
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation pathway among eukaryote cells, which can recycle damaged or unwanted cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. As a key component of the Class III PI3K kinase complex, ATG6/Beclin-1 is essential for autophagosome formation. In this study, we isolated a putative HvATG6 gene in barley genome. The protein encoded by HvATG6 shares high sequence identity to ATG6 orthologs in rice and wheat, and has a typical autophagy-specific domain containing segments of repeated β-sheet-α-helix...
March 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342076/schizosaccharomyces-pombe-rsv1-transcription-factor-and-its-putative-homologues-preserved-their-functional-homology-and-are-evolutionarily-conserved
#5
Emese Pataki, Matthias Sipiczki, Ida Miklos
Environmental glucose is an important regulator of biological processes, as it can launch different cell processes depending on its concentration. Thus, low glucose concentration can induce entry into quiescence, which ensures long-term viability for the cells or in other cases mycelial growth in the dimorphic species, which, in turn, provides the cells with fresh nutrients. Several genes, such as the genes of cAMP cascade, are involved in glucose sensing and response. Since this signal transduction pathway seemed to be an evolutionarily conserved process, we assumed that its genes were also conserved and preserved their functional homology...
March 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341572/cell-and-region-specificity-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-system-in-the-testis-and-the-epididymis
#6
A Wajda, J Łapczuk, M Grabowska, E Pius-Sadowska, M Słojewski, M Laszczynska, E Urasinska, B Machalinski, M Drozdzik
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays multiple important functions in adaptive responses. Exposure to AhR ligands may produce an altered metabolic activity controlled by the AhR pathways, and consequently affect drug/toxin responses, hormonal status and cellular homeostasis. This research revealed species-, cell- and region-specific pattern of the AhR system expression in the rat and human testis and epididymis, complementing the existing knowledge, especially within the epididymal segments. The study showed that AhR level in the rat and human epididymis is higher than in the testis...
March 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340598/myelin-specific-multiple-sclerosis-antibodies-cause-complement-dependent-oligodendrocyte-loss-and-demyelination
#7
Yiting Liu, Katherine S Given, Danielle E Harlow, Adeline M Matschulat, Wendy B Macklin, Jeffrey L Bennett, Gregory P Owens
Intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands and lesional IgG deposition are seminal features of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathology. Both the specific targets and pathogenic effects of MS antibodies remain poorly characterized. We produced IgG1 monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) from clonally-expanded plasmablasts recovered from MS patient CSF. Among these were a subset of myelin-specific MS rAbs. We examined their immunoreactivity to mouse organotypic cerebellar slices by live binding and evaluated tissue injury in the presence and absence of human complement...
March 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340077/idiopathic-non-lupus-full-house-nephropathy-is-associated-with-poor-renal-outcome
#8
Emilie C Rijnink, Y K Onno Teng, Tineke Kraaij, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Ingeborg M Bajema
Background.: Full-house immunofluorescence in combination with various histopathologic lesions in the renal biopsies of patients without overt systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) poses a diagnostic challenge. In this setting, the biopsy findings are sometimes termed non-lupus 'full-house nephropathy' (FHN). It is presently unknown whether idiopathic non-lupus FHN is clinicopathologically and prognostically distinct from lupus FHN. Methods.: We included non-lupus FHN patients and lupus FHN controls (four or more American College of Rheumatology or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria) who were biopsied between 1968 and 2014 at the Leiden University Medical Centre...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339567/role-of-biomechanical-forces-in-hyperfiltration-mediated-glomerular-injury-in-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#9
Tarak Srivastava, Ganesh Thiagarajan, Uri S Alon, Ram Sharma, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) including solitary kidney constitute the main cause of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children born with CAKUT develop signs of CKD only during adolescence and do not respond to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. Early cellular changes underlying CKD progression to end-stage renal disease by early adulthood are not well understood. The mechanism of maladaptive hyperfiltration that occurs from loss of functional nephrons, including solitary kidney, is not clear...
January 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339096/pathogenesis-and-management-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Deepa R J Arachchillage, Mike Laffan
Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that have clear associations with thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity, and which together constitute the 'antiphospholipid syndrome' (APS). However, the pathophysiology of these complications is not well understood and their heterogeneity suggests that more than one pathogenic process may be involved. Diagnosis remains a combination of laboratory analysis and clinical observation but there have been significant advances in identifying specific pathogenic features, such as domain I-specific anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies...
March 24, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338881/mdhb1-down-regulation-activates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-white-fleshed-apple-cultivar-granny-smith
#11
Yonghua Jiang, Cuihua Liu, Dan Yan, Xiaohong Wen, Yanli Liu, Haojie Wang, Jieyu Dai, Yujie Zhang, Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Xiaolin Ren
Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337762/molecular-interaction-between-pho2-and-gi-in-rice
#12
Shuai Li, Yinghui Ying, David Secco, Chuang Wang, Reena Narsai, James Whelan, Huixia Shou
Plants are often confronted to nutrient limiting conditions, such as inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency, resulting in a reduction in growth and yield. PHO2, encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme, is a central component of the Pi-starvation response signaling pathway. A yeast-two-hybrid screen using Oryza sativa (rice) PHO2 as bait, revealed an interaction between OsPHO2 and OsGIGANTEA, a key regulator of flowering time, which was confirmed using bimolecular flourescenec complementation (BiFC). Characterization of rice Osgi and Ospho2 mutants revealed that they displayed several similar phenotypic features supporting a physiological role for this interaction...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334857/co-cultures-with-stem-cell-derived-human-sensory-neurons-reveal-regulators-of-peripheral-myelination
#13
Alex J Clark, Malte S Kaller, Jorge Galino, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi, David L H Bennett
Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1...
