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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351384/association-with-deviant-peers-across-adolescence-subtypes-developmental-patterns-and-long-term-outcomes
#1
Julia Price, Deborah A G Drabick, Ty A Ridenour
Indices of deviant peer group involvement are inconsistent and confound type, frequency, and severity of deviant peer behaviors. These measurement approaches thus obfuscate potential meaningful differences in deviant peer involvement in terms of subtypes, developmental patterns, and long-term outcomes. The current study employed latent class analysis to derive subtypes of deviant peer involvement and examined relations to substance use disorder in adulthood, a common outcome of deviant peer involvement. Youth (76% Caucasian) completed assessments across four time points: ages 10-12 years (Time 1; N = 775, 71% male), 12-14 years (Time 2; n = 649, 72% male), 16 years (Time 3; n = 613, 73% male), and 22 years (Time 4; n = 425, 71% male)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348431/a-synthetic-combinatorial-approach-to-disabling-deviant-hedgehog-signaling
#2
C-W Fan, N Yarravarapu, H Shi, O Kulak, J Kim, C Chen, L Lum
Mutations in components of the Hedgehog (HH) signal transduction pathway are found in the majority of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma incidents. Cancerous cells with intrinsic or acquired resistance to antagonists targeting the seven transmembrane effector Smoothened (SMO) frequently invoke alternative mechanisms for maintaining deviant activity of the GLI DNA binding proteins. Here we introduce a chemical agent that simultaneously achieves inhibition of SMO and GLI activity by direct targeting of the SMO heptahelical domain and the GLI-modifying enzymes belonging to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343456/eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-in-implicit-navigational-image-processing-in-adults-with-adhd
#3
A Leroy, G Petit, D Zarka, A M Cebolla, E Palmero-Soler, J Strul, B Dan, P Verbanck, G Cheron
In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analysed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modelling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adults with ADHD and age-matched controls. In passive observation, we demonstrated that P350 amplitude, alpha-beta oscillation event-related synchronization (ERS) anticipation, and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) were significantly smaller in ADHD...
January 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337239/background-suppression-and-its-relation-to-foreground-processing-of-speech-versus-non-speech-streams
#4
Xiaochen Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Jingjing Chen, Qin Gong
Since sound perception takes place against a background with a certain amount of noise, both speech and non-speech processing involve extraction of target signals and suppression of background noise. Previous works on early processing of speech phonemes largely neglected how background noise is encoded and suppressed. This study aimed to fill in this gap. We adopted an oddball paradigm where speech (vowels) or non-speech stimuli (complex tones) were presented with or without a background of amplitude-modulated noise and analyzed cortical responses related to foreground stimulus processing, including mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b, and P300, as well as neural representations of the background noise, i...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336086/learning-to-blast-a-way-into-crime-or-just-good-clean-fun-examining-aggressive-play-with-toy-weapons-and-its-relation-with-crime
#5
Sven Smith, Christopher J Ferguson, Kevin M Beaver
BACKGROUND: Researchers, such as Bandura, have proposed that children's mere exposure to the use of play weapons encourages deviant displays of aggression, but there is very little research to support this hypothesis of 20 years. AIM: To examine the relationship between amount of weapon play and concurrent aggression as well as later violent juvenile crime, while controlling for other variables possibly influencing criminal pathways. METHOD: Using longitudinal survey data collected from mothers and children (n = 2019) from age 5, with follow-up at age 15, correlations between children's play with toy weapons and juvenile criminality were examined...
January 16, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335037/is-freedom-still-therapy-the-40th-anniversary-of-the-italian-mental-health-care-reform
#6
A Fioritti
On 13 May 1978, the Italian Parliament approved Law 180, universally known as 'Basaglia Law' after the name of the leader of the anti-institutional movement which promoted this radical community mental health care reform. Forty years later, Italian psychiatry still runs a community care system, albeit with degrees of solidity and quality very varied along the peninsula. Mental health care is still an integral part of the National Health System, with liberal regulations on coercion and a lowest number of general hospital and residential facilities beds...
