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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718621/illuminating-the-cell-s-biochemical-activity-architecture
#1
Sohum Mehta, Jin Zhang
All cellular behaviors arise through the coordinated actions of numerous intracellular biochemical pathways. Over the past twenty years, efforts to probe intracellular biochemical processes have undergone a fundamental transformation brought about by advances in fluorescence imaging, such as the development of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters and new imaging technologies; the impact of these approaches on our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of biological function cannot be understated...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718268/oxymorphone-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-mimicking-atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#2
Amibhen Gandhi, Saad Ullah, Shani Kotadia, Samer Nasser
Atypical Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) is a rare life threatening entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and renal dysfunction. It is a thrombotic microangiopathy related to genetic mutations in the alternate complement pathway and has a distinct pathophysiology which makes it harder to distinguish from other microangiopathies. We present a case of a 25-year-old male patient with history of polysubstance abuse who presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. He admitted to using injectable oxymorphone (Opana) two weeks before presentation...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717135/projection-of-american-dustiness-in-the-late-21-st-century-due-to-climate-change
#3
Bing Pu, Paul Ginoux
Climate models project rising drought risks over the southwestern and central U.S. in the twenty-first century due to increasing greenhouse gases. The projected drier regions largely overlay the major dust sources in the United States. However, whether dust activity in U.S. will increase in the future is not clear, due to the large uncertainty in dust modeling. This study found that changes of dust activity in the U.S. in the recent decade are largely associated with the variations of precipitation, soil bareness, and surface winds speed...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716828/creation-and-preliminary-characterization-of-pregnane-x-receptor-and-constitutive-androstane-receptor-knockout-rats
#4
Kevin P Forbes, Evguenia Kouranova, Daniel Tinker, Karen Janowski, Doug Cortner, Aaron McCoy, Xiaoxia Cui
The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are closely related transcription factors that regulate the expression of Phase I (Cytochrome P450s), Phase II metabolizing enzymes and transporter genes in response to stimulation from xenobiotics, including prescription drugs. PXR and CAR are also involved in other endogenous processes, such as in inflammation, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and are thus potential drug targets themselves. PXR and CAR knockout and humanized mouse models have proven useful...
July 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716665/applying-label-free-dynamic-mass-redistribution-assay-for-studying-endogenous-fpr1-receptor-signalling-in-human-neutrophils
#5
Hanna B Christensen, David E Gloriam, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Jack B Cowland, Niels Borregaard, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
INTRODUCTION: The label-free dynamic mass redistribution-based assay (DMR) is a powerful method for studying signalling pathways of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Herein we present the label-free DMR assay as a robust readout for pharmacological characterization of formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) in human neutrophils. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from fresh human blood and their responses to FPR1 and FPR2 agonists, i.e. compound 43, fMLF and WKYMVm were measured in a label-free DMR assay using Epic Benchtop System from Corning®...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716421/dual-functioning-of-plant-arginases-provides-a-third-route-for-putrescine-synthesis
#6
Jigar Patel, Menaka Ariyaratne, Sheaza Ahmed, Lingxiao Ge, Vipaporn Phuntumart, Andrea Kalinoski, Paul F Morris
Two biosynthetic routes are known for putrescine, an essential plant metabolite. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) converts ornithine directly to putrescine, while a second route for putrescine biosynthesis utilizes arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to convert arginine to agmatine, and two additional enzymes, agmatine iminohydrolase (AIH) and N-carbamoyl putrescine aminohydrolase (NLP1) to complete this pathway. Here we show that plants can use ADC and arginase/agmatinase (ARGAH) as a third route for putrescine synthesis...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716098/awakening-sleeping-beauty-production-of-propionic-acid-in-escherichia-coli-through-the-sbm-operon-requires-the-activity-of-a-methylmalonyl-coa-epimerase
#7
Ricardo Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia, Tim McCubbin, Annalena Wille, Manuel Plan, Lars Keld Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
BACKGROUND: Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712854/c5-nephritic-factors-drive-the-biological-phenotype-of-c3-glomerulopathies
#8
Maria-Chiara Marinozzi, Sophie Chauvet, Moglie Le Quintrec, Morgane Mignotet, Florent Petitprez, Christophe Legendre, Mathilde Cailliez, Georges Deschenes, Michel Fischbach, Alexandre Karras, Francois Nobili, Christine Pietrement, Marie-Agnes Dragon-Durey, Fadi Fakhouri, Lubka T Roumenina, Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi
C3 Glomerulopathies, which include Dense Deposit Disease and C3 Glomerulonephritis, are associated with genetic and acquired dysregulation of the C3 convertase alternative pathway of complement. The potential role of the activation of the C5 convertase has not been studied extensively. Here we analyzed IgG samples from patients with C3 Glomerulopathies to identify circulating autoantibodies that stabilize the C3 alternative pathway (C3 Nephritic Factors) as well as C5 convertases (C5 Nephritic Factors), thus preventing decay of these enzyme complexes...
