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John Stogner, Julia A Martinez, Bryan Lee Miller, Kenneth J Sher
BACKGROUND: Underage college students who obtain and use false identification (fake ID) are at risk for negative outcomes. However, it is currently unclear how uniquely the fake ID itself serves as a vehicle to subsequent harm (i.e., the "fake ID effect") over and above general and trait-related risk factors (e.g., deviant peers, low self-control). METHODS: To investigate whether the "fake ID effect" would hold after accounting for phenotypic risk, we utilized propensity score matching (PSM) in a cross-sectional sample of 1,454 students, and a longitudinal replication sample of 3,720 undergraduates...
October 21, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jorge R Reyes, Timothy R Vollmer, Astrid Hall
We compared outcomes of arousal and preference assessments for five adult male alleged sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities. Arousal assessments involved the use of the penile plethysmograph to measure changes in penile circumference to both deviant (males and females under the age of 18) and nondeviant (males and females over the age of 18) video clips. Paired-stimulus preference assessments were arranged to present still images from the video clips used in the arousal assessments. Results showed correspondence between the assessments for four out of the five participants...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Pekka Hautasaari, Andrej M Savić, Otto Loberg, Eini Niskanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala, Ina M Tarkka
Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 ± 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images...
October 19, 2016: Brain Topography
Lessly P Sepulveda-Rincon, Delphine Dube, Pierre Adenot, Ludivine Laffont, Sylvie Ruffini, Laurence Gall, Bruce K Campbell, Veronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean, Walid E Maalouf
The first lineage specification during mammalian embryo development can be visually distinguished at blastocyst stage. Two cell lineages are observed on the embryonic/abembryonic axis of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The timing and mechanisms driving this process are still not fully understood. In mouse embryos, cells seem pre-patterned to become certain cell lineage; as the first cleavage plane has been related with further embryonic-abembryonic axis at blastocyst stage. Nevertheless, this possibility has been very debatable...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Elizabeth Elliott, Birgit Vollm
It is often difficult to ascertain the true extent and nature of sexually deviant behavior, as much relies on self-report or historic information. The polygraph has been proposed as a useful tool in the treatment and supervision of sex offenders. The current review aims to provide a coherent, objective, and recent synthesis of evaluation studies exploring the utility of the post-conviction polygraph (PCSOT) in the treatment and management of sexual offenders. This was assessed based on offense recidivism rates and disclosure; self-reported utility was also considered...
October 17, 2016: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Katherine Wingert Pizarro, Inés V Bustamante, Pamela J Surkan
BACKGROUND: Family relationships are widely recognized as playing a role in adolescent alcohol use. Although family relationships and parenting vary by culture, limited research has explored these relationships in Latin America. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine which family factors are associated with adolescent alcohol use in Callao, Peru. METHODS: Data come from a cross-sectional survey conducted in a public secondary school in Callao, Peru in 2007...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
October 17, 2016: Brain Topography
Cécile Barbet, Guillaume Thierry
In sentence verification tasks involving under-informative statements such as Some elephants are mammals, some adults appear more tolerant to pragmatic violations than others. The underlying causes of such inter-individual variability remain however essentially unknown. Here, we investigated inter-individual variation in adults deriving the scalar inference "not all" triggered by the quantifier some. We first assessed the individual intolerance to pragmatic violations in adult participants presented with under-informative some-statements (e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Emilie A Caspar, Andrea Desantis, Zoltan Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Patrick Haggard
Does sense of agency (SoA) arise merely from action-outcome associations, or does an additional real-time process track each step along the chain? Tracking control predicts that deviant intermediate steps between action and outcome should reduce SoA. In two experiments, participants learned mappings between two finger actions and two tones. In later test blocks, actions triggered a robot hand moving either the same or a different finger, and also triggered tones, which were congruent or incongruent with the mapping...
