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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652584/mapping-the-glyco-gold-nanoparticles-of-different-shapes-toxicity-biodistribution-and-sequestration-in-adult-zebrafish
#1
Sivakoti Sangabathuni, Raghavendra Vasudeva Murthy, Preeti Madhukar Chaudhary, Balamurugan Subramani, Suraj Toraskar, Raghavendra Kikkeri
Glyconanotechnology offers a broad range of applications across basic and translation research. Despite the tremendous progress in glyco-nanomaterials, there is still a huge gap between the basic research and therapeutic applications of these molecules. It has been reported that complexity and the synthetic challenges in glycans synthesis, the cost of the high order in vivo models and large amount of sample consumptions limited the effort to translate the glyco-nanomaterials into clinical applications. In this regards, several promising simple animal models for preliminary, quick analysis of the nanomaterials activities has been proposed...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647316/advanced-strategies-for-quality-control-of-chinese-medicines
#2
REVIEW
Jing Zhao, Shuang-Cheng Ma, Shao-Ping Li
Quality control is always the critical issue for Chinese medicines (CMs) with their worldwide increasing use. Different from western medicine, CMs are usually considered that multiple constituents are responsible for the therapeutic effects. Therefore, quality control of CMs is a challenge. In 2011, the strategies for quantification, related to the markers, reference compounds and approaches, in quality control of CMs were reviewed (Li, et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2011, 55, 802-809). Since then, some new strategies have been proposed in these fields...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635588/genome-sequence-variation-in-the-constricta-strain-dramatically-alters-the-protein-interaction-and-localization-map-of-potato-yellow-dwarf-virus
#3
Chanyong Jang, Renyuan Wang, Joseph Wells, Fabian Leon, Mark Farman, John Hammond, Michael M Goodin
The genome sequence of the constricta strain of Potato yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) was determined to be 12 792 nt long and organized into seven ORFs with the gene order 3'-N-X-P-Y-M-G-L-5', which encodes the nucleocapsid, phospho, movement, matrix, glyco, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase proteins, respectively, except for X, which is of unknown function. Cloned ORFs for each gene, except L, were used to construct a protein interaction and localization map (PILM) for this virus, which shares greater than 80 % amino acid similarity in all ORFs except X and P with the sanguinolenta strain of this species (SYDV)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629744/mannose-receptor-modulates-macrophage-polarization-and-allergic-inflammation-through-mir-511-3p
#4
Yufeng Zhou, Danh C Do, Faoud T Ishmael, Mario Leonardo Squadrito, Ho Man Tang, Ho Lam Tang, Man-Hsun Hsu, Lipeng Qiu, Changjun Li, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Mei Wan, Shau-Ku Huang, Peisong Gao
BACKGROUND: Mannose receptor (MRC1/CD206) has been suggested to mediate allergic sensitization and asthma to multiple glyco-allergens, including cockroach allergens. OBJECTIVE: Determine the existence of a protective mechanism through which MRC1 limits allergic inflammation through its intronic miR-511-3p. METHODS: We examined the MRC1-mediated cockroach allergen uptake by lung macrophages and lung inflammation using C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and Mrc1(-/-) mice...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624993/cancer-stem-cell-marker-glycosylation-nature-function-and-significance
#5
REVIEW
Brody W Mallard, Joe Tiralongo
Glycans are essential for the maintenance of normal biological function, with alterations in glycan expression being a hallmark of cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of cells within a tumour capable of self-renewal, cellular differentiation and resistances to conventional therapies. As is the case with stem cells, marker proteins present on the cell surface are frequently used to identify and enrich CSCs, with the expression of these markers statistical correlating with the likelihood of cancer recurrence and overall patient survival...
