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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159037/reorganization-of-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-associated-with-impaired-sensory-tracts
#1
Christos Papadelis, Erin E Butler, Madelyn Rubenstein, Limin Sun, Lilla Zollei, Donna Nimec, Brian Snyder, Patricia Ellen Grant
Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145834/identification-of-outliers-and-positive-deviants-for-healthcare-improvement-looking-for-high-performers-in-hypoglycemia-safety-in-patients-with-diabetes
#2
Brigid Wilson, Chin-Lin Tseng, Orysya Soroka, Leonard M Pogach, David C Aron
BACKGROUND: The study objectives were to determine: (1) how statistical outliers exhibiting low rates of diabetes overtreatment performed on a reciprocal measure - rates of diabetes undertreatment; and (2) the impact of different criteria on high performing outlier status. METHODS: The design was serial cross-sectional, using yearly Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data (2009-2013). Our primary outcome measure was facility rate of HbA1c overtreatment of diabetes in patients at risk for hypoglycemia...
November 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145584/critical-lessons-from-high-value-oncology-practices
#3
Douglas W Blayney, Melora K Simon, Beatrice Podtschaske, Scott Ramsey, Margaret Shyu, Craig Lindquist, Arnold Milstein
Importance: Cancer care is expensive. Cancer care provided by practice organizations varies in total spending incurred by patients and payers during treatment episodes and in quality of care, and this unnecessary variation contributes to the high cost. Objective: To use the variation in total spending and quality of care to assess oncology practice attributes distinguishing "high value" that may be tested and adopted by others to produce similar results. Design, Setting, and Participants: "Positive deviance" was used in this exploratory mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative) analysis of interview results...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135024/reverse-stability-kinetics-of-meat-pigment-oxidation-in-aqueous-extract-from-fresh-beef
#4
John C Frelka, David M Phinney, Macdonald P Wick, Dennis R Heldman
The use of kinetic models is an evolving approach to describing quality changes in foods during processes, including storage. Previous studies indicate that the oxidation rate of myoglobin is accelerated under frozen storage conditions, a phenomenon termed reverse stability. The goal of this study was to develop a model for meat pigment oxidation to incorporate the phenomenon of reverse stability. In this investigation, the model system was an aqueous extract from beef which was stored under a range of temperatures, both unfrozen and frozen...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134485/length-effects-in-pseudo-word-spelling-stronger-in-dyslexic-than-in-non-dyslexic-students
#5
Holger Juul, Dorthe Klint Petersen
It is often discussed whether dyslexics show a deviant pattern of reading and spelling development when compared to typically developing students, or whether they follow the same pattern as other students, only at markedly slower rate. The present cross-sectional study investigated phonological encoding skills in dyslexic Danish students. We compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic students from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 and examined whether effects of item length were stronger in the dyslexic groups. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between dyslexia status and item length as the dyslexics at all grade levels were more affected by item length than their non-dyslexic peers...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133138/contextual-factors-and-motivations-affecting-rural-community-sanitation-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Josef Novotný, Jiří Hasman, Martin Lepič
BACKGROUND: Unsafe management of human faecal waste represents a major risk for public health, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Efforts to improve sanitation conditions are considerably sensitive to contextual specifics of natural and social environments. This review operationalises, analyses, and synthesises evidence of how contextual factors and motivations affect different sanitation outcomes with a specific focus on community approaches to rural sanitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We operationalised contextual factors and motivations as determinants that influence sanitation conditions independently of the examined intervention...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132815/impaired-mismatch-negativity-to-frequency-deviants-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-preliminary-evidence-for-further-impairment-with-transition-to-psychosis
#7
Suzie Lavoie, Bradley N Jack, Oren Griffiths, Ayaka Ando, Paul Amminger, Anthony Couroupis, Aidan Jago, Connie Markulev, Patrick D McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Andrea Polari, Hok Pan Yuen, Thomas J Whitford
BACKGROUND: There is evidence to suggest that people with established psychotic disorders show impairments in the mismatch negativity induced by a frequency-deviant sound (fMMN), and that these impairments worsen with the deterioration of psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to test whether individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show pre-morbid impairments in fMMN, and if so, whether fMMN continues to deteriorate with transition to psychosis. METHOD: fMMN was recorded in a cohort of UHR individuals (n=42) and compared to healthy controls (n=29)...
