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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900782/residue-centric-modeling-and-design-of-saccharide-and-glycoconjugate-structures
#1
Jason W Labonte, Jared Adolf-Bryfogle, William R Schief, Jeffrey J Gray
The RosettaCarbohydrate framework is a new tool for modeling a wide variety of saccharide and glycoconjugate structures. This report describes the development of the framework and highlights its applications. The framework integrates with established protocols within the Rosetta modeling and design suite, and it handles the vast complexity and variety of carbohydrate molecules, including branching and sugar modifications. To address challenges of sampling and scoring, RosettaCarbohydrate can sample glycosidic bonds, side-chain conformations, and ring forms, and it utilizes a glycan-specific term within its scoring function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889407/whole-cell-cancer-vaccines-induce-large-antibody-responses-to-carbohydrates-and-glycoproteins
#2
Li Xia, David S Schrump, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve
Whole-cell cancer vaccines are a promising strategy for treating cancer, but the characteristics of a favorable immune response are not fully understood. New insights could enable development of better vaccines, discovery of new antigens, and identification of biomarkers of efficacy. Using glyco-antigen microarrays, we demonstrate that GVAX Pancreas (a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-modified whole-cell tumor vaccine) induces large immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M responses to many antigens, including tumor-associated carbohydrates, blood group antigens, α-Gal, and bovine fetuin...
November 10, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886320/a-palladium-and-gold-catalytic-system-enables-direct-access-to-o-and-s-linked-non-natural-glyco-conjugates
#3
Min Ho Jeon, Bijoy P Mathew, Malleswara Rao Kuram, Kyungjae Myung, Sung You Hong
Here we report a straightforward cross-coupling method for the synthesis of non-natural glycoamino acids from alkyne-bearing monosaccharides and p-iodophenylalanine. Pd/Au-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling is tolerant to both O- and S-glycosides without any epimerization. In addition, no racemization of the amino acid was observed allowing direct access to the homogeneous glyco-conjugate in a single step. Notably, this Pd/Au catalytic system presents enhanced catalytic activity than conventional Pd/Cu and Pd-only platforms, and it further enables the convergent synthesis of glycodipeptides...
November 25, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879642/curcumin-and-boswellia-serrata-modulate-the-glyco-oxidative-status-and-lipo-oxidation-in-master-athletes
#4
Nino Cristiano Chilelli, Eugenio Ragazzi, Romina Valentini, Chiara Cosma, Stefania Ferraresso, Annunziata Lapolla, Giovanni Sartore
BACKGROUND: Chronic intensive exercise is associated with a greater induction of oxidative stress and with an excess of endogenous advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Curcumin can reduce the accumulation of AGEs in vitro and in animal models. We examined whether supplementation with curcumin and Boswellia serrata (BSE) gum resin for 3 months could affect plasma levels of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and glycation in healthy master cyclists. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy male athletes were randomly assigned to Group 1, consisting of 22 subjects given a Mediterranean diet (MD) alone (MD group), and Group 2 consisted of 25 subjects given a MD plus curcumin and BSE (curcumin/BSE group)...
November 21, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879152/preparation-and-immunogenicity-of-gold-glyco-nanoparticles-as-antipneumococcal-vaccine-model
#5
Maria Vetro, Dodi Safari, Silvia Fallarini, Korrie Salsabila, Martina Lahmann, Soledad Penadés, Luigi Lay, Marco Marradi, Federica Compostella
AIM: Nanotechnology-based fully synthetic carbohydrate vaccines are promising alternatives to classic polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines. We have prepared gold glyco-nanoparticles (GNP) bearing two synthetic carbohydrate antigens related to serotypes 19F and 14 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated their immunogenicity in vivo. RESULTS: A tetrasaccharide fragment of serotype 14 (Tetra-14), a trisaccharide fragment of serotype 19F (Tri-19F), a T-helper peptide and d -glucose were loaded onto GNP in different ratios...
