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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542618/early-and-late-stage-processing-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-an-erp-study
#1
Shanshan Wang, Chunjuan Yang, Yijun Liu, Zhi Shao, Todd Jackson
This research assessed event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during the processing of different kinds of visual stimuli among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n = 15) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 19). Within a simple visual oddball paradigm, participating children passively viewed fruit and vegetable images that were used as standard stimuli in addition to images of these foods with their usual colors modified to create novel stimuli and cartoon depictions of these images (i.e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536550/the-relationship-between-authoritarian-leadership-and-employees-deviant-workplace-behaviors-the-mediating-effects-of-psychological-contract-violation-and-organizational-cynicism
#2
Hongyan Jiang, Yang Chen, Peizhen Sun, Jun Yang
This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532686/mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-spatial-deviants-and-behavioral-spatial-discrimination-ability-in-the-etiology-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia
#3
Megan A Perrin, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Gail Silipo, Elisa Dias, Omar Jabado, Daniel C Javitt
Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are increasingly tied to dysfunction at the level of auditory cortex. AVH may reflect in part misattribution of internally generated thoughts to external spatial locations. Here, we investigated the association between persistent AVH and spatial localization abilities assessed both behaviorally and by mismatch negativity (MMN) to location deviants. METHODS: Spatial- and tonal- discrimination abilities were assessed in patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) using free-field tones...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529827/deviant-lysosomal-ca-2-signalling-in-neurodegeneration-an-introduction
#4
Sandip Patel
Lysosomes are key acidic Ca(2+) stores. The principle Ca(2+)-permeable channels of the lysosome are TRP mucolipins (TRPMLs) and NAADP-regulated two-pore channels (TPCs). Recent studies, reviewed in this collection, have linked numerous neurodegenerative diseases to both gain and loss of function of TRPMLs/TPCs, as well as to defects in acidic Ca(2+) store content. These diseases span rare lysosomal storage disorders such as Mucolipidosis Type IV and Niemann-Pick disease, type C, through to more common ones such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease...
June 1, 2016: Messenger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523585/pathways-to-preventing-substance-use-among-youth-in-foster-care
#5
Hyoun K Kim, Rohanna Buchanan, Joseph M Price
Substance use problems are highly prevalent among youth in foster care. Such problems in adolescence have long-lasting implications for subsequent adjustment throughout adulthood and even across generations. Although several programs have demonstrated positive results in reducing substance use in at-risk youth, few studies have systemically examined how such programs work for foster youth and whether they are effective for both genders. This study examined the efficacy of KEEP SAFE, a family-based and skill-focused program designed to prevent substance use and other related health risking behaviors among youth in foster care...
May 19, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521155/is-laughter-a-better-vocal-change-detector-than-a-growl
#6
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Margarida Vasconcelos, Christian Obermeier, Sonja A Kotz
The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach...