November 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125975/prospective-prediction-of-arrests-for-driving-under-the-influence-from-relationship-patterns-with-family-and-friends-in-adolescence
#8
William E Pelham, Thomas J Dishion
Driving under the influence (DUI) is dangerous and costly, yet there are few prospective studies on modifiable risk and protective processes that would inform prevention. Middle adolescence, when most individuals are first learning to drive and first using alcohol, may be a particularly salient period for family and friendship influences on DUI risk. In the present study, youth's family and friendship environments were observed and measured at age 16 in a diverse community sample (n=999), and then court records were used to document arrest for DUI through the age of 32years...
October 13, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121528/a-detailed-examination-of-the-longitudinal-associations-between-individual-and-team-sports-and-alcohol-use
#9
Anne-Sophie Denault, François Poulin
This study examined the longitudinal associations between participation in individual and team sports and indicators of alcohol use during the high school years and beyond. A total of 310 youths were surveyed over six waves of data collection (ages 12, 14 to 17, and 19). Participation in individual and team sports was measured through phone interviews, whereas frequency of alcohol use, frequency of intoxication, and problematic alcohol use were self-reported. Control variables included participation in other types of organized activities, sex, family income and structure, parental education and knowledge, problem behaviors, deviant peers, and peer status...
October 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119657/reduced-neural-responses-to-vocal-fear-a-potential-biomarker-for-callous-uncaring-traits-in-early-childhood
#10
Caroline P Hoyniak, John E Bates, Isaac T Petersen, Chung-Lin Yang, Isabelle Darcy, Nathalie M G Fontaine
OBJECTIVE: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by a lack of guilt and empathy, and low responsiveness to distress and fear in others. Children with CU traits are at-risk for engaging in early and persistent conduct problems. Individuals showing CU traits have been shown to have reduced neural responses to others' distress (e.g., fear). However, the neural components of distress responses in children with CU traits have not been investigated in early childhood. In the current study, we examined neural responses that underlie the processing of emotionally valenced vocal stimuli using the event-related potential technique in a group of preschoolers...
November 8, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119612/are-you-surprised-to-hear-this-longitudinal-spectral-speech-exposure-in-older-compared-to-middle-aged-normal-hearing-adults
#11
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Julia Bauer, Susann Widmer, Martin Meyer
Cognitive abilities such as attention or working memory can support older adults during speech perception. However, cognitive abilities as well as speech perception decline with age, leading to the expenditure of effort during speech processing. This longitudinal study therefore investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological processes during speech discrimination, and assessed the extent of enhancement to such cognitive auditory processes through repeated auditory exposure. For that purpose, accuracy and reaction time were compared between 13 older adults (62-76y) and 15 middle-aged (28-52y) controls in an active oddball paradigm which was administered at three consecutive measurement time points at an interval of two weeks, while EEG was recorded...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#12
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100795/highly-relevant-stimuli-may-passively-elicit-processes-associated-with-consciousness-during-the-sleep-onset-period
#13
Paniz Tavakoli, Sonia Varma, Kenneth Campbell
Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change...