November 23, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873468/synthetic-mucin-like-glycopeptides-as-versatile-tools-to-measure-effects-of-glycan-structure-density-position-on-the-interaction-with-adhesion-growth-regulatory-galectins-in-arrays
#6
Gerard Artigas, Hiroshi Hinou, Fayna Garcia-Martin, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura
Functional pairing of cellular glycoconjugates with tissue lectins is a highly selective process, whose determinative factors have not yet been fully delineated. Glycan structure and modes of presentation, that is, its position and density, can contribute to binding, as different members of a lectin family can regulate degrees of responsiveness to these factors. Using a peptide repeat sequence motif of the glycoprotein mucin-1, the principle of introducing synthetic (glyco)peptides with distinct variations in these three parameters to an array-based screening of tissue lectins is illustrated...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872474/multi-level-glyco-engineering-techniques-to-generate-igg-with-defined-fc-glycans
#7
Gillian Dekkers, Rosina Plomp, Carolien A M Koeleman, Remco Visser, Hans H von Horsten, Volker Sandig, Theo Rispens, Manfred Wuhrer, Gestur Vidarsson
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) mediates its immune functions through complement and cellular IgG-Fc receptors (FcγR). IgG contains an evolutionary conserved N-linked glycan at position Asn297 in the Fc-domain. This glycan consists of variable levels of fucose, galactose, sialic acid, and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (bisection). Of these variations, the lack of fucose strongly enhances binding to the human FcγRIII, a finding which is currently used to improve the efficacy of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. The influence of the other glycan traits is largely unknown, mostly due to lack of glyco-engineering tools...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854038/biosynthesis-of-glycomonoterpenes-to-attenuate-quorum-sensing-associated-virulence-in-bacteria
#8
Amrita Patil, Kasturi Joshi-Navre, Ruchira Mukherji, Asmita Prabhune
The acquisition of multidrug resistance in bacteria has become a bigger threat of late, mainly due to the bacterial signaling phenomenon, quorum sensing (QS). QS, among a population of bacteria, initiates the formation of biofilms and offers myriad advantages to bacteria. Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in biofilm-producing bacteria has motivated efforts toward finding new alternatives to these traditional antimicrobials. In the present study, we report the increased solubility and additional quorum quenching as well as biofilm disruption activity of glyco-derivatives of monoterpenes (citral and citronellal)...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853762/organogel-assisted-topochemical-synthesis-of-multivalent-glyco-polymer-for-high-affinity-lectin-binding
#9
Baiju P Krishnan, Sreedevi Raghu, Somnath Mukherjee, Kana M Sureshan
An organogelator, 2,4-undeca-diynyl-4',6'-O-benzylidene-β-d-galactopyranoside, which aligns its diacetylene upon gelation, has been synthesized. UV irradiation of its gel resulted in topochemical polymerization of the gelator forming polydiacetylene (PDA). We have used this gel-state reaction for the synthesis of surface-immobilized multi-valent glycoclusters, which showed 1000-fold enhanced binding, compared to monomers, with various galactose-binding lectins.
December 1, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804853/glyco-engineering-of-human-igg-fc-to-modulate-biologic-activities
#10
Roy Jefferis
Advances in genetic and protein engineering and the ability to maintain proliferating mammalian cells in vitro, has allowed reverse engineering of antibodies, i.e. generation of antibodies having specificity for self-antigens. Thus, the lethal consequence of horror autotoxicus, anti-self-responses as envisaged by Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), has been turned to advantage for treatment of multiple disease states. In order to reap these benefits it is essential that, in addition to target specificity, the antibody is customised to deliver appropriate downstream biologic effector activities...
October 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801825/a-clinical-trial-about-a-food-supplement-containing-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#11
Giuseppe Derosa, Angela D'Angelo, Davide Romano, Pamela Maffioli
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a food supplement containing α-lipoic acid and of a placebo on glyco-metabolic control and on oxidative stress markers in type 2 diabetics. We randomized 105 diabetics to either a supplementation containing 600 mg of α-lipoic acid, 165 mg of L-carnosin, 7.5 mg of zinc, and vitamins of group B, or a placebo, for three months. We evaluated body mass index, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial-glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA-index (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA)...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760463/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-manipulates-the-glycosylation-machinery-and-the-n-glycoproteome-of-human-macrophages-and-their-microparticles
#12
Nathan J Hare, Ling Y Lee, Ian Loke, Warwick J Britton, Bernadette M Saunders, Morten Thaysen-Andersen
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of front-line alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743362/site-specific-n-and-o-glycopeptide-analysis-using-an-integrated-c18-pgc-lc-esi-qtof-ms-ms-approach
#13
Kathrin Stavenhagen, Hannes Hinneburg, Daniel Kolarich, Manfred Wuhrer
The vast heterogeneity of protein glycosylation, even of a single glycoprotein with only one glycosylation site, can give rise to a set of macromolecules with different physicochemical properties. Thus, the use of orthogonal approaches for comprehensive characterization of glycoproteins is a key requirement. This chapter describes a universal workflow for site-specific N- and O-glycopeptide analysis. In a first step glycoproteins are treated with Pronase to generate glycopeptides containing small peptide sequences for enhanced glycosylation site assignment and characterization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742068/adoptive-cellular-therapy-for-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-b-cell-malignancies-cars-and-more
#14
Januario E Castro, Thomas J Kipps
Treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B cell malignancies is evolving very rapidly. We have observed the quick transition during the last couple of years, from chemo-immunotherapy based treatments to oral targeted therapies based on B cell receptor signaling and Bcl-2 inhibitors, as well as the increasing use of second generation glyco-engineered antibodies. The next wave of revolution in the treatment for this conditions is approaching and it will be based on strategies that harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer...