April 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516227/impairment-in-mismatch-negativity-but-not-repetition-suppression-in-schizophrenia
#7
Brian A Coffman, Sarah M Haigh, Tim K Murphy, Dean F Salisbury
Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), mismatch negativity (MMN), and sensory gating of AEPs to repeated stimuli (repetition suppression, RS). In the predictive modeling framework, MMN and RS reflect encoding of prediction error and model sharpening, respectively. We compared P50, N100, P200 RS, and pitch and duration MMN in 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and 26 matched healthy controls (HC), and assessed relationships between MMN, RS, and SZ diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513350/examining-the-relationships-between-the-triarchic-psychopathy-constructs-and-behavioral-deviance-in-a-community-sample
#8
C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox, Megan R Kopkin
Few studies have examined the extent to which psychopathic traits relate to the commission of mild to moderate acts of deviance, such as vandalism and minor traffic violations. Given that psychopathy is now studied in community populations, the relationship between psychopathic traits and less severe deviant behaviors, which are more normative among noninstitutionalized samples, warrants investigation. The current study examined the relationships between the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles & Krueger, 2009) and seven forms of deviant behavior (drug use, alcohol use, theft, vandalism, school misconduct, assault, and general deviance) in a nationally representative sample...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511977/role-of-acetylcholine-and-serotonin-in-novelty-processing-using-an-oddball-paradigm
#9
S Caldenhove, L G J M Borghans, A Blokland, A Sambeth
The processing of novel stimuli is known to take place in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and is influenced by the cholinergic system. This ability is crucial to help detect changes in the environment and adapt behavior accordingly. Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) can interact with serotonin (5-HT) at the hippocampal level, which may have consequences for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about the exact nature of this ACh and 5-HT interaction as well their possible interactive effects on novelty processing...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511726/executive-functioning-in-pedophilia-and-child-sexual-offending
#10
Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Hannah Gerwinn, Alexander Pohl, Till Amelung, Sebastian Mohnke, Jonas Kneer, Matthias Wittfoth, Inka Ristow, Kolja Schiltz, Klaus M Beier, Jorge Ponseti, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
OBJECTIVES: Pedophilia (P) is a psychiatric disease associated with sexual attraction toward children and often accompanied by child sexual offending (CSO). Consequently, it is important to address the understanding of executive dysfunctions that may increase the probability of CSO. Moreover, this research field has been lacking to disentangle executive deficits associated with pedophilia (as a deviant sexual preference) from those associated with CSO (as a deviant sexual behavior). METHODS: The German multi-sided research network NeMUP offers the opportunity to overcome these limitations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506707/complex-mismatch-negativity-to-tone-pair-deviants-in-long-term-schizophrenia-and-in-the-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum
#11
Dean F Salisbury, Alexis G McCathern, Brian A Coffman, Timothy K Murphy, Sarah M Haigh
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential to stimulus change. MMN to infrequent deviant tones that differs in a simple physical parameter from repetitive standard tones is reduced in patients with long-term schizophrenia (Sz; d=~1). However, this simple MMN is not uniformly reduced at the first-episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis (FESz; d<0.1 for pitch; <0.4 for duration). Deviant stimuli that violate pattern rules also evoke MMN. This complex MMN is evoked by deviations in the relation of sounds to each other...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504196/human-subthalamic-nucleus-automatic-auditory-change-detection-as-a-basis-for-action-selection
#12
Marcus Heldmann, Thomas F Münte, Lejla Paracka, Frederike Beyer, Norbert Brüggemann, Assel Saryyeva, Dirk Rasche, Joachim K Krauss, Volker M Tronnier
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) shapes motor behavior and is important for the initiation and termination of movements. Here we ask whether the STN takes aggregated sensory information into account, in order to exert this function. To this end, local field potentials (LFP) were recorded in eight patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and receiving deep-brain stimulation of the STN bilaterally. Bipolar recordings were obtained postoperatively from the externalized electrode leads. Patients were passively exposed to trains of auditory stimuli containing global deviants, local deviants or combined global/local deviants...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504120/mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-speech-sounds-is-modulated-systematically-by-manual-grip-execution
#13
Mikko Tiainen, Kaisa Tiippana, Petri Paavilainen, Martti Vainio, Lari Vainio
