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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107727/neural-correlates-of-subliminally-presented-visual-sexual-stimuli
#1
Martina Wernicke, Corinna Hofter, Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Peter Dechent, Jürgen L Müller
In the context of forensic psychiatry, it is crucial that diagnoses of deviant sexual interests are resistant to manipulation. In a first attempt to promote the development of such tools, the current fMRI study focusses on the examination of hemodynamic responses to preferred, in contrast to non-preferred, sexual stimuli with and without explicit sexual features in 24 healthy heterosexual subjects. The subliminal stimulus presentation of sexual stimuli could be a new approach to reduce vulnerability to manipulation...
January 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095932/the-role-of-marriage-in-criminal-recidivism-a-longitudinal-and-co-relative-analysis
#2
K S Kendler, S L Lönn, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
AIMS: Marriage is associated with a reduced rate of criminal recidivism, but the underlying mechanisms have only partly been elucidated. We seek to clarify the nature of the association between marriage and recidivism and how that relationship may be moderated as a function of gender, deviance of spouse, a history of violence and familial risk. METHOD: We utilise a longitudinal cohort design consisting of Swedish men (n = 239 328) and women (n = 72 280), born between 1958 and 1986, who were convicted of at least one crime before age 20 and were not married prior to age 20...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080086/attentional-capture-by-taboo-words-a-functional-view-of-auditory-distraction
#3
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the present article, we tested whether taboo words are more difficult to ignore than neutral words. Taboo words or neutral words were presented as (a) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated, (b) changing state sequences in which different distractor words were presented, and (c) auditory deviant sequences in which a single distractor word deviated from a sequence of repeated words...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070756/deviant-peer-affiliation-as-an-explanatory-mechanism-in-the-association-between-corporal-punishment-and-physical-aggression-a-longitudinal-study-among-chinese-adolescents
#4
Jianjun Zhu, Chengfu Yu, Zhenzhou Bao, Yanping Jiang, Wei Zhang, Yuanyuan Chen, Boyu Qiu, Jianjun Zhang
Previous research has focused primarily on corporal punishment as a cause and adolescents' physical aggression as an outcome. However, there is a large gap in knowledge of the potentially bidirectional association and explanatory mechanism underlying the association between corporal punishment and physical aggression. The current study, using a longitudinal design across three time points (the fall semester of 7th grade, the fall of 8th grade, and the fall of 9th grade), aimed to a) examine the reciprocal processes between corporal punishment and physical aggression, and b) explore whether deviant peer affiliation may explain such reciprocal connections...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064146/chronic-exposure-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-causes-deviant-phenotype-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Avnika Singh Anand, Dipti N Prasad, Shashi Bala Singh, Ekta Kohli
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are commonly used nanomaterials (NMs) with versatile applications from high-end technologies to household products. This pervasive utilisation has brought human in the close interface with nanoparticles (NPs), hence questioning their safety prior to usage is a must. In this study, we have assessed the effects of chronic exposure to ZnO NPs (<50nm) on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Potential toxic effects were studied by evaluating longevity, climbing ability, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057023/xiap-bir-domain-suppresses-mir-200a-expression-and-subsequently-promotes-egfr-protein-translation-and-anchorage-independent-growth-of-bladder-cancer-cell
#6
Chao Huang, Xingruo Zeng, Guosong Jiang, Xin Liao, Claire Liu, Jingxia Li, Honglei Jin, Junlan Zhu, Hong Sun, Xue-Ru Wu, Chuanshu Huang
BACKGROUND: The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a well-known potent apoptosis suppressor and also participates in cancer cell biological behaviors, therefore attracting great attentions as a potential antineoplastic therapeutic target for past years. Anti-IAP therapy is reported to be closely related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level. However, whether and how XIAP modulates EGFR expression remains largely unknown. METHODS: Human XIAP was knockdown with short-hairpin RNA in two different bladder cancer cell lines, T24T and UMUC3...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047058/su-g-201-15-nomogram-as-an-efficient-dosimetric-verification-tool-in-hdr-prostate-brachytherapy
#7
J Liang, D Todor
PURPOSE: Nomogram as a simple QA tool for HDR prostate brachytherapy treatment planning has been developed and validated clinically. Reproducibility including patient-to-patient and physician-to-physician variability was assessed. METHODS: The study was performed on HDR prostate implants from physician A (n=34) and B (n=15) using different implant techniques and planning methodologies. A nomogram was implemented as an independent QA of computer-based treatment planning before plan execution...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043833/changes-in-room-acoustics-elicit-a-mismatch-negativity-in-the-absence-of-overall-interaural-intensity-differences
#8
Johannes Daniel Frey, Mike Wendt, Andreas Löw, Stephan Möller, Udo Zölzer, Thomas Jacobsen
Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a movie was applied in this study. Acoustic stimuli were presented via headphones. Standards and deviants were created by modelling rooms of different sizes, keeping the values of the basic acoustic dimensions (e...