January 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327796/speech-characteristics-in-the-congenital-and-childhood-onset-forms-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#7
Lotta Sjögreen, Åsa Mårtensson, Anne-Berit Ekström
BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a slowly progressive multi-systemic disease with an autosomal-dominant inheritance caused by a mutation on chromosome 19 (19q13.3). AIMS: To explore speech characteristics in a group of individuals with the congenital and childhood-onset forms of DM1 in terms of intelligibility, speech-sound production, nasality and compensatory articulation. A further aim was to analyse whether speech characteristics were correlated to subforms of DM1 and if speech outcome could be related to muscle strength...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324826/facial-responsiveness-of-psychopaths-to-the-emotional-expressions-of-others
#8
Janina Künecke, Andreas Mokros, Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321541/identification-and-validation-of-an-18-gene-signature-highly-predictive-of-bladder-cancer-metastasis
#9
Beihe Wang, Fangning Wan, Haoyue Sheng, Yiping Zhu, Guohai Shi, Hailiang Zhang, Bo Dai, Yijun Shen, Yao Zhu, Dingwei Ye
We found two deviant groups that were unpredictable with clinical models predicting bladder cancer metastasis. The group G consists of patients at high risk of pN+ , but they have pN0. The group P consists of patients at low risk of pN+ , but they have pN+ . We aimed to determine the genetic differences between these two groups. 1603 patients from SEER database were enrolled to build a multivariate model. This model was applied to patients from the TCGA database to distinguish groups G and P. Differentially expressed genes between the two groups were identified...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300763/food-words-distract-the-hungry-evidence-of-involuntary-semantic-processing-of-task-irrelevant-but-biologically-relevant-unexpected-auditory-words
#10
Fabrice B R Parmentier, Antonia P Pacheco-Unguetti, Sara Valero
Rare changes in a stream of otherwise repeated task-irrelevant sounds break through selective attention and disrupt performance in an unrelated visual task by triggering shifts of attention to and from the deviant sound (deviance distraction). Evidence indicates that the involuntary orientation of attention to unexpected sounds is followed by their semantic processing. However, past demonstrations relied on tasks in which the meaning of the deviant sounds overlapped with features of the primary task. Here we examine whether such processing is observed when no such overlap is present but sounds carry some relevance to the participants' biological need to eat when hungry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294859/prison-homicide-an-extension-of-violent-criminal-careers
#11
Thomas J Reidy, Jon R Sorensen, Heidi Stone Bonner
This study investigated prison homicide perpetrators through the lens of the career criminal perspective. Prison homicide, while a rare event, has critical implications for the prison environment. Despite its importance as a form of institutional violence that must be addressed, only four studies in the past five decades have explored the characteristics of homicide perpetrators/victims, the motives, and circumstances of the crime. The goal of the current study was to develop a better understanding of prison homicide by examining 54 perpetrators who committed 37 inmate homicides over 40 years in a mid-Western state prison system...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294821/-victim-perpetrator-or-just-my-brother-sibling-sexual-abuse-in-large-families-a-child-advocacy-center-study
#12
Dafna Tener, Noam Tarshish, Shosh Turgeman
Sibling sexual abuse (SSA) is a continuum of childhood sexual behaviors that do not fit the category of age-appropriate curiosity. Although SSA may be the most prevalent and longest lasting form of intrafamilial sexual abuse-as well as the one with the worst repercussions-it is also the least reported, studied, and treated. Based on 100 mostly religious Jewish families referred to a child advocacy center (CAC) in Jerusalem from 2010 to 2015, this qualitative study examines SSA characteristics, dynamics, and perceptions of deviancy in multisibling subsystems...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294779/does-gender-matter-in-explaining-delinquency-and-suicidal-thoughts-an-examination-of-general-strain-theory-in-south-korean-youths
#13
Minwoo Yun, Eunyoung Kim
This study attempts to explore the potential extension of general strain theory (GST) by applying the hypotheses proposed by Broidy and Agnew to a sample of South Korean youths. Specifically, this study examines whether particular forms of strain and stressors have differential effects across genders on various deviant outcomes, delinquency, and suicidal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses using longitudinal data of 3,125 South Korean youths revealed mixed support for the GST proposition. Females experienced a higher level of both anger and depression than males...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289720/sensory-intelligence-for-extraction-of-an-abstract-auditory-rule-a-cross-linguistic-study
#14
Xiao-Tao Guo, Xiao-Dong Wang, Xiu-Yuan Liang, Ming Wang, Lin Chen
In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275843/transdiagnostic-deviant-facial-recognition-for-implicit-negative-emotion-in-autism-and-schizophrenia
#15
Angela Ciaramidaro, Sven Bölte, Sabine Schlitt, Daniela Hainz, Fritz Poustka, Bernhard Weber, Christine Freitag, Henrik Walter
Impaired facial affect recognition (FAR) is observed in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and has been linked to amygdala and fusiform gyrus dysfunction. ASD patient's impairments seem to be more pronounced during implicit rather than explicit FAR, whereas for schizophrenia data are inconsistent. However, there are no studies comparing both patient groups in an identical design. The aim of this three-group study was to identify (i) whether FAR alterations are equally present in both groups, (ii) whether they are present rather during implicit or explicit FAR, (iii) and whether they are conveyed by similar or disorder-specific neural mechanisms...