July 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712723/msp1-is-a-membrane-protein-dislocase-for-tail-anchored-proteins
#9
Matthew L Wohlever, Agnieszka Mateja, Philip T McGilvray, Kasey J Day, Robert J Keenan
Mislocalized tail-anchored (TA) proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane are cleared by a newly identified quality control pathway involving the conserved eukaryotic protein Msp1 (ATAD1 in humans). Msp1 is a transmembrane AAA-ATPase, but its role in TA protein clearance is not known. Here, using purified components reconstituted into proteoliposomes, we show that Msp1 is both necessary and sufficient to drive the ATP-dependent extraction of TA proteins from the membrane. A crystal structure of the Msp1 cytosolic region modeled into a ring hexamer suggests that active Msp1 contains a conserved membrane-facing surface adjacent to a central pore...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712719/ages-rages-and-s-rage-friend-or-foe-for-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Saheem Ahmad, Hamda Khan, Zeba Siddiqui, Mohd Yasir Khan, Shahnawaz Rehman, Uzma Shahab, Tatyana Godovikova, Vladimir Silnikov, Moinuddin
Impaired awareness of glycation biology in cancer initiation and progression is one of the fundamental reasons for its meticulous investigation of the molecules involved in signalling pathway. Glycation of biological macromolecules results in the progression of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that proliferates the process of carcinogenesis by activation of transcription factors and release of cytokines. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGEs) with the binding of its different ligands like; AGEs, HMGB1 and S100 activate the signalling arrays...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712153/proteomic%C3%A2-analysis-reveals-the-enhancement-of-human-serum-apolipoprotein-a-1-apo-a-1-in%C3%A2-individuals%C3%A2-infected-with-multiple-dengue-virus-serotypes
#11
Manchala Nageswar Reddy, Ranjeet Dungdung, Rajendra Pilankatta
OBJECTIVES: Human serum protein profiling of the individual infected with multiple dengue virus serotypes for identifying the potential biomarkers and to investigate the cause for the severity of dengue virus infection. METHODS: Dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples were pooled into two groups (S2 and S3) based on the molecular serotyping and number of heterotypic infections. The pooled serum samples were subjected to two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) to identify the differentially expressed proteins...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711159/-hemolytic-and-uremic-syndrome-and-related-thrombotic-microangiopathies-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinics
#12
C Rafat, P Coppo, F Fakhouri, V Frémeaux-Bacchi, C Loirat, J Zuber, E Rondeau
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) represent an eclectic group of conditions, which share hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia as a common defining basis. Remarkable breakthroughs in the physiopathological setting have allowed for a thorough recomposition of the disparate syndromes, which form the constellation of TMA. In this view, clinicians now discriminate thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura (TTP) defined by a severe deficiency in ADAMTS13, which is rarely associated with a severe renal involvement and the hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) in which renal impairment is the most prominent clinical feature...
July 12, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711143/genomics-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-insights-gained-by-studying-monogenic-young-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
REVIEW
Linda T Hiraki, Earl D Silverman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic, autoimmune, multisystem disease with a heterogeneous clinical phenotype. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple susceptibility loci, but these explain a fraction of the estimated heritability. This is partly because within the broad spectrum of SLE are monogenic diseases that tend to cluster in patients with young age of onset, and in families. This article highlights insights into the pathogenesis of SLE provided by these monogenic diseases...
