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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916843/the-implicit-learning-of-metrical-and-non-metrical-rhythms-in-blind-and-sighted-adults
#1
Claudia Carrara-Augustenborg, Benjamin G Schultz
Forming temporal expectancies plays a crucial role in our survival as it allows us to identify the occurrence of temporal deviants that might signal potential dangers. The dynamic attending theory suggests that temporal expectancies are formed more readily for rhythms that imply a beat (i.e., metrical rhythms) compared to those that do not (i.e., nonmetrical rhythms). Moreover, metrical frameworks can be used to detect temporal deviants. Although several studies have demonstrated that congenital or early blindness correlates with modality-specific neural changes that reflect compensatory mechanisms, few have examined whether blind individuals show a learning advantage for auditory rhythms and whether learning can occur unintentionally and without awareness, that is, implicitly...
September 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916502/sociability-trait-and-regional-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-in-rats-predominantly-nonlinear-relations
#2
Margus Kanarik, Jaanus Harro
Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-term energy metabolism was assayed with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913676/the-cost-of-being-cool-how-adolescent-pseudomature-behavior-maps-onto-adult-adjustment
#3
Leslie Gordon Simons, Tara E Sutton, Sarah Shannon, Mark T Berg, Frederick X Gibbons
During adolescence, one's status among peers is a major concern. Such status is often largely a function of popularity and establishing oneself as "cool." While there are conventional avenues to achieving status among adolescents, engaging in adult-like, or pseudomature, behaviors such as substance use or sexual activity is a frequent occurrence. Although past research has examined the consequences of adolescent delinquency, what remains unclear is the long-term fate of adolescents who are both popular and antisocial...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902572/unique-and-interactive-associations-between-maltreatment-and-complex-emotion-recognition-deficits-and-psychopathic-traits-in-an-undergraduate-sample
#4
Rebecca Waller, Hannah K McCabe, Hailey L Dotterer, Craig S Neumann, Luke W Hyde
Psychopathy is defined by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Poor recognition of emotions and childhood maltreatment are two risk factors implicated in psychopathy. The current study examined whether childhood maltreatment and complex emotion recognition deficits showed unique and interactive associations with psychopathic traits among 261 undergraduate students. Results indicate that maltreatment was related to higher general psychopathy scores within a bifactor model comprising a general psychopathy factor and four specific factors tapping underlying dimensions of psychopathy (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901574/using-a-multi-feature-paradigm-to-measure-mismatch-responses-to-minimal-sound-contrasts-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-and-hearing-aids
#5
Inger Uhlén, Elisabet Engström, Petter Kallioinen, Cecilia Nakeva von Mentzer, Björn Lyxell, Birgitta Sahlén, Magnus Lindgren, Marianne Ors
Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895803/-otis-a-case-study-of-an-online-attempt-to-purchase-children-for-sex
#6
Stacey Diane A Litam, Jesse Bach
The researchers analyzed court documents to develop a case study of an individual convicted of buying sexual services from exploited children. Findings indicate that the subject deviates from preexisting victim selection processes and demonstrates characteristics inconsistent with existing sexual offender typologies that likens offender behaviors to the hunting techniques and behaviors of predatory animals. As evidenced in the case study, the individual perceived the victims solely as a means of deviant sexual satiation and did not participate in traditionally established victim acquisition techniques...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895128/transitional-justice-as-social-control-political-transitions-human-rights-norms-and-the-reclassification-of-the-past
#7
Ron Dudai
This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886395/individual-peer-and-family-factor-modification-of-neighborhood-level-effects-on-adolescent-alcohol-cigarette-e-cigarette-and-marijuana-use
#8
Regina A Shih, Layla Parast, Eric R Pedersen, Wendy M Troxel, Joan S Tucker, Jeremy N V Miles, Lisa Kraus, Elizabeth J D'Amico
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood factors reported subjectively by residents and measured objectively at the census tract are both associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco (cigarette and electronic cigarette), and other drug (marijuana) (ATOD) use. Less clear is how these neighborhood factors are longitudinally associated with each substance. Equivocal findings may be due to lack of consideration of individual, peer, and family effect modifiers, which could help adolescents overcome exposure to stressful neighborhood environments...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871472/cytochrome-p450-2d6-and-parkinson-s-disease-polymorphism-metabolic-role-risk-and-protection
#9
REVIEW
Mohd Sami Ur Rasheed, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Mahendra Pratap Singh
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is one of the most highly active, oxidative and polymorphic enzymes known to metabolize Parkinsonian toxins and clinically established anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) drugs. Albeit CYP2D6 gene is not present in rodents, its orthologs perform almost the similar function with imprecise substrate and inhibitor specificity. CYP2D6 expression and catalytic activity are found to be regulated at every stage of the central dogma except replication as well as at the epigenetic level. CYP2D6 gene codes for a set of alternate splice variants that give rise to a range of enzymes possessing variable catalytic activity...
