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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462882/glycosylation-as-a-main-regulator-of-growth-and-death-factor-receptors-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Inês Gomes Ferreira, Michela Pucci, Giulia Venturi, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Fabio Dall'Olio
Glycosylation is a very frequent and functionally important post-translational protein modification that undergoes profound changes in cancer. Growth and death factor receptors and plasma membrane glycoproteins, which upon activation by extracellular ligands trigger a signal transduction cascade, are targets of several molecular anti-cancer drugs. In this review, we provide a thorough picture of the mechanisms bywhich glycosylation affects the activity of growth and death factor receptors in normal and pathological conditions...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460615/precursor-receptor-interactions-in-the-twin-arginine-protein-transport-pathway-probed-with-a-new-receptor-complex-preparation
#2
Marta Wojnowska, Joseph Gault, Shee Chien Yong, Carol V Robinson, Ben C Berks
The twin arginine translocation (Tat) system moves folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Signal peptide-bearing substrates of the Tat pathway (precursor proteins) are recognised at the membrane by the TatBC receptor complex. The only established preparation of the TatBC complex uses the detergent digitonin, which is unsuitable for biophysical analysis. Here we show that the detergent glyco-diosgenin (GDN) can be used in place of digitonin to isolate homogenous TatBC complexes that bind precursor proteins with physiological specificity...
February 20, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457544/mesoscale-organization-of-domains-in-the-plasma-membrane-beyond-the-lipid-raft
#3
Stella M Lu, Gregory D Fairn
The plasma membrane is compartmentalized into several distinct regions or domains, which show a broad diversity in both size and lifetime. The segregation of lipids and membrane proteins is thought to be driven by the lipid composition itself, lipid-protein interactions and diffusional barriers. With regards to the lipid composition, the immiscibility of certain classes of lipids underlies the "lipid raft" concept of plasmalemmal compartmentalization. Historically, lipid rafts have been described as cholesterol and (glyco)sphingolipid-rich regions of the plasma membrane that exist as a liquid-ordered phase that are resistant to extraction with non-ionic detergents...
February 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421711/silibinin-phosphodiester-glyco-conjugates-synthesis-redox-behaviour-and-biological-investigations
#4
Valeria Romanucci, Chapla Agarwal, Rajesh Agarwal, Christophe Pannecouque, Mauro Iuliano, Gaetano De Tommaso, Tonino Caruso, Giovanni Di Fabio, Armando Zarrelli
New silibinin phosphodiester glyco-conjugates were synthesized by efficient phosphoramidite chemistry and were fully characterized by 2D-NMR. A wide-ranging study focused on the determination of their pKa and E° values as well as on their radical scavenging activities by different assays (DPPH, ABTS+ and HRSA) was conducted. The new glyco-conjugates are more water-soluble than silibinin, and their radical scavenging activities are higher than those of silibinin. The conjugation therefore improves both the water solubilities and antioxidant activities of the flavonolignan moieties...
January 31, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420575/glycoproteins-in-circulating-immune-complexes-are-biomarkers-of-patients-with-indian-pkdl-a-study-from-endemic-districts-of-west-bengal-india
#5
Priyank Jaiswal, Souvik Datta, Bikash Sardar, Surya Jyoti Chaudhuri, Dipankar Maji, Manab Ghosh, Bibhuti Saha, Sumi Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs as dermal consequence of previous Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) infection and serves as an important reservoir for transmission of VL. Diagnosis of PKDL is often challenging for its symptomatic resemblance to other co-endemic diseases like Leprosy or Vitiligo. Parasitological examination by slit-skin smear and culture are the standard methods but lack high sensitivity. Thus, for efficient control of VL, reliable diagnostic and prognostic assay of PKDL are required...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412511/comprehensive-bile-acid-profiling-in-hereditary-intrahepatic-cholestasis-genetic-and-clinical-correlations
#6
Teng Liu, Ren-Xue Wang, Jun Han, Chen-Zhi Hao, Yi-Ling Qiu, Yan-Yan Yan, Li-Ting Li, Neng-Li Wang, Jing-Yu Gong, Yi Lu, Mei-Hong Zhang, Xin-Bao Xie, Jun-Cong Yang, Yi-Jie You, Jia-Qi Li, A S Knisely, Christoph H Borchers, Victor Ling, Jian-She Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic defects causing dysfunction in bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) lead to liver diseases. ABCB11 mutations alter the bile acid metabolome. We asked if profiling plasma bile acids could reveal compensatory mechanisms and track genetic and clinical status. METHODS: We compared plasma bile acids in 17 ABCB11-mutated patients, 35 healthy controls, and 12 genetically undiagnosed cholestatic patients by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MRM-MS)...
February 7, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398707/the-tumour-glyco-code-as-a-novel-immune-checkpoint-for-immunotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Ernesto RodrÍguez, Sjoerd T T Schetters, Yvette van Kooyk
Tumour growth is accompanied by tumour evasion of the immune system, a process that is facilitated by immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). However, the role of tumour glycosylation in immune evasion has mostly been overlooked, despite the fact that aberrant tumour glycosylation alters how the immune system perceives the tumour and can also induce immunosuppressive signalling through glycan-binding receptors. As such, specific glycan signatures found on tumour cells can be considered as a novel type of immune checkpoint...
