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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#1
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721525/-epidemic-or-peripheral-phenomenon-a%C3%A2-medical-history-of-the-cocaine-wave-in-the-weimar-republic
#2
Hannes Walter
An empirical investigation refutes the popular conception that excessive drug usage was a widespread social phenomenon in the Weimar Republic. Although physicians warned the public and politicians of a "cocaine wave" that threatened the public health, there is no evidence that indicates a significant increase of cocaine use during the twenties. The decisive cause for this moral panic was caused instead by the disease pattern of "Cocainism". The addiction carried the imprint of an infectious disease and would destroy the body, the will, and the civic life of its victims...
July 18, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715718/when-speaker-identity-is-unavoidable-neural-processing-of-speaker-identity-cues-in-natural-speech
#3
Alba Tuninetti, Kateřina Chládková, Varghese Peter, Niels O Schiller, Paola Escudero
Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language...
July 14, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714589/meg-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease-absence-of-a-prefrontal-generator-during-auditory-sensory-gating
#4
Sanja Josef Golubic, Cheryl J Aine, Julia M Stephen, John C Adair, Janice E Knoefel, Selma Supek
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a direct measure of neuronal activity, is an underexplored tool in the search for biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used MEG source estimates of auditory gating generators, nonlinear correlations with neuropsychological results, and multivariate analyses to examine the sensitivity and specificity of gating topology modulation to detect AD. Our results demonstrated the use of MEG localization of a medial prefrontal (mPFC) gating generator as a discrete (binary) detector of AD at the individual level and resulted in recategorizing the participant categories in (1) controls with mPFC generator localized in response to both the standard and deviant tones; (2) a possible preclinical stage of AD participants (a lower functioning group of controls) in which mPFC activation was localized to the deviant tone only; and (3) symptomatic AD in which mPFC activation was not localized to either the deviant or standard tones...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713043/auditory-discrimination-improvement-predicts-awakening-of-postanoxic-comatose-patients-treated-with-targeted-temperature-management-at-36%C3%A2-c
#5
Christian Pfeiffer, Nathalie Ata Nguepno Nguissi, Magali Chytiris, Phanie Bidlingmeyer, Matthias Haenggi, Rebekka Kurmann, Frédéric Zubler, Mauro Oddo, Andrea O Rossetti, Marzia De Lucia
BACKGROUND: Outcome prognostication in postanoxic comatose patients is more accurate in predicting poor than good recovery. Using electroencephalography recordings in patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C (TTM 33), we have previously shown that improvement in auditory discrimination over the first days of coma predicted awakening. Given the increased application of a 36°C temperature target (TTM 36), here we aimed at validating the predictive value of auditory discrimination in the TTM 36 setting...
July 13, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711472/interactive-effects-of-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-and-a-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-on-mismatch-negativity-implications-for-schizophrenia
#6
Holly K Hamilton, Deepak C D'Souza, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Naomi S Kort, Kyung-Heup Ahn, Savita Bhakta, Mohini Ranganathan, Daniel H Mathalon
N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, including auditory processing abnormalities reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential component. Evidence suggesting cognitive benefits from nicotine administration, together with the high rate of cigarette use in patients with schizophrenia, has stimulated interest in whether nicotine modulates NMDAR hypofunction. We examined the interactive effects of ketamine, an NMDAR antagonist that produces transient schizophrenia-like neurophysiological effects, and nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, in 30 healthy volunteers to determine whether nicotine prevents or attenuates MMN abnormalities...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710556/visual-mismatch-negativity-vmmn-for-low-and-high-level-deviances-a-control-study
#7
Domonkos File, Bálint File, Flóra Bodnár, István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, István Czigler
The aim of our studies was to separate the effects of violating a sequential rule (genuine visual mismatch negativity; gvMMN) from the decreased activity in response to repeated stimuli (stimulus-specific adaptation; SSA) for simple and more complex stimuli. To accomplish this goal, different control procedures were applied with the aim of finding the correct control for vMMN studies. Event-related brain electric activity (ERPs) was measured in response to nonattended visual stimuli that were presented either in an oddball manner or in various control sequences...
July 14, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709770/meta-analysis-of-mismatch-negativity-to-simple-versus-complex-deviants-in-schizophrenia
#8
Michael Avissar, Shanghong Xie, Blair Vail, Javier Lopez-Calderon, Yuanjia Wang, Daniel C Javitt
Mismatch negativity (MMN) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been studied extensively since the early 1990s, with the vast majority of studies using simple auditory oddball task deviants that vary in a single acoustic dimension such as pitch or duration. There has been a growing interest in using more complex deviants that violate more abstract rules to probe higher order cognitive deficits. It is still unclear how sensory processing deficits compare to and contribute to higher order cognitive dysfunction, which can be investigated with later attention-dependent auditory event-related potential (ERP) components such as a subcomponent of P300, P3b...
July 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705683/periodontal-ligament-fibroblasts-as-a-cell-model-to-study-osteogenesis-and-osteoclastogenesis-in-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva
#9
Teun J de Vries, Ton Schoenmaker, Dimitra Micha, Jolanda Hogervorst, Siham Bouskla, Tim Forouzanfar, Gerard Pals, Coen Netelenbos, E Marelise W Eekhoff, Nathalie Bravenboer
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a progressive disease characterized by periods of heterotopic ossification of soft connective tissues, including ligaments. Though progress has been made in recent years in unraveling the underlying mechanism, patient-derived cell models are necessary to test potential treatment options. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PLF) from extracted teeth can be used to study deviant bone modeling processes in vitro since these cells are derived from genuine ligaments. They further provide a tool to study the hitherto unknown role of the bone morphogenesis protein receptor type 1 (BMPR-1) Activin A type 1 receptor ACVR1-R206H mutation in osteoclastogenesis...