September 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871361/are-negative-peer-influences-domain-specific-examining-the-influence-of-peers-and-parents-on-externalizing-and-drug-use-behaviors
#10
Ronald B Cox, Michael M Criss, Amanda W Harrist, Martha Zapata-Roblyer
Most studies tend to characterize peer influences as either positive or negative. In a sample of 1815 youth from 14 different schools in Caracas, Venezuela, we explored how two types of peer affiliations (i.e., deviant and drug-using peers) differentially mediated the paths from positive parenting to youth's externalizing behavior and licit and illicit drug use. We used Zero Inflated Poisson models to test the probability of use and the extent of use during the past 12 months. Results suggested that peer influences are domain specific among Venezuelan youth...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864837/near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-and-vagus-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-vsep-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-rationale-design-methods-and-first-baseline-data-of-the-vogel-study
#11
Thomas Polak, Martin J Herrmann, Laura D Müller, Julia B M Zeller, Andrea Katzorke, Matthias Fischer, Fabian Spielmann, Erik Weinmann, Leif Hommers, Martin Lauer, Andreas J Fallgatter, Jürgen Deckert
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) show deviant patterns in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy controls. We now aimed at testing the predictive value of these methods in the early diagnosis of AD. The Vogel study is a prospective, observational, long-term follow-up study with three time points of investigation within 6 years. Residents of the city of Würzburg born between 1936 and 1941 were recruited. Every participant underwent physical, psychiatric, and laboratory examinations, and performed an intense neuropsychological testing as well as VSEP and NIRS according to the published procedures...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861339/spatio-temporal-source-cluster-analysis-reveals-fronto-temporal-auditory-change-processing-differences-within-a-shared-autistic-and-schizotypal-trait-phenotype
#12
Talitha C Ford, Will Woods, David P Crewther
Social Disorganisation (SD) is a shared autistic and schizotypal phenotype that is present in the subclinical population. Auditory processing deficits, particularly in mismatch negativity/field (MMN/F) have been reported across both spectrum disorders. This study investigates differences in MMN/F cortical spatio-temporal source activity between higher and lower quintiles of the SD spectrum. Sixteen low (9 female) and 19 high (9 female) SD subclinical adults (18-40years) underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) during an MMF paradigm where standard tones (50ms) were interrupted by infrequent duration deviants (100ms)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861032/mismatch-negativity-as-an-indicator-of-cognitive-sub-domain-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Parameswaran Mahadeva Iyer, Kieran Mohr, Michael Broderick, Brighid Gavin, Tom Burke, Peter Bede, Marta Pinto-Grau, Niall P Pender, Russell McLaughlin, Alice Vajda, Mark Heverin, Edmund C Lalor, Orla Hardiman, Bahman Nasseroleslami
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of mismatch negativity (MMN), a neurophysiologic marker of non-motor cognitive processing, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: 89 patients, stratified into 4 different phenotypic presentations of ALS (67 spinal-onset, 15 bulbar-onset, 7 ALS-FTD, 7 C9ORF72 gene careers), and 19 matched controls underwent 128-channel EEG data recording. Subjects were presented with standard auditory tones interleaved with pitch-deviant tones in three recording blocks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860503/the-first-call-note-plays-a-crucial-role-in-frog-vocal-communication
#14
Xizi Yue, Yanzhu Fan, Fei Xue, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Vocal Communication plays a crucial role in survival and reproductive success in most amphibian species. Although amphibian communication sounds are often complex consisting of many temporal features, we know little about the biological significance of each temporal component. The present study examined the biological significance of notes of the male advertisement calls of the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina) using the optimized electroencephalogram (EEG) paradigm of mismatch negativity (MMN). Music frog calls generally contain four to six notes separated approximately by 150 millisecond intervals...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853023/automatic-change-detection-in-vision-adaptation-memory-mismatch-or-both-ii-oddball-and-adaptation-effects-on-event-related-potentials
#15
Flóra Bodnár, Domonkos File, István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, István Czigler
In this study we compared the event-related potentials (ERPs) obtained in two different paradigms: a passive visual oddball paradigm and an adaptation paradigm. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between the effects of activity decrease following an adaptor (stimulus-specific adaptation) and the effects of an infrequent stimulus within sequences of frequent ones. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with different line textures. The frequent (standard) and rare (deviant) texture elements differed in their orientation...