December 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275434/a-developmental-perspective-on-reentry-understanding-the-causes-and-consequences-of-family-conflict-and-peer-delinquency-during-adolescence-and-emerging-adulthood
#16
Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
Despite the uniqueness of an incarceration experience for adolescents, there remains a shortage of research on adolescents and emerging adults who have been recently released from detention centers and are returning home during the transitional time period of "reentry". Drawing from the developmental literature, the current study uses a diverse (54% Black, 20% White, 26% Other Race) longitudinal survey of 337 male adolescents living in the United States to examine the interrelationships among crime, substance use, family conflict, and peer delinquency...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250854/predictive-cues-for-auditory-stream-formation-in-humans-and-monkeys
#17
Nikolaos C Aggelopoulos, Susann Deike, Elena Selezneva, Henning Scheich, André Brechmann, Michael Brosch
Auditory perception is improved when stimuli are predictable and this effect is evident in a modulation of the activity of neurons in the auditory cortex as shown previously. Human listeners can better predict the presence of duration deviants embedded in stimulus streams with fixed inter-onset interval (isochrony) and repeated duration pattern (regularity) and neurons in the auditory cortex of macaque monkeys have stronger sustained responses in the 60-140 ms post-stimulus time-window under these conditions...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247667/making-predictable-unpredictable-with-style-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-critical-role-of-prosodic-expectations-in-the-perception-of-prominence-in-speech
#18
Sofoklis Kakouros, Nelli Salminen, Okko Räsänen
Perceptual prominence of linguistic units such as words has been earlier connected to the concepts of predictability and attentional orientation. One hypothesis is that low-probability prosodic or lexical content is perceived as prominent due to the surprisal and high information value associated with the stimulus. However, the existing behavioral studies have used stimulus manipulations that follow or violate typical linguistic patterns present in the listeners' native language, i.e., assuming that the listeners have already established a model for acceptable prosodic patterns in the language...
December 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247425/asthma-mimickers-approach-to-differential-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy
The airway of a child can be easily obstructed because of its small size and there are myriad conditions that may obstruct it. Though asthma is the most common condition causing reversible obstruction of the airway; there are a large number of conditions which can obstruct the airway both reversibly and irreversibly. These asthma mimics can present as clinical problems from the neonatal period through adolescence. This article presents an overview of the clinical situations that must be kept in mind when the child presents with subtly unusual clinical features or a deviant course...
December 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239641/further-understanding-incivility-in-the-workplace-the-effects-of-gender-agency-and-communion
#20
Allison S Gabriel, Marcus M Butts, Zhenyu Yuan, Rebecca L Rosen, Michael T Sliter
Research conducted on workplace incivility-a low intensity form of deviant behavior-has generally shown that women report higher levels of incivility at work. However, to date, it is unclear as to whether women are primarily treated uncivilly by men (i.e., members of the socially dominant group/out-group) or other women (i.e., members of in-group) in organizations. In light of different theorizing surrounding gender and incivility, we examine whether women experience increased incivility from other women or men, and whether this effect is amplified for women who exhibit higher agency and less communion at work given that these traits and behaviors violate stereotypical gender norms...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
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