February 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393868/galectin-3-the-impact-on-the-clinical-management-of-patients-with-thyroid-nodules-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Armando Bartolazzi, Salvatore Sciacchitano, Calogero D'Alessandria
Galectins (S-type lectins) are an evolutionarily-conserved family of lectin molecules, which can be expressed intracellularly and in the extracellular matrix, as well. Galectins bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and are functionally active in converting glycan-related information into cell biological programs. Altered glycosylation notably occurring in cancer cells and expression of specific galectins provide, indeed, a fashionable mechanism of molecular interactions able to regulate several tumor relevant functions, among which are cell adhesion and migration, cell differentiation, gene transcription and RNA splicing, cell cycle and apoptosis...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393515/cle-peptide-tri-arabinosylation-and-peptide-domain-sequence-composition-are-essential-for-sunn-dependent-autoregulation-of-nodulation-in-medicago-truncatula
#9
Nijat Imin, Neha Patel, Leo Corcilius, Richard J Payne, Michael A Djordjevic
MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 encode CLAVATA3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION RELATED (CLE) peptides which regulate autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in Medicago through the shoot receptor, SUNN (SUPER NUMERIC NODULES). Genetics suggests RDN1 (ROOT-DETERMINED NODULATION 1) arabinosylates MtCLE12 to enable SUNN perception. The functional structures of MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 peptides, however, remain elusive. We combined genetic and chemical synthesis approaches to determine if glyco-modifications of three nodule-expressed CLE peptides are essential for AON...
February 2, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381839/high-sensitivity-5-6-and-7-color-pnh-wbc-assays-for-both-canto-ii-and-navios-platforms
#10
D Robert Sutherland, Fernando Ortiz, Graeme Quest, Andrea Illingworth, Miroslav Benko, Rakesh Nayyar, Iuri Marinov
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired Hematopoietic Stem Cell disorder characterized by an inability to make glyco-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-linked cell surface structures. Fluorescent proaerolysin (FLAER-Alexa488) is increasingly used to detect GPI-deficient WBCs by flow cytometry. However, FLAER is not available in all countries and is expensive to obtain in others. An earlier study to compare FLAER-based and non-FLAER assays confirmed very good agreement between the two tubes suggesting a cost effective simultaneous evaluation of PNH neutrophils and monocytes is possible without FLAER...
January 30, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379576/recent-applications-of-click-chemistry-for-the-functionalization-of-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-conversion-to-glyco-gold-nanoparticles
#11
REVIEW
Vivek Poonthiyil, Thisbe K Lindhorst, Vladimir B Golovko, Antony J Fairbanks
Glycoscience, despite its myriad of challenges, promises to unravel the causes of, potential new detection methods for, and novel therapeutic strategies against, many disease states. In the last two decades, glyco-gold nanoparticles have emerged as one of several potential new tools for glycoscientists. Glyco-gold nanoparticles consist of the unique structural combination of a gold nanoparticle core and an outer-shell comprising multivalent presentation of carbohydrates. The combination of the distinctive physicochemical properties of the gold core and the biological function/activity of the carbohydrates makes glyco-gold nanoparticles a valuable tool in glycoscience...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351623/development-of-sugar-chain-binding-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibody-to-adult-t-cell-leukemia-cells-using-glyco-nanotechnology-and-phage-display-method
#12
Kaname Muchima, Taro Todaka, Hiroyuki Shinchi, Ayaka Sato, Arisa Tazoe, Rikiya Aramaki, Yuhei Kakitsubata, Risa Yokoyama, Naomichi Arima, Masanori Baba, Masahiro Wakao, Yuji Ito, Yasuo Suda
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an intractable blood cancer caused by the infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1, and effective medical treatment is required. It is known that the structure and expression levels of cell surface sugar chains vary depending on cell states such as inflammation and cancer. Thus, it is expected that the antibody specific for ATL cell surface sugar chain would be an effective diagnostic tool and a strong candidate for the development of an anti-ATL drug. Here, we developed a stable sugar chain binding single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) that can bind to ATL cells using a fiber type Sugar Chip and phage display method...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339067/molecular-characterization-and-function-of-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosaminidase-from-ridgetail-white-prawn-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#13
Yuying Sun, Jiquan Zhang, Jianhai Xiang
Chitin degradation is catalyzed by a two-component chitinolytic enzyme system, chitinase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase). In this paper, the full-length cDNA sequence encoding NAGase (EcNAG) was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcNAG open reading frame (ORF) contained one Glycohydro_20b2 domain and one Glyco_hydro_20 domain. Based on the cDNA sequence, the genomic structure of EcNAG was characterized and it was composed of six exons and five introns. EcNAG mRNA majorly expressed in the hepatopancreas and epidermis...