August 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710269/molecular-mechanism-and-genetic-determinants-of-buprofezin-degradation
#14
Xueting Chen, Junbin Ji, Leizhen Zhao, Jiguo Qiu, Chen Dai, Weiwu Wang, Jian He, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Xin Yan
Buprofezin is a widely used insect growth regulator whose residue has been frequently detected in the environment, posing a threat to aquatic organisms and non-target insects. Microorganisms play an important role in the degradation of buprofezin in the natural environment. However, the relevant catabolic pathway has not been fully characterized, and the molecular mechanism of catabolism is still completely unknown. Rhodococcus qingshengii YL-1 can utilize buprofezin as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708312/arabidopsis-cpr5-regulates-ethylene-signaling-via-molecular-association-with-the-etr1-receptor
#15
Feifei Wang, Lijuan Wang, Longfei Qiao, Jiacai Chen, Maria Belen Pappa, Haixia Pei, Tao Zhang, Caren Chang, Chun-Hai Dong
The plant hormone ethylene plays various functions in plant growth, development and response to environmental stress. Ethylene is perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors, and among the homologous receptors in Arabidopsis, the ETR1 ethylene receptor plays a major role. The present study provides evidence demonstrating that Arabidopsis CPR5 functions as a novel ETR1 receptor-interacting protein in regulating ethylene response and signaling. Yeast split ubiquitin assays and bi-fluorescence complementation studies in plant cells indicated that CPR5 directly interacts with the ETR1 receptor...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707765/tissue-microarray-methodology-identifies-complement-pathway-activation-and-dysregulation-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Sam Loveless, James W Neal, Owain W Howell, Katharine E Harding, Patrick Sarkies, Rhian Evans, Ryan J Bevan, Svetlana Hakobyan, Claire L Harris, Neil P Robertson, B Paul Morgan
BACKGROUND: The complement pathway has potential contributions to both white (WM) and grey matter (GM) pathology in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A quantitative assessment of complement involvement is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Tissue MicroArray methodology was used in conjunction with immunohistochemistry to investigate the localization of complement pathway proteins in progressive MS cortical GM and subcortical WM. METHODS: Antibodies targeting complement proteins C1q, C3b, regulatory proteins C1 inhibitor (C1INH), complement receptor 1 (CR1), clusterin, factor H (FH) and the C5a anaphylatoxin receptor (C5aR) were utilised alongside standard markers of tissue pathology...
July 14, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707666/-identification-of-proteins-associated-with-transcription-factors-hoxa9-and-e2a-pbx1-by-tandem-affinity-purification
#17
E A Shestakova, M Boutin, S Bourassa, E Bonneil, J J Bijl
Chimeric transcription factor E2A-PBX1 induces the development of acute lymphoblastic B-cell leukemia in children. Using a transgenic mouse model, we previously demonstrated that homeobox (HOX) gene HOXA9 genetically interact with E2A-PBX1 gene in the development of B-cell leukemia in mice. HOXA9 itself is a potent oncogene resulting in myeloid leukemia when overexpressed, which is strongly accelerated by its collaborator Meis1. HOX, PBX1 and MEIS1 proteins have been shown to form hetero dimeric or trimeric complexes in different combinations...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706439/genome-wide-retinal-transcriptome-analysis-of-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-in-mice-with-next-generation-sequencing
#18
Yiguo Qiu, Peng Yu, Ru Lin, Xinyu Fu, Bingtao Hao, Bo Lei
PURPOSE: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) is a well-established mouse model for studying human acute inflammatory uveitis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the genome-wide retinal transcriptome profile of EIU. METHODS: The anterior segment of the mice was examined with a slit-lamp, and clinical scores were evaluated simultaneously. The histological changes in the posterior segment of the eyes were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. A high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy using the Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform was applied to characterize the retinal transcriptome profile from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated and untreated mice...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706002/micrornas-that-contribute-to-coordinating-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Magda L Atilano, Marcus Glittenberg, Annabel Monteiro, Richard Copley, Petros Ligoxygakis
Small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression related to host defences. Here, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to explore the contribution of individual or clusters of miRNAs in countering systemic C. albicans infection. From a total of 72 tested, we identify six miRNAs allelic mutant backgrounds that modulate the survival response to infection and ability to control pathogen number. These mutants also exhibit dysregulation of the Toll pathway target transcripts Drosomycin (Drs) and Immune-Induced Molecule 1 (IM1)...
July 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704660/pathway-analysis-of-systemic-transcriptome-responses-to-injected-polystyrene-particles-in-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Wouter J Veneman, Herman P Spaink, Nadja R Brun, Thijs Bosker, Martina G Vijver
Microplastics are a contaminant of emergent concern in the environment, however, to date there is a limited understanding on their movement within organisms and the response of organisms. In the current study zebrafish embryos at different development stages were exposed to 700nm fluorescent polystyrene (PS) particles and the response pathway after exposure was investigated using imaging and transcriptomics. Our results show limited spreading of particles within the larvae after injection during the blastula stage...
July 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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