October 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092541/intonation-and-talker-variability-in-the-discrimination-of-spanish-lexical-stress-contrasts-by-spanish-german-and-french-listeners
#14
Sandra Schwab, Volker Dellwo
The perception of stress is highly influenced by listeners' native language. In this research, the authors examined the effect of intonation and talker variability (here: phonetic variability) in the discrimination of Spanish lexical stress contrasts by native Spanish (N = 17), German (N = 21), and French (N = 27) listeners. Participants listened to 216 trials containing three Spanish disyllabic words, where one word carried a different lexical stress to the others. The listeners' task was to identify the deviant word in each trial (Odd-One-Out task)...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089907/the-orienting-response-in-healthy-aging-novelty-p3-indicates-no-general-decline-but-reduced-efficacy-for-fast-stimulation-rates
#15
Stefan Berti, Gerhard Vossel, Matthias Gamer
Automatic orienting to unexpected changes in the environment is a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior. One prominent mechanism of automatic attentional control is the Orienting Response (OR). Despite the fundamental significance of the OR in everyday life, only little is known about how the OR is affected by healthy aging. We tested this question in two age groups (19-38 and 55-72 years) and measured skin-conductance responses (SCRs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to novels (i.e., short environmental sounds presented only once in the experiment; 10% of the trials) compared to standard sounds (600 Hz sinusoidal tones with 200 ms duration; 90% of the trials)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081330/gender-differences-in-the-influence-of-parenting-on-youth-antisocial-behavior-through-deviant-peers
#16
Olalla Cutrín, José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela, Jorge Sobral
The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in direct and indirect effects of parental knowledge, family support, family conflict, and deviant peers on violent and nonviolent antisocial behavior among youngsters. The total sample was composed of 584 young people, 274 males and 310 females, aged 14 to 20 from High Schools of Galicia (NW Spain). The variables were assessed with different scales of the protocol Valoración del Riesgo en Adolescentes Infractores [Juvenile Offender's Risk Assessment]...
October 30, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080372/promiscuity-punishes-sexual-deviants
#17
Leif Engqvist, Steven A Ramm
Sex is good for us, but it is a compromise. For the benefit of being able to produce genetically variable offspring, we must pay the cost of passing on only half our genes to each of them. Whilst evolutionary biologists still puzzle over the precise details of why the benefits of sex so frequently seem to outweigh the costs (Neiman, Lively, & Meirmans, ), one major challenge to sexual reproduction is the fact that if we pass on only half our genetic material to each gamete, there is a strong incentive for each individual allele to try to gain an unfair representation during gamete production...
October 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079799/emergence-of-early-alterations-in-network-oscillations-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-tau-seeding-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#18
A Ahnaou, D Moechars, L Raeymaekers, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, A Bottelbergs, C Wintmolders, K Van Kolen, T Van De Casteele, J A Kemp, W H Drinkenburg
Synaptic dysfunction and disconnectivity are core deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), preceding clear changes in histopathology and cognitive functioning. Here, the early and late effects of tau pathology induction on functional network connectivity were investigated in P301L mice. Multichannel EEG oscillations were used to compute (1) coherent activity between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) CA1-CA3 networks; (2) phase-amplitude cross frequency coupling (PAC) between theta and gamma oscillations, which is instrumental in adequate cognitive functioning; (3) information processing as assessed by auditory evoked potentials and oscillations in the passive oddball mismatch negativity-like (MMN) paradigm...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074265/the-effect-of-illusionary-perception-on-mismatch-negativity-mmn-an-electroencephalography-study
#19
Kentaro Ono, Daiki Yamasaki, Christian F Altmann, Tatsuya Mima
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a unique brain response elicited by any discernible change of features in a tone sequence. Although the occurrence of MMN is dependent upon the difference of a stimulus parameter, such as frequency or intensity, recent studies have suggested that MMN occurs as a result of a comparison between an internal representation created by perception and an incoming tone. The present study aimed to investigate MMN occurs based upon the physical properties of stimuli or as a result of the perception of the scale illusion...
October 17, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072471/the-effects-of-paternal-disengagement-on-women-s-perceptions-of-male-mating-intent
#20
Danielle J DelPriore, Randi Proffitt Leyva, Bruce J Ellis, Sarah E Hill
Previous research demonstrates reliable associations between low paternal investment and daughters' precocious and risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about the psychological changes that occur in response to paternal disengagement that encourage these patterns. Here, we aim to redress this empirical gap by testing the effects of paternal disengagement on women's perceptions of male mating intent. In 4 experiments, women who described their fathers' absence (vs. a comparison state) perceived greater: mating intent in the described actions of a hypothetical dating partner (Study 1), sexual arousal in male target faces (Studies 2 and 3), and mating interest from a male confederate (Study 4)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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