February 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334755/tracking-fluctuation-hotspots-on-the-yeast-ribosome-through-the-elongation-cycle
#14
Suna P Gulay, Sujal Bista, Amitabh Varshney, Serdal Kirmizialtin, Karissa Y Sanbonmatsu, Jonathan D Dinman
Chemical modification was used to quantitatively determine the flexibility of nearly the entire rRNA component of the yeast ribosome through 8 discrete stages of translational elongation, revealing novel observations at the gross and fine-scales. These include (i) the bulk transfer of energy through the intersubunit bridges from the large to the small subunit after peptidyltransfer, (ii) differences in the interaction of the sarcin ricin loop with the two elongation factors and (iii) networked information exchange pathways that may functionally facilitate intra- and intersubunit coordination, including the 5...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331202/immune-evasion-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-cbia-a-novel-outer-surface-protein-exhibiting-complement-binding-and-inactivating-properties
#15
Florian Röttgerding, Alex Wagemakers, Joris Koetsveld, Volker Fingerle, Michael Kirschfink, Joppe W Hovius, Peter F Zipfel, Reinhard Wallich, Peter Kraiczy
Borrelia (B.) miyamotoi, an emerging tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete, resists complement-mediated killing. To decipher the molecular principles of immune evasion, we sought to identify determinants contributing to complement resistance. Employing bioinformatics, we identified a gene encoding for a putative Factor H-binding protein, termed CbiA (complement binding and inhibitory protein A). Functional analyses revealed that CbiA interacted with complement regulator Factor H (FH), C3, C3b, C4b, C5, and C9...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330867/influenza-vaccines-differentially-regulate-the-interferon-response-in-human-dendritic-cell-subsets
#16
Shruti Athale, Romain Banchereau, LuAnn Thompson-Snipes, Yuanyuan Wang, Karolina Palucka, Virginia Pascual, Jacques Banchereau
Human dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in the initiation of long-term adaptive immunity during vaccination against influenza. Understanding the early response of human DCs to vaccine exposure is thus essential to determine the nature and magnitude of maturation signals that have been shown to strongly correlate with vaccine effectiveness. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza epidemics fostered the commercialization of the nonadjuvanted monovalent H1N1 California vaccine (MIV-09) to complement the existing nonadjuvanted trivalent Fluzone 2009-2010 vaccine (TIV-09)...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329269/proteomics-highlights-decrease-of-matricellular-proteins-in-left-ventricular-assist-device-therapy%C3%A2
#17
Jasmin Hasmik Shahinian, Bettina Mayer, Stefan Tholen, Kerstin Brehm, Martin L Biniossek, Hannah Füllgraf, Selina Kiefer, Ulrike Heizmann, Claudia Heilmann, Florian Rüter, Martin Grapow, Oliver Thomas Reuthebuch, Friedrich Eckstein, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Oliver Schilling, Matthias Siepe
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of mechanical unloading with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) on the myocardial proteome. METHODS: We collected 11 patient-matched samples of myocardial left ventricular tissue of patients with non-ischaemic dilate cardiomyopathy, harvested at time of LVAD implant ('pre-LVAD') and heart transplant ('post-LVAD'). Samples were studied by quantitative proteomics. Further we performed histological assessment of deposited collagens and immune infiltration in both pre- and post-LVAD samples...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327556/control-of-structure-specific-endonucleases-to-maintain-genome-stability
#18
REVIEW
Pierre-Marie Dehé, Pierre Henri L Gaillard
Structure-specific endonucleases (SSEs) have key roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair, and emerging roles in transcription. These enzymes have specificity for DNA secondary structure rather than for sequence, and therefore their activity must be precisely controlled to ensure genome stability. In this Review, we discuss how SSEs are controlled as part of genome maintenance pathways in eukaryotes, with an emphasis on the elaborate mechanisms that regulate the members of the major SSE families - including the xeroderma pigmentosum group F-complementing protein (XPF) and MMS and UV-sensitive protein 81 (MUS81)-dependent nucleases, and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), XPG and XPG-like endonuclease 1 (GEN1) enzymes - during processes such as DNA adduct repair, Holliday junction processing and replication stress...
March 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325852/extended-multiplexing-of-tmt-labeling-reveals-age-and-high-fat-diet-specific-proteome-changes-in-mouse-epididymal-adipose-tissue
#19
Deanna L Plubell, Phillip A Wilmarth, Yuqi Zhao, Alexandra M Fenton, Jessica Minnier, Ashok P Reddy, John Klimek, Xia Yang, Larry L David, Nathalie Pamir
The lack of high-throughput methods to analyze the adipose tissue protein composition limits our understanding of the protein networks responsible for age and diet related metabolic response. We have developed an approach using multiple-dimension liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and extended multiplexing (24 biological samples) with TMT labeling to analyze proteomes of epididymal adipose tissues isolated from mice fed either low or high fat diet for a short or a long-term, and from mice that aged on low vs...
March 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324674/osteoblast-osteoclast-interactions
#20
Xiao Chen, Zhongqiu Wang, Na Duan, Guoying Zhu, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie
Bone homeostasis depends on the resorption of bones by osteoclasts and formation of bones by the osteoblasts. Imbalance of this tightly coupled process can cause diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts are critical to bone cell biology. It has been shown that osteoblasts and osteoclasts can communicate with each other through direct cell-cell contact, cytokines, and extracellular matrix interaction. Osteoblasts can affect osteoclast formation, differentiation, or apoptosis through several pathways, such as OPG/RANKL/RANK, RANKL/LGR4/RANK, Ephrin2/ephB4, and Fas/FasL pathways...
February 8, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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