July 10, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698460/adults-and-children-in-low-income-households-that-participate-in-cost-offset-community-supported-agriculture-have-high-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption
#10
Karla L Hanson, Jane Kolodinsky, Weiwei Wang, Emily H Morgan, Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Alice S Ammerman, Marilyn Sitaker, Rebecca A Seguin
This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2-12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 (n = 41) and February 2016 (n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694809/unperturbed-cytotoxic-lymphocyte-phenotype-and-function-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-patients
#11
Jakob Theorell, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar, Bianca Tesi, Heinrich Schlums, Mette Sophie Johnsgaard, Babak Asadi-Azarbaijani, Elin Bolle Strand, Yenan T Bryceson
Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disorder linked to diverse intracellular infections as well as physiological stress. Cytotoxic lymphocytes combat intracellular infections. Their function is attenuated by stress. Despite numerous studies, the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS remains unclear. Prompted by advances in the understanding of defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity, the discovery of adaptive natural killer (NK) cell subsets associated with certain viral infections, and compelling links between stress, adrenaline, and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we reassessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691841/shared-familial-risk-between-bulimic-symptoms-and-alcohol-involvement-during-adolescence
#12
Jessica H Baker, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Hermine Maes, Kenneth S Kendler
Twin studies show the established relation between bulimic symptoms and problematic alcohol involvement in adult females is partly due to shared familial factors, specifically shared genetic effects. However, it is unclear if similar shared etiological factors exist during adolescence or in males. We examined the familial overlap (i.e., genetic and common environmental correlations) between bulimic symptoms and various levels of alcohol involvement in 16- to 17-year-old female and male same-sex twin pairs using sex-specific biometrical twin modeling...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682830/temporal-attention-is-involved-in-the-enhancement-of-attentional-capture-with-task-difficulty-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#13
Fumie Sugimoto, Motohiro Kimura, Yuji Takeda, Jun'ichi Katayama
In a three-stimulus oddball task, the amplitude of P3a elicited by deviant stimuli increases with an increase in the difficulty of discriminating between standard and target stimuli (i.e. task-difficulty effect on P3a), indicating that attentional capture by deviant stimuli is enhanced with an increase in task difficulty. This enhancement of attentional capture may be explained in terms of the modulation of modality-nonspecific temporal attention; that is, the participant's attention directed to the predicted timing of stimulus presentation is stronger when the task difficulty increases, which results in enhanced attentional capture...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682092/social-norm-perception-in-groups-with-outliers
#14
Jennifer E Dannals, Dale T Miller
Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680490/auditory-evoked-potential-mismatch-negativity-in-normal-hearing-adults
#15
Laura Flach Schwade, Dayane Domeneghini Didoné, Pricila Sleifer
Introduction  Mismatch Negativity (MMN) corresponds to a response of the central auditory nervous system. Objective  The objective of this study is to analyze MMN latencies and amplitudes in normal-hearing adults and compare the results between ears, gender and hand dominance. Methods  This is a cross-sectional study. Forty subjects participated, 20 women and 20 men, aged 18 to 29 years and having normal auditory thresholds. A frequency of 1000Hz (standard stimuli) and 2000Hz (deviant stimuli) was used to evoked the MMN...
July 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678863/early-positivity-signals-changes-in-an-abstract-linguistic-pattern
#16
Júlia Monte-Ordoño, Juan M Toro
The extraction of abstract structures from speech (or from gestures in the case of sign languages) has been claimed to be a fundamental mechanism for language acquisition. In the present study we registered the neural responses that are triggered when a violation of an abstract, token-independent rule is detected. We registered ERPs while presenting participants with trisyllabic CVCVCV nonsense words in an oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli followed an ABB rule (where A and B are different syllables). Importantly, to distinguish neural responses triggered by changes in surface information from responses triggered by changes in the underlying abstract structure, we used two types of deviant stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666633/mismatch-negativity-as-a-biomarker-of-theta-band-oscillatory-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#17
Daniel C Javitt, Migyung Lee, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Antigona Martinez
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is among the best established biomarkers of cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. MMN generators are localized primarily to primary and secondary auditory regions, and are known to reflect activity mediated by cortical N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR). Nevertheless, mechanisms underlying MMN generation at the local circuit level remain incompletely understood. This review synthesizes recent advances in circuit-level conceptualization of MMN based upon neuro-oscillatory findings...
June 27, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662612/the-effect-of-cognitive-control-on-different-types-of-auditory-distraction
#18
Raoul Bell, Jan P Röer, John E Marsh, Dunja Storch, Axel Buchner
Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should have no effect on the changing-state effect. We compared the effect of foreknowledge on the two phenomena directly within the same experiment. In a pilot study, specific foreknowledge was impotent in reducing either the changing-state effect or the deviation effect, but it reduced disruption by sentential speech, suggesting that the effects of foreknowledge on auditory distraction may increase with the complexity of the stimulus material...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639708/young-infants-word-comprehension-given-an-unfamiliar-talker-or-altered-pronunciations
#19
Elika Bergelson, Daniel Swingley
To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to 14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90), pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to 7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers' phonologically deviant speech equally...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639417/auditory-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-mismatch-negativity-deficits
#20
Chantal Vlaskamp, Bob Oranje, Gitte Falcher Madsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Sarah Durston, Cathriona Cantio, Birte Glenthøj, Niels Bilenberg
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are highly inconsistent, partly due to small sample sizes in the studies and differences in MMN paradigms. Therefore, in the current study, MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in a relatively large sample of children with ASD, using a more extensive MMN paradigm and compared with that of typically developing children (TDC)...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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