June 17, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623326/sialic-acid-linkage-differentiation-of-glycopeptides-using-capillary-electrophoresis-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#6
Guinevere S M Kammeijer, Bas C Jansen, Isabelle Kohler, Anthonius A M Heemskerk, Oleg A Mayboroda, Paul J Hensbergen, Julie Schappler, Manfred Wuhrer
Sialylation is a glycosylation feature that occurs in different linkages at the non-reducing end of a glycan moiety, the linkage isomers are often differentially associated with various biological processes. Due to very similar physico-chemical properties, the separation of isomeric sialylated glycopeptides remains challenging but of utmost importance in the biomedicine and biotechnology, including biomarker discovery, glyco-engineering and biopharmaceutical characterization. This study presents the implementation of a high-resolution separation platform based on capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry (CE-MS) allowing for the selective analysis of α2,3- and α2,6-sialylated glycopeptides...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620369/characterization-of-bile-salt-hydrolase-from-lactobacillus-gasseri-fr4-and-demonstration-of-its-substrate-specificity-and-inhibitory-mechanism-using-molecular-docking-analysis
#7
Rizwana Parveen Rani, Marimuthu Anandharaj, Abraham David Ravindran
Probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the health of poultry animals, thus are used as alternative candidates for antibiotics used as growth promoters (AGPs). However, they also reduce the body weight gain due to innate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Hence, the addition of a suitable BSH inhibitor along with the probiotic feed can decrease the BSH activity. In this study, a BSH gene (981 bp) encoding 326-amino acids was identified from the genome of Lactobacillus gasseri FR4 (LgBSH). The LgBSH-encoding gene was cloned and purified using an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system, and its molecular weight (37 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and a Western blot analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604616/legume-lectins-proteins-with-diverse-applications
#8
REVIEW
Irlanda Lagarda-Diaz, Ana Maria Guzman-Partida, Luz Vazquez-Moreno
Lectins are a diverse class of proteins distributed extensively in nature. Among these proteins; legume lectins display a variety of interesting features including antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor activities. Because lectins recognize and bind to specific glycoconjugates present on the surface of cells and intracellular structures; they can serve as potential target molecules for developing practical applications in the fields of food; agriculture; health and pharmaceutical research. This review presents the current knowledge of the main structural characteristics of legume lectins and the relationship of structure to the exhibited specificities; provides an overview of their particular antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor biological activities and describes possible applications based on the pattern of recognized glyco-targets...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598369/plant-lectins-targeting-o-glycans-at-the-cell-surface-as-tools-for-cancer-diagnosis-prognosis-and-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Guillaume Poiroux, Annick Barre, Els J M van Damme, Hervé Benoist, Pierre Rougé
Aberrant O-glycans expressed at the surface of cancer cells consist of membrane-tethered glycoproteins (T and Tn antigens) and glycolipids (Lewis a, Lewis x and Forssman antigens). All of these O-glycans have been identified as glyco-markers of interest for the diagnosis and the prognosis of cancer diseases. These epitopes are specifically detected using T/Tn-specific lectins isolated from various plants such as jacalin from Artocarpus integrifola, and fungi such as the Agaricus bisporus lectin. These lectins accommodate T/Tn antigens at the monosaccharide-binding site; residues located in the surrounding extended binding-site of the lectins often participate in the binding of more extended epitopes...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578538/phospholipids-of-new-zealand-edible-brown-algae
#10
Mikhail Vyssotski, Kirill Lagutin, Andrew MacKenzie, Kevin Mitchell, Dawn Scott
Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of (31)P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids...
June 3, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556796/sugar-binding-profiles-of-chitin-binding-lectins-from-the-hevein-family-a-comprehensive-study
#11
Yoko Itakura, Sachiko Nakamura-Tsuruta, Junko Kominami, Hiroaki Tateno, Jun Hirabayashi
Chitin-binding lectins form the hevein family in plants, which are defined by the presence of single or multiple structurally conserved GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)-binding domains. Although they have been used as probes for chito-oligosaccharides, their detailed specificities remain to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed six chitin-binding lectins, DSA, LEL, PWM, STL, UDA, and WGA, by quantitative frontal affinity chromatography. Some novel features were evident: WGA showed almost comparable affinity for pyridylaminated chitotriose and chitotetraose, while LEL and UDA showed much weaker affinity, and DSA, PWM, and STL had no substantial affinity for the former...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553078/effects-of-metformin-extended-release-compared-to-immediate-release-formula-on-glycemic-control-and-glycemic-variability-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Giuseppe Derosa, Angela D'Angelo, Davide Romano, Pamela Maffioli
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate, in a randomized clinical trial, the effects of metformin immediate release (IR) compared with metformin extended release (XR) on the gastrointestinal tolerability and glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 253 Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes not well controlled by diet (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] >7.0% and <8.5%). Patients were randomized to metformin IR or metformin XR for a period of 6 months at the maximum tolerated dose...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552691/identification-of-bile-acids-responsible-for-inhibiting-the-bile-salt-export-pump-leading-to-bile-acid-accumulation-and-cell-toxicity-in-rat-hepatocytes
#13
Kumiko Oizumi, Shuichi Sekine, Meiko Fukagai, Takeshi Susukida, Kousei Ito