March 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737557/structure-function-profile-of-mmpl3-the-essential-mycolic-acid-transporter-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Juan Manuel Belardinelli, Amira Yazidi, Liang Yang, Lucien Fabre, Wei Li, Benoit Jacques, Shiva Kumar Angala, Isabelle Rouiller, Helen I Zgurskaya, Jurgen Sygusch, Mary Jackson
The MmpL family of proteins translocates complex (glyco)lipids and siderophores across the cell envelope of mycobacteria and closely related Corynebacteriaceae and plays important roles in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of these organisms. Despite their significance in the physiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and from the perspective of developing novel antituberculosis agents, little is known about their structure and mechanism of translocation. In this study, the essential mycobacterial mycolic acid transporter, MmpL3, and its orthologue in Corynebacterium glutamicum, CmpL1, were investigated as prototypical MmpL proteins to gain insight into the transmembrane topology, tertiary and quaternary structures, and functional regions of this transporter family...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733531/semen-quality-impairment-is-associated-with-sexual-dysfunction-according-to-its-severity
#16
F Lotti, G Corona, G Castellini, E Maseroli, M G Fino, M Cozzolino, M Maggi
STUDY QUESTION: Is sexual dysfunction associated with severity of semen quality impairment in men with couple infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: In males of infertile couples the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases as a function of semen quality impairment severity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertile men are at a higher risk for sexual dysfunction, psychopathological and general health disorders. However, it has never been systematically investigated if these problems are associated with severity of semen quality impairment...
October 12, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722599/glycomic-profiling-of-targeted-serum-haptoglobin-for-gastric-cancer-using-nano-lc-ms-and-lc-ms-ms
#17
Sung Hyeon Lee, Seunghyup Jeong, Jua Lee, In Seok Yeo, Myung Jin Oh, Unyong Kim, Sumin Kim, Su Hee Kim, Seung-Yeol Park, Jae-Han Kim, Se Hoon Park, Jung Hoe Kim, Hyun Joo An
Gastric cancer has one of the highest cancer mortality rates worldwide, largely because of difficulties in early-stage detection. Aberrant glycosylation in serum proteins is associated with many human diseases including inflammation and various types of cancer. Serum-based global glycan profiling using mass spectrometry has been explored and has already led to several potential glycan markers for several disease states. However, localization of the aberrant glycosylation is desirable in order to improve the specificity and sensitivity for clinical use...
October 5, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714445/human-milk-and-mucosal-lacto-and-galacto-n-biose-synthesis-by-transgalactosylation-and-their-prebiotic-potential-in-lactobacillus-species
#18
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Lacto-N-biose (LNB) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) are major building blocks of free oligosaccharides and glycan moieties of glyco-complexes present in human milk and gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously characterized the phospho-β-galactosidase GnbG from Lactobacillus casei BL23 that is involved in the metabolism of LNB and GNB. GnbG has been used here in transglycosylation reactions, and it showed the production of LNB and GNB with N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine as acceptors, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709147/opportunities-for-glyconanomaterials-in-personalized-medicine
#19
Niels-Christian Reichardt, Manuel Martín-Lomas, Soledad Penadés
In this feature article we discuss the particular relevance of glycans as components or targets of functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) for potential applications in personalized medicine but we will not enter into descriptions for their preparation. For a more general view covering the preparation and applications of glyconanomaterials the reader is referred to a number of recent reviews. The combination of glyco- and nanotechnology is already providing promising new tools for more personalized solutions to diagnostics and therapy...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706741/identification-and-characterization-of-genes-related-to-cellulolytic-activity-in-basidiomycetes
#20
A F N Volpini, T Thomazine, S H Umeo, G A Pereira, G A Linde, J S Valle, N B Colauto, F G Barcellos, S G H Souza
Enzymes produced by basidiomycetes that are involved in the cellulose degradation process, and their respective codifying genes, must be identified to facilitate the development of novel biotechnological strategies and applications in the agro-industry. The objective of this study was to identify prospective cellulase-producing genes and characterize their cellulolytic activity, in order to elucidate the potential biotechnological applications (with respect to vegetal residues) of basidiomycetes. The basidiomycete strains Lentinula edodes U8-1, Lentinus crinitus U9-1, and Schizophyllum commune U6-7 were analyzed in this study...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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