December 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042227/harsh-parenting-deviant-peers-adolescent-risky-behavior-understanding-the-meditational-effect-of-attitudes-and-intentions
#9
Tricia K Neppl, Jui Dhalewadikar, Brenda J Lohman
Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032273/heterogeneity-in-response-during-multisystemic-therapy-exploring-subgroups-and-predictors
#10
Esther C A Mertens, Maja Deković, Jessica J Asscher, Willeke A Manders
Multiple studies have shown that Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is, at group level, an effective treatment for adolescents showing serious externalizing problem behavior. The current study expands previous research on MST by, first, examining whether subgroups of participants who respond differently to treatment could be identified. Second, we investigated if the different trajectories of change during MST could be predicted by individual (hostile attributions) and contextual (parental sense of parenting competence and deviant and prosocial peer involvement) pre-treatment factors...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018281/distraction-by-novel-and-pitch-deviant-sounds-in-children
#11
Nicole Wetzel, Erich Schröger, Andreas Widmann
The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7-10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research-novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds-were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998806/expert-patient-illness-narratives-as-a-teaching-methodology-a-mixed-method-study-of-student-nurses-satisfaction
#12
Maria Feijoo-Cid, David Moriña, Rebeca Gómez-Ibáñez, Juan M Leyva-Moral
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing students' satisfaction with Expert Patient Illness Narratives as a teaching and learning methodology based on patient involvement. METHODS AND DESIGN: Mixed methods were used in this study: online survey with quantitative and qualitative items designed by researchers. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four nursing students of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, attending a Medical Anthropology elective course...
December 7, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994907/the-impact-of-social-structures-on-deviant-behaviors-the-study-of-402-high-risk-street-drug-users-in-iran
#13
Maryam Mehrabi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Mahmoud Khodadost, Maneli Sadeghi, Ali Nikfarjam, Ahmad Hajebi
This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals' deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994559/impaired-attentional-control-in-pedophiles-in-a-sexual-distractor-task
#14
Kirsten Jordan, Peter Fromberger, Jakob von Herder, Henrike Steinkrauss, Rebekka Nemetschek, Joachim Witzel, Jürgen L Müller
Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal, or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task, while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993334/a-comparative-evaluation-of-a-parent-training-program-republished-article
#15
Gerald R Patterson, Patricia Chamberlain, John B Reid
This report is one of a series of outcome evaluation studies for parent-training procedures tailored specifically to families of preadolescent antisocial children. Referred families were screened to identify 19 problem children who were observed in their homes to be high-rate social aggressors. Cases were randomly assigned to the parent-training procedures or to a waiting-list comparison group. All but one of the latter accepted a referral for treatment elsewhere in the community. After an average of 17hours of therapy time, the cases in the experimental group were terminated...
November 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992896/child-molesters-cognitive-distortions-conceptualizations-of-the-term
#16
REVIEW
Filip Szumski, Monika Zielona-Jenek
The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies of sexual offending, but with reference to the social learning theory rather than to the theory of cognitive psychotherapy. Subsequent authors continued the use of this term in the determinants of child molestation and defined them as products emerging from specific implicit theory of the offender, the judgements resulting from his beliefs, values and actions, dysfunctional cognitive schemas, deviant cognitive practices undertaken in the interaction of internal and external components of perpetrator's cognitive system and his social practices...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990508/quantification-of-bone-quality-using-different-cone-beam-computed-tomography-devices-accuracy-assessment-for-edentulous-human-mandibles
#17
Jeroen Van Dessel, Laura Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Yan Huang, Pieter Slagmolen, Constantinus Politis, Ivo Lambrichts, Reinhilde Jacobs
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of the latest cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) machines in comparison to multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT) for objectively assessing trabecular and cortical bone quality prior to implant placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight edentulous human mandibular bone samples were scanned with seven CBCT scanners (3D Accuitomo 170, i-CAT Next Generation, ProMax 3D Max, Scanora 3D, Cranex 3D, Newtom GiANO and Carestream 9300) and one MSCT system (Somatom Definition Flash) using the clinical exposure protocol with the highest resolution...
2016: European Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984674/abortion-stigma-among-low-income-women-obtaining-abortions-in-western-pennsylvania-a-qualitative-assessment
#18
Amanda Gelman, Elian A Rosenfeld, Cara Nikolajski, Lori R Freedman, Julia R Steinberg, Sonya Borrero
CONTEXT: Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. METHODS: A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania...
December 16, 2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984067/co-speech-hand-movements-during-narrations-what-is-the-impact-of-right-vs-left-hemisphere-brain-damage
#19
Katharina Hogrefe, Robert Rein, Harald Skomroch, Hedda Lausberg
Persons with brain damage show deviant patterns of co-speech hand movement behaviour in comparison to healthy speakers. It has been claimed by several authors that gesture and speech rely on a single production mechanism that depends on the same neurological substrate while others claim that both modalities are closely related but separate production channels. Thus, findings so far are contradictory and there is a lack of studies that systematically analyse the full range of hand movements that accompany speech in the condition of brain damage...
October 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977283/examining-the-effects-of-emotional-and-cognitive-desensitization-to-community-violence-exposure-in-male-adolescents-of-color
#20
Noni K Gaylord-Harden, Suzanna So, Grace J Bai, Patrick H Tolan
The current study examined pathways in a model of desensitization, the Pathologic Adaptation Model, in adolescent males of color. Specifically, the current study examined depressive symptoms and deviant beliefs as mediators of the association between community violence exposure and subsequent violent behavior. The current study included 250 African-American (67%) and Latino (33%) male adolescents (T1 mean age = 15.32) from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Consistent with the Pathologic Adaptation Model, results demonstrated that depressive symptoms mediated the association between the quadratic violence exposure term in middle adolescence and violent behaviors in late adolescence, but the direction of the mediation effect was dependent upon the levels of violence exposure in middle adolescence...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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