Inhibition of bile salt export pump (BSEP) causes hepatic accumulation of toxic bile acid (BA), leading to hepatocyte death. We reported a sandwich-cultured hepatocyte (SCH)-based model that can estimate potential cholestatic-compounds by assessing their ability to induce hepatotoxicity in combination with a titrated amount of human 12 BA-species. However, there is little information about the specific BA(s) responsible for hepatotoxicity, when BSEP is inhibited. This study measured the accumulation of each BA in rat SCHs in the presence of 10μM cyclosporine A (CsA), which only inhibits BSEP, and 50μM CsA, which further inhibits basolateral BA efflux transporters...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538692/exploring-anti-prion-glyco-based-and-aromatic-scaffolds-a-chemical-strategy-for-the-quality-of-life
#14
REVIEW
María Teresa Blázquez-Sánchez, Ana M de Matos, Amélia P Rauter
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, affecting the brain progressively and consequently the quality of life. Alzheimer's is also a protein misfolding disease, causing dementia in over 40 million people worldwide. There are no therapeutics able to cure these diseases. Cellular prion protein is a high-affinity binding partner of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, the most toxic species in Alzheimer's pathology. These findings motivate the development of new chemicals for a better understanding of the events involved...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516782/exploring-site-specific-n-glycosylation-of-hek293-and-plant-produced-human-iga-isotypes
#15
Kathrin Göritzer, Daniel Maresch, Friedrich Altmann, Christian Obinger, Richard Strasser
The full potential of recombinant Immunoglobulin A as therapeutic antibody is not fully explored, owing to the fact that structure-function relationships of these extensively glycosylated proteins are not well understood. Here monomeric IgA1, IgA2m(1), and IgA2m(2) variants of the anti-HER2 antibody (IgG1) trastuzumab were expressed in glyco-engineered Nicotiana benthamiana plants and in human HEK293-6E cells. All three IgA isotypes were purified and subjected to biophysical and biochemical characterization...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509333/altered-glycan-accessibility-on-native-immunoglobulin-g-complexes-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-changes-during-therapy
#16
Judith Stümer, Mona H C Biermann, Jasmin Knopf, Iryna Magorivska, Alf Kastbom, Anna Svärd, Christina Janko, Rostyslav Bilyy, Georg Schett, Christopher Sjöwall, Martin Herrmann, Luis E Muñoz
The goal of this study was to investigate the glycosylation profile of native IgG present in serum immune complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To accomplish this, lectin binding assays, detecting the accessibility of glycans present on IgG-containing immune complexes by biotinylated lectins were employed. Lectins capturing fucosyl residues (AAL), fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core sites (LCA), terminal sialic acid residues (SNA) and O-glycosidically-linked galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac-L) were used...
May 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486931/accuracy-of-m2bpgi-compared-with-fibro-scan%C3%A2-in-analysis-of-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c
#17
Hongqin Xu, Wenli Kong, Lei Liu, Xiumei Chi, Xiaomei Wang, Ruihong Wu, Xiuzhu Gao, Huan Wang, Limei Qu, Yue Qi, Yu Pan, Junqi Niu
BACKGROUND: Mac-2 Binding Protein Glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel serological glyco-biomarker for staging liver fibrosis. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of serum M2BPGi in identifying liver fibrosis stages in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. METHODS: Serum M2BPGi levels were evaluated in 680 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 164 healthy controls who underwent the Fibro Scan® test of liver fibrosis. The diagnostic accuracy of serum M2BPGi values was compared to that of other fibrosis markers, including Fibro Scan®, the aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI), the fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB4), and the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR)...
May 10, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466278/improving-antibody-based-cancer-therapeutics-through-glycan-engineering
#18
REVIEW
Xiaojie Yu, Michael J E Marshall, Mark S Cragg, Max Crispin
Antibody-based therapeutics has emerged as a major tool in cancer treatment. Guided by the superb specificity of the antibody variable domain, it allows the precise targeting of tumour markers. Recently, eliciting cellular effector functions, mediated by the Fc domain, has gained traction as a means by which to generate more potent antibody therapeutics. Extensive mutagenesis studies of the Fc protein backbone has enabled the generation of Fc variants that more optimally engage the Fcγ receptors known to mediate cellular effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cellular phagocytosis...
May 2, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460523/block-sequence-specific-glycopolypeptides-with-selective-lectin-binding-properties
#19
Cristina Lavilla, Gokhan Yilmaz, Veselina Uzunova, Richard Napier, C Remzi Becer, Andreas Heise
Glycopolypeptides with defined block sequences were prepared by sequential addition of two different N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs), followed by selective deprotection and functionalization of predefined positions within the polypeptide backbone. The sequential arrangement of the galactose units and the block-sequence length have been systematically varied. All the glycopolypeptides have been obtained with a similar overall composition and comparable molecular weights. Circular dichroism measurements revealed some dependence of the secondary structure on the primary composition of the glycopolypeptides at physiological pH...
May 11, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453257/one-filter-one-sample-and-the-n-and-o-glyco-proteo-me-toward-a-system-to-study-disorders-of-protein-glycosylation
#20
Kirsty Skeene, Matthew Walker, Graham Clarke, Ed Bergström, Paul Genever, Daniel Ungar, Jane Thomas-Oates
A method has been developed for release/isolation of O-glycans from glycoproteins in whole cell lysates for mass spectrometric analysis. Cells are lysed in SDS, which is then exchanged for urea and ammonium bicarbonate in a centrifugal filter, before treating with NH4OH to release O-glycans. Following centrifugation, O-glycans are recovered in the filtrate. Sonication achieves O-glycan release in 1 h. Combining the established protocol for filter-aided N-glycan separation, here optimized for enhanced PNGase F efficiency, with the developed O-glycan release method allows analysis of both N- and O-glycans from one sample, in the same filter unit, from 0...
June 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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