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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782379/the-dysfunction-of-processing-emotional-faces-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-expression-related-visual-mismatch-negativity
#1
Guimei Yin, Shenglin She, Lun Zhao, Yingjun Zheng
To investigate the emotional face processing in patients with schizophrenia, the preattentive automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with schizophrenia was compared with that of age-matched healthy control group as indexed by the expressional mismatch negativity (EMMN) elicited by facial expressions. Compared with neutral faces as standard stimuli, deviant emotional faces elicited posterior EMMN between 150 and 500 ms after stimuli onset, with larger amplitudes for sad than happy deviant faces...
May 18, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781129/the-role-of-competitive-and-cooperative-norms-in-the-development-of-deviant-evaluations
#2
Luke McGuire, Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen, Adam Rutland
The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, Mage  = 8.69; adolescents, Mage  = 13.81; adults, Mage  = 20.89; n = 263) evaluated deviant ingroup members from their own and the group's perspective. Children rated cooperative deviancy positively and believed their group would do the same. Adolescents and adults believed that their group would negatively evaluate cooperative deviancy when their group supported a competitive allocation strategy...
May 20, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780939/sixth-cranial-nerve-palsy-and-ipsilateral-trigeminal-neuralgia-caused-by-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#3
Thong Pham, Jeffrey Wesolowski, Jonathan D Trobe
Purpose: To report an unusual case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia causing both trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy. Observations: A patient had undergone surgical decompression of trigeminal neuralgia caused by dolichoectatic vertebral and basilar arteries years before presenting with ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed deviant vertebrobasilar arteries that presumably now compressed the sixth cranial nerve. The unaffected left sixth cranial nerve was visible on MRI, but the affected right sixth cranial nerve was not...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780315/automatic-processing-of-changes-in-facial-emotions-in-dysphoria-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#4
Qianru Xu, Elisa M Ruohonen, Chaoxiong Ye, Xueqiao Li, Kairi Kreegipuu, Gabor Stefanics, Wenbo Luo, Piia Astikainen
It is not known to what extent the automatic encoding and change detection of peripherally presented facial emotion is altered in dysphoria. The negative bias in automatic face processing in particular has rarely been studied. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record automatic brain responses to happy and sad faces in dysphoric (Beck's Depression Inventory ≥ 13) and control participants. Stimuli were presented in a passive oddball condition, which allowed potential negative bias in dysphoria at different stages of face processing (M100, M170, and M300) and alterations of change detection (visual mismatch negativity, vMMN) to be investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779451/mixed-emotions-an-incentive-motivational-model-of-sexual-deviance
#5
Wineke J Smid, Edwin C Wever
Sexual offending behavior is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Most existing etiological models describe sexual offending behavior as a variant of offending behavior and mostly include factors referring to disinhibition and sexual deviance. In this article, we argue that there is additional value in describing sexual offending behavior as sexual behavior in terms of an incentive model of sexual motivation. The model describes sexual arousal as an emotion, triggered by a competent stimulus signaling potential reward, and comparable to other emotions coupled with strong bodily reactions...
May 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778062/unattended-processing-of-hierarchical-pitch-variations-in-spoken-sentences
#6
Xiaoqing Li, Yiya Chen
An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i.e. TONE condition) and the other two sentence-level information-status contrasts (i.e. ACCENTUATION condition). Both included stimuli with early vs...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774451/different-kinds-of-lonely-dimensions-of-isolation-and-substance-use-in-adolescence
#7
Molly Copeland, Jacob C Fisher, James Moody, Mark E Feinberg
Social isolation is broadly associated with poor mental health and risky behaviors in adolescence, a time when peers are critical for healthy development. However, expectations for isolates' substance use remain unclear. Isolation in adolescence may signal deviant attitudes or spur self-medication, resulting in higher substance use. Conversely, isolates may lack access to substances, leading to lower use. Although treated as a homogeneous social condition for teens in much research, isolation represents a multifaceted experience with structurally distinct network components that present different risks for substance use...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768509/aging-related-trajectories-of-lung-function-in-the-general-population-the-doetinchem-cohort-study
#8
Sandra H van Oostrom, Peter M Engelfriet, W M Monique Verschuren, Maarten Schipper, Inge M Wouters, Marike Boezen, Henriëtte A Smit, Huib A M Kerstjens, H Susan J Picavet
The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS) of men and women, selected randomly from the general population and aged 20-59 years at inclusion in 1987-1991, and followed until the present. Participants in the DCS are assessed every five years. Spirometry has been performed as part of this assessment from 1994 onwards...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766590/automatic-change-detection-and-spatial-attention-a-visual-mismatch-negativity-study
#9
Domonkos File, István Sulykos, István Czigler
Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is the electrophysiological correlate of automatic detection of unattended changes in the visual environment. However, vMMNs' relatedness to spatial attention has not been explicitly tested. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of spatial attention on the vMMN event-related potential component. To this end, participants were instructed to fixate and attend to task-related stimuli. In an oddball sequence, offset stimuli were applied, i.e., from time-to time, the two sides of permanently presented objects disappeared...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766450/metrical-congruency-and-kinematic-familiarity-facilitate-temporal-binding-between-musical-and-dance-rhythms
#10
Yi-Huang Su
Although music and dance are often experienced simultaneously, it is unclear what modulates their perceptual integration. This study investigated how two factors related to music-dance correspondences influenced audiovisual binding of their rhythms: the metrical match between the music and dance, and the kinematic familiarity of the dance movement. Participants watched a point-light figure dancing synchronously to a triple-meter rhythm that they heard in parallel, whereby the dance communicated a triple (congruent) or a duple (incongruent) visual meter...