2016: PloS One
Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi, Saeid Mahmoudian, Hasan Ashayeri, Farshid Allaeddini, Mohammad Farhadi
OBJECTIVE: Auditory phoneme discrimination is a basic and important prerequisite for acquiring speech, reading, and spelling skills. Children, who are unable to perceive auditory phoneme discrimination, cannot develop phonemic representations. Therefore, the early identification of these deficits and application of effective therapeutic approaches is a necessity. We need to assess appropriately word or sound discrimination in normal populations using an objective passive task such as mismatch negativity (MMN)...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Older adults are usually more easily distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli than younger ones. In addition, there is evidence that it takes them more time to overcome a distracting event. Here, the distracting effect of irregular switches in speaker location was studied in 22 younger and 22 older adults in a speech perception task. The participants responded to target words that were presented either from a frequent location (standard trials) or a rare location (deviant trials). Behavioral performance measures, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), and EEG synchronization (intertrial coherence [ITC]) were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Elisa Schröder, Hendrik Kajosch, Paul Verbanck, Charles Kornreich, Salvatore Campanella
Event-related potentials (ERPs) bimodal oddball task has disclosed increased sensitivity to show P300 modulations to subclinical symptoms. Even if the utility of such a procedure has still to be confirmed at a clinical level, gathering normative values of this new oddball variant may be of the greatest interest. We specifically addressed the challenge of defining the best location for the recording of P3a and P3b components and selecting the best reference to use by investigating the effect of an offline re-reference procedure on recorded bimodal P3a and P3b...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
D Bailly
OBJECTIVE: If abstinence from substance in adolescents may nowadays be regarded statistically as a deviant behavior, what is its significance from a developmental point of view? The aim of this article is to examine the mental health characteristics and the social integration of adolescent abstainers. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review of epidemiological studies including data on adolescent abstainers was conducted. RESULTS: Compared to the abundant literature devoted to adolescent substance abusers, few studies report data on adolescent abstainers...
September 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
Varghese Peter, Marina Kalashnikova, Aimee Santos, Denis Burnham
Infant directed speech (IDS), the speech register adults use when talking to infants, has been shown to have positive effects on attracting infants' attention, language learning, and emotional communication. Here event related potentials (ERPs) are used to investigate the neural coding of IDS and ADS (adult directed speech) as well as their discrimination by both infants and adults. Two instances of the vowel /i/, one extracted from ADS and one from IDS, were presented to 9-month-old infants and adults in two oddball conditions: ADS standard/IDS deviant and IDS standard/ADS deviant...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Winnie Mucherah, Elizabeth Owino, Kaleigh McCoy
While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Jerry A Rea, Michael R Dixon, Robert D Zettle, Kasey L Wright
The ability to adequately evaluate medications in the treatment of paraphilias has been limited by reliance upon self-report as a measure of effectiveness over periods of time that may be too short to detect reoffending. One solution to this shortcoming is the development of valid, long-term, stable assessment measures. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the effects of Prozac and Provera on an array of behaviors germane to the successful treatment of paraphilias, including: (a) sexual arousal in the laboratory and natural environment, (b) sexual thoughts (deviant and nondeviant) accompanied by arousal in the natural environment, and (c) overt actions in the community associated with increased risk of reoffending over a 31-month period for an exhibitionist with an intellectual disability...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
(no author information available yet)
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Laszlo Biro, Mate Toth, Eszter Sipos, Biborka Bruzsik, Aron Tulogdi, Samuel Bendahan, Carmen Sandi, Jozsef Haller
Although the inhibitory control of aggression by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cornerstone of current theories of aggression control, a number of human and laboratory studies showed that the execution of aggression increases PFC activity; moreover, enhanced activation was observed in aggression-related psychopathologies and laboratory models of abnormal aggression. Here, we investigated these apparently contradictory findings in the post-weaning social isolation paradigm (PWSI), an established laboratory model of abnormal aggression...
September 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Lingyan Wang, Xiaoxiong Lin, Bin Zhou, Ernst Pöppel, Yan Bao
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a difference event-related potential (ERP) wave reflecting the brain's automatic reaction to deviant sensory stimuli, and it has been proven to be a useful tool in research on cognitive functions or clinical disorders. In most MMN studies, amplitude, peak latency, or the integral of the responses, in rare cases also the slopes of the responses, have been employed as parameters of the ERP responses for quantitative analyses. However, little is known about correlations between these parameters...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
L B Shestopalova, E A Petropavlovskaia, S Ph Vaitulevich, N I Nikitin
The current MMN study investigates whether brain lateralization during automatic discrimination of sound stimuli moving at different velocities is consistent with one of the three models of asymmetry: the right-hemispheric dominance model, the contralateral dominance model, or the neglect model. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for three patterns of sound motion produced by linear or abrupt changes of interaural time differences. The slow motion (450deg/s) was used as standard, and the fast motion (620deg/s) and the abrupt sound shift served as deviants in the oddball blocks...
September 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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