August 29, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845238/trait-aspects-of-auditory-mismatch-negativity-predict-response-to-auditory-training-in-individuals-with-early-illness-schizophrenia
#16
Bruno Biagianti, Brian J Roach, Melissa Fisher, Rachel Loewy, Judith M Ford, Sophia Vinogradov, Daniel H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844436/psychosis-subgroups-differ-in-intrinsic-neural-activity-but-not-task-specific-processing
#17
Matthew E Hudgens-Haney, Lauren E Ethridge, Jennifer E McDowell, Sarah K Keedy, Godfrey D Pearlson, Carol A Tamminga, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz
Individuals with psychosis often show high levels of intrinsic, or nonspecific, neural activity, but attenuated stimulus-specific activity. Clementz et al. (2016) proposed that one subgroup of psychosis cases has accentuated intrinsic activity (Biotype-2's) and a different subgroup (Biotype-1's) has diminished intrinsic activity, with both groups exhibiting varying degrees of cognitive deficits. This model was studied by assessing neural activity in psychosis probands (N=105) during baseline and a 5second period in preparation for a pro-/anti-saccade task...
August 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844100/physical-symptoms-in-very-young-children-assessed-for-sexual-abuse-a-mixed-method-analysis-from-the-asac-study
#18
Thekla F Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Sonja N Brilleslijper-Kater, Guy A Widdershoven, Arianne Rian H Teeuw, Eva Verlinden, Yolande Voskes, Esther M van Duin, Arnoud P Verhoeff, Marc A Benninga, Ramón J L Lindauer
So far, a recognizable pattern of clinical symptoms for child sexual abuse (CSA), especially in young male children, is lacking. To improve early recognition of CSA, we reviewed physical complaints, physical examination, and tests on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in confirmed victims (predominantly preschool boys) of CSA from the Amsterdam sexual abuse case (ASAC). We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of the primary assessment using mixed methods: descriptive analysis of physical complaints, physical exams, and STI tests from medical files and a qualitative analysis on expert's interpretations of physical complaints and children's behavior during physical examination...
August 26, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842787/what-are-the-mechanisms-behind-a-parasite-induced-decline-in-nestmate-recognition-in-ants
#19
Sara Beros, Susanne Foitzik, Florian Menzel
Social insects have developed sophisticated recognition skills to defend their nests against intruders. They do this by aggressively discriminating against non-nestmates with deviant cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) signatures. Studying nestmate recognition can be challenging as individual insects do not only vary in their discriminatory abilities, but also in their motivation to behave aggressively. To disentangle the influence of signaling and behavioral motivation on nestmate recognition, we investigated the ant Temnothorax nylanderi, where the presence of tapeworm-infected nestmates leads to reduced nestmate recognition among uninfected workers...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841644/robust-averaging-protects-decisions-from-noise-in-neural-computations
#20
Vickie Li, Santiago Herce Castañón, Joshua A Solomon, Hildward Vandormael, Christopher Summerfield
An ideal observer will give equivalent weight to sources of information that are equally reliable. However, when averaging visual information, human observers tend to downweight or discount features that are relatively outlying or deviant ('robust averaging'). Why humans adopt an integration policy that discards important decision information remains unknown. Here, observers were asked to judge the average tilt in a circular array of high-contrast gratings, relative to an orientation boundary defined by a central reference grating...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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