May 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762694/comparative-study-of-postmortem-concentrations-of-antidepressants-in-several-different-matrices
#11
Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Sidsel Rogde, Stian Nilsen, Kari-Beate Boye Eldor, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Lena Kristoffersen, Vigdis Vindenes
Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753562/cortical-processing-of-location-changes-in-a-cocktail-party-situation-spatial-oddball-effects-on-electrophysiological-correlates-of-auditory-selective-attention
#12
Jörg Lewald, Michael-Christian Schlüter, Stephan Getzmann
Neural mechanisms of selectively attending to a sound source of interest in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation, composed of multiple competing sources, were investigated using event-related potentials in combination with a spatial oddball design. Subjects either detected rare spatial deviants in a series of standard sounds or passively listened. Targets either appeared in isolation or in the presence of two distractor sound sources at different locations ("cocktail-party" condition)...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751984/age-related-trajectories-of-social-cognition-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-exploratory-study
#13
Charlie A Davidson, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, Kristen S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Carrie E Bearden, Daniel H Mathalon, Scott W Woods, Jason K Johannesen
BACKGROUND: Clinical high risk (CHR) status is characterized by impairments in social cognition, but questions remain concerning their stability over development. In cross-sectional analysis of a large naturalistic sample, the current study examined whether those at CHR status show deviant trajectories for age-related change in social cognitive ability, and whether these trajectories are influenced by treatment history. METHOD: Emotion perception (EP) and theory of mind (ToM) were assessed in 675 CHR and 263 healthy comparison (HC) participants aged 12-35...
May 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749286/identifying-positive-deviants-in-healthcare-quality-and-safety-a-mixed-methods-study
#14
Jane K O'Hara, Katja Grasic, Nils Gutacker, Andrew Street, Robbie Foy, Carl Thompson, John Wright, Rebecca Lawton
Objective Solutions to quality and safety problems exist within healthcare organisations, but to maximise the learning from these positive deviants, we first need to identify them. This study explores using routinely collected, publicly available data in England to identify positively deviant services in one region of the country. Design A mixed methods study undertaken July 2014 to February 2015, employing expert discussion, consensus and statistical modelling to identify indicators of quality and safety, establish a set of criteria to inform decisions about which indicators were robust and useful measures, and whether these could be used to identify positive deviants...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742461/visual-mismatch-negativity-indicates-automatic-task-independent-detection-of-artistic-image-composition-in-abstract-artworks
#15
Claudia Menzel, Gyula Kovács, Catarina Amado, Gregor U Hayn-Leichsenring, Christoph Redies
In complex abstract art, image composition (i.e., the artist's deliberate arrangement of pictorial elements) is an important aesthetic feature. We investigated whether the human brain detects image composition in abstract artworks automatically (i.e., independently of the experimental task). To this aim, we studied whether a group of 20 original artworks elicited a visual mismatch negativity when contrasted with a group of 20 images that were composed of the same pictorial elements as the originals, but in shuffled arrangements, which destroy artistic composition...
May 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742032/modulation-of-motor-cortical-excitability-with-auditory-stimulation
#16
Olli Löfberg, Petro Julkunen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ari Pääkkönen, Jari Karhu
Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741802/deviant-peer-behavior-and-adolescent-delinquency-protective-effects-of-inhibitory-control-planning-or-decision-making
#17
J Benjamin Hinnant, Alissa B Forman-Alberti
We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736682/brain-mechanisms-involved-in-angry-prosody-change-detection-in-school-age-children-and-adults-revealed-by-electrophysiology
#18
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730831/the-relationship-between-the-maoa-uvntr-polymorphism-delinquent-peer-affiliation-and-antisocial-behavior-with-a-consideration-of-sex-differences
#19
Eric M Cooke, Todd Armstrong, Danielle Boisvert, Jessica Wells, Richard H Lewis, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
With the advent of new and more readily usable gene sequencing techniques, researchers have been able to examine the interactions between genes and the environment (G X E) within a multitude of scientific perspectives. One area that G X E interactions have been implicated in is the development of antisocial behavior (ASB). Antisocial behavior consists of a wide range of maladaptive behaviors and has been at the forefront of public health and mental health concerns for decades. One genetic polymorphism that has been associated with ASB is MAOA-uVNTR...
May 5, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725293/female-advantage-in-automatic-change-detection-of-facial-expressions-during-a-happy-neutral-context-an-erp-study
#20
Qi Li, Shiyu Zhou, Ya Zheng, Xun Liu
Sex differences in conscious emotional processing represent a well-known phenomenon. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined sex differences in the automatic change detection of facial expressions, as indexed by the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). As paid volunteers, 19 females and 19 males were presented peripherally with a passive emotional oddball sequence in a happy-neutral context and a fearful-neutral context while they performed a visual detection task in the center of the visual field...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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