January 12, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327411/reductive-alkaline-release-of-n-glycans-generates-a-variety-of-unexpected-useful-products
#14
Rudolf Figl, Friedrich Altmann
Release of O-glycans by reductive β-elimination has become routine in many glyco-analytical laboratories and concomitant release of N-glycans has repeatedly been observed. Revisiting this somewhat forgotten mode of N-glycan release revealed that all kinds of N-glycans including oligomannosidic and complex-type N-glycans from plants with 3-linked fucose and from mammals with or without 6-linked fucose and with sialic acid could be recovered. However, the mass spectra of the obtained products revealed very surprising facts...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324849/the-b-cell-death-function-of-obinutuzumab-hdel-produced-in-plant-nicotiana-benthamiana-l-is-equivalent-to-obinutuzumab-produced-in-cho-cells
#15
Jin Won Lee, Woon Heo, Jinu Lee, Narae Jin, Sei Mee Yoon, Ki Youl Park, Eun Yu Kim, Woo Taek Kim, Joo Young Kim
Plants have attracted attention as bio-drug production platforms because of their economical and safety benefits. The preliminary efficacy of ZMapp, a cocktail of antibodies produced in N. benthamiana (Nicotiana benthamiana L.), suggested plants may serve as a platform for antibody production. However, because the amino acid sequences of the Fab fragment are diverse and differences in post-transcriptional processes between animals and plants remain to be elucidated, it is necessary to confirm functional equivalence of plant-produced antibodies to the original antibody...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299842/structural-analysis-of-n-o-glycans-assembled-on-proteins-in-yeasts
#16
Eun Jung Thak, Jungho Kim, Dong-Jik Lee, Jeong Yoon Kim, Hyun Ah Kang
Protein glycosylation, the most universal and diverse post-translational modification, can affect protein secretion, stability, and immunogenicity. The structures of glycans attached to proteins are quite diverse among different organisms and even within yeast species. In yeast, protein glycosylation plays key roles in the quality control of secretory proteins, and particularly in maintaining cell wall integrity. Moreover, in pathogenic yeasts, glycans assembled on cell-surface glycoproteins can mediate their interactions with host cells...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288201/murine-red-blood-cells-lack-ligands-for-b-cell-siglecs-allowing-strong-activation-by-erythrocyte-surface-antigens
#17
Fernando Spiller, Corwin M Nycholat, Chika Kikuchi, James C Paulson, Matthew S Macauley
CD22 and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-G are members of the Siglec family of inhibitory coreceptors expressed on B cells that participate in enforcement of peripheral B cell tolerance. We have shown previously that when a BCR engages its cognate Ag on a cell surface that also expresses Siglec ligands, B cell Siglecs are recruited to the immunological synapse, resulting in suppression of BCR signaling and B cell apoptosis. Because all cells display sialic acids, and CD22 and Siglec-G have distinct, yet overlapping, specificities for sialic acid-containing glycan ligands, any cell could, in principle, invoke this tolerogenic mechanism for cell surface Ags...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251486/branched-high-molecular-weight-glyco-polypeptide-with-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-activity-for-the-treatment-of-biofilm-related-infections
#18
Nicolò Mauro, Domenico Schillaci, Paola Varvarà, Maria Grazia Cusimano, Daniela Maria Geraci, Mario Giuffrè, Gennara Cavallaro, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Gaetano Giammona
There are few therapeutic options to simultaneously tackle Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two of the most relevant nosocomial and antibiotic-resistant pathogens responsible for implant, catheters and wound severe infections. The design and synthesis of polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity have gained increasing attention as a safe strategy to treat multidrug-resistant microbes. Here, we tested the activity of a new polymeric derivative with glyco-polypeptide architecture (PAA-VC) bearing L-arginine, vancomycin and colistin as side chains acting against multiple targets, which give rise to a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity favorably combining specific and nonspecific perturbation of the bacterial membrane...
December 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245952/the-humanized-anti-human-amhrii-mab-3c23k-exerts-an-anti-tumor-activity-against-human-ovarian-cancer-through-tumor-associated-macrophages
#19
Houcine Bougherara, Fariba Némati, André Nicolas, Gérald Massonnet, Martine Pugnière, Charlotte Ngô, Marie-Aude Le Frère-Belda, Alexandra Leary, Jérôme Alexandre, Didier Meseure, Jean-Marc Barret, Isabelle Navarro-Teulon, André Pèlegrin, Sergio Roman-Roman, Jean-François Prost, Emmanuel Donnadieu, Didier Decaudin
Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient's tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243204/genome-wide-assessment-of-polygalacturonases-like-pgl-genes-of-medicago-truncatula-sorghum-bicolor-vitis-vinifera-and-oryza-sativa-using-comparative-genomics-approach
#20
Gautam Anand, Sangeeta Yadav, Aiman Tanveer, Jeya Nasim, Nitish K Singh, Amit K Dubey, Dinesh Yadav
The polygalacturonases (PG) is one of the important members of pectin-degrading glycoside hydrolases of the family GH28. In plants, PG represents multigene families associated with diverse processes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the diversity of PG genes among monocots and dicots with respect to phylogeny, gene duplication and subcellular localization to get an insight into the evolutionary and functional attributes. The genome-wide assessment of Medicago truncatula, Vitis vinifera Sorghum bicolor, and Oryza sativa L...
December 14, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
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