Manual actions and speech are connected: for example, grip execution can influence simultaneous vocalizations and vice versa. Our previous studies show that the consonant [k] is associated with the power grip and the consonant [t] with the precision grip. Here we studied whether the interaction between speech sounds and grips could operate already at a pre-attentive stage of auditory processing, reflected by the mismatch-negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential (ERP). Participants executed power and precision grips according to visual cues while listening to syllable sequences consisting of [ke] and [te] utterances...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499838/brain-responses-to-sound-intensity-changes-dissociate-depressed-participants-and-healthy-controls
#14
Elisa M Ruohonen, Piia Astikainen
Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497872/deviant-burials-and-social-identity-in-a-postmedieval-polish-cemetery-an-analysis-of-stable-oxygen-and-carbon-isotopes-from-the-vampires-of-drawsko
#15
Lesley A Gregoricka, Amy B Scott, Tracy K Betsinger, Marek Polcyn
OBJECTIVES: Deviant burials can reveal important information about both social and individual identity, particularly when the mortuary record is supplemented by an examination of skeletal remains. At the postmedieval (17th to 18th c. AD) cemetery of Drawsko (Site 1), Poland, six individuals (of n = 285) received deviant, anti-vampiristic mortuary treatment. A previous study using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios ( x¯= 0.7112 ± 0.0006, 1σ, n = 60) found that these "vampires" were in fact locals, not migrants to the region targeted for deviant burial due to their status as immigrant outsiders...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497557/acquiring-research-grade-erps-on-a-shoestring-budget-a-comparison-of-a-modified-emotiv-and-commercial-synamps-eeg-system
#16
Michael P Barham, Gillian M Clark, Melissa J Hayden, Peter G Enticott, Russell Conduit, Jarrad A G Lum
This study compared the performance of a low-cost wireless EEG system to a research-grade EEG system on an auditory oddball task designed to elicit N200 and P300 ERP components. Participants were 15 healthy adults (6 female) aged between 19 and 40 (M = 28.56; SD = 6.38). An auditory oddball task was presented comprising 1,200 presentations of a standard tone interspersed by 300 trials comprising a deviant tone. EEG was simultaneously recorded from a modified Emotiv EPOC and a NeuroScan SynAmps RT EEG system...
May 12, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487250/sensitivity-to-structure-in-action-sequences-an-infant-event-related-potential-study
#17
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Estefanía Domínguez-Martínez, Katharina Kaduk, Sabine Hunnius, Vincent Reid
Infants are sensitive to structure and patterns within continuous streams of sensory input. This sensitivity relies on statistical learning, the ability to detect predictable regularities in spatial and temporal sequences. Recent evidence has shown that infants can detect statistical regularities in action sequences they observe, but little is known about the neural process that give rise to this ability. In the current experiment, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) with eye-tracking to identify electrophysiological markers that indicate whether 8-11-month-old infants detect violations to learned regularities in action sequences, and to relate these markers to behavioral measures of anticipation during learning...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481564/impact-of-fathers-on-parental-monitoring-of-daughters-and-their-affiliation-with-sexually-promiscuous-peers-a-genetically-and-environmentally-controlled-sibling-study
#18
Danielle J DelPriore, Gabriel L Schlomer, Bruce J Ellis
Girls who receive higher quality fathering engage in less risky sexual behavior (RSB) than their peers. Previous research identifies higher levels of parental monitoring/knowledge and reduced affiliation with deviant peers as potential mediators of this observed fathering effect. Although paternal investment theory posits a causal effect of fathers on daughters' RSB, and on the intervening processes that mediate this effect, these relations could arise from genetic or environmental confounds. To address this limitation, we employed the genetically- and environmentally controlled differential sibling-exposure design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examines the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476160/time-to-re-think-picky-eating-a-relational-approach-to-understanding-picky-eating
#19
Kathryn Walton, Leon Kuczynski, Emma Haycraft, Andrea Breen, Jess Haines
BACKGROUND: Estimates of picky eating are quite high among young children, with 14-50% of parents identifying their preschoolers as picky eaters. Dietary intake and preferences during the preschool years are characterized by slowing growth rates and children developing a sense of autonomy over their feeding and food selection. We argue that the current conceptualization of picky eating defines acts of resistance or expressions of preference (acts of autonomy) by a child as deviant behaviour...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472146/how-regularity-representations-of-short-sound-patterns-that-are-based-on-relative-or-absolute-pitch-information-establish-over-time-an-eeg-study
#20
Maria Bader, Erich Schröger, Sabine Grimm
The recognition of sound patterns in speech or music (e.g., a melody that is played in different keys) requires knowledge about pitch relations between successive sounds. We investigated the formation of regularity representations for sound patterns in an event-related potential (ERP) study. A pattern, which consisted of six concatenated 50 ms tone segments differing in fundamental frequency, was presented 1, 2, 3, 6, or 12 times and then replaced by another pattern by randomly changing the pitch of the tonal segments (roving standard paradigm)...
2017: PloS One
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