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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816240/rodent-mismatch-negativity-mmn-theta-neuro-oscillatory-response-as-a-translational-neurophysiological-biomarker-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-based-new-treatment-development-in-schizophrenia
#1
Migyung Lee, Andrea Balla, Henry Sershen, Pejman Sehatpour, Peter Lakatos, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in the generation of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the most widely replicated neurophysiological abnormalities in schizophrenia and linked to underlying dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission. Here, we evaluate physiological properties of rodent MMN, along with sensitivity to NMDAR agonist and antagonist treatment, relative to known patterns of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Epidural neurophysiological responses to frequency- and duration-deviants, along with responses to standard stimuli, were obtained at baseline and following 2 and 4 weeks treatment from rats treated with saline, phencyclidine (PCP, 15 mg/kg/d by osmotic minipump), or PCP+glycine (16% by weight diet) interventions...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#2
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805240/the-role-of-social-familial-and-individual-level-factors-on-multiple-alcohol-use-outcomes-during-the-first-year-of-university
#3
Megan E Cooke, Zoe E Neale, Peter B Barr, John Myers, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Alexis C Edwards
BACKGROUND: The first year of university attendance represents a critical time frame for the development of alcohol use and misuse given changes in autonomy and increased access to alcohol. Prior studies have demonstrated that the establishment of drinking patterns during this period is impacted by an array of demographic, environmental, and familial factors. It is critical to consider such factors jointly, and to understand potentially differential effects on stages of alcohol use/misuse, in order to identify robust predictors that may be targeted in prevention and intervention programming...
August 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805126/using-culture-and-psychology-to-counter-the-taliban-s-violent-narratives
#4
Neil Krishan Aggarwal
Scholars, politicians, and policy-makers have increasingly pointed to the role of narratives in recruiting militants and justifying violence, highlighting the need for counter-narratives that promote peace. However, few have offered concrete guidelines on how to construct counter-narratives. This exploratory study uses prototype theory from social psychology to analyse Taliban narratives written in Arabic on the historical figure Maḥmūd of Ghaznī (971-1030), who is portrayed as a figure worthy of emulation...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792672/constitutive-loss-and-acute-pharmacological-manipulation-of-erbb4-signaling-do-not-affect-attention-and-inhibitory-control-in-mice
#5
Elena Marchisella, Ruud Wijnands, Bastijn Koopmans, Sabine Spijker, Maarten Loos
The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 and its ligand trophic factors of the neuregulin (NRG) family have been associated with schizophrenia and other mental disorders in human genetic studies. In vivo studies in mice have shown how abnormal Nrg-ErbB4 signaling leads to deviant behaviors relevant to distinct aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, sensory gating deficits, working and spatial memory deficits and impaired social behavior. However, so far little is known on the role of ErbB4 in attention and inhibitory control, two aspects of executive functions that are impaired in schizophrenia...
August 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779851/a-tale-of-two-sites-differential-impairment-of-frequency-and-duration-mismatch-negativity-across-a-primarily-inpatient-versus-a-primarily-outpatient-site-in-schizophrenia
#6
Migyung Lee, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C Dias, Gail S Silipo, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Antigona M Martinez, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the best replicated neurophysiological deficits in schizophrenia, with reduced amplitude reflecting impaired information processing at the level of supratemporal auditory cortex. Differential patterns of MMN dysfunction according to deviant types have been reported across studies, with some research groups showing impairment in duration MMN but not frequency MMN, and other research groups reporting both findings. We evaluate the hypothesis that recruitment setting, reflecting current functional status, might be an important determinant of the pattern of MMN dysfunction...
August 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777687/gender-differences-in-deviance-and-health-risk-behaviors-among-young-adults-undergraduate-students
#7
Liat Korn, Hagit Bonny-Noach
BACKGROUND: Deviant and health risk behaviors among young-adults are associated with many adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate a broad variety of behaviors by gender differences and their contribution to predicting cannabis use in undergraduate students. METHOD: This research is based on a structured, self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to 1,432 young adult undergraduate students at an Israeli University, 533 males and 899 females (mean age 27...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776677/searching-for-the-variables-that-control-human-rule-governed-insensitivity
#8
Adam E Fox, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Verbal rules or instructions often exert obvious and meaningful control over human behavior. Sometimes instructions benefit the individual by enabling faster acquisition of a skill or by obviating an aversive consequence. However, research has also suggested a clear disadvantage: "insensitivity" to changing underlying contingencies. The two experiments described here investigated the variables that control initial rule-following behavior and rule-following insensitivity. When the initial rule was inaccurate, behavior was consistent with the rule for approximately half of participants and all participants' behavior was mostly insensitive to changing contingencies...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770364/inter-study-and-inter-individual-consistency-and-variability-of-eeg-erp-microstate-sequences-in-referential-word-production
#9
Marina Laganaro
Periods of stable global electric field at scalp unfolding during a cognitive task can be linked to brain processes and are therefore well suited to investigate simultaneously qualitative and quantitative differences across conditions or populations of interest. The electrophysiological event-related (ERP) spatio-temporal dynamic has been repetitively investigated in referential word production, but the different designs, settings and analyses do not allow to conclude on the reliability of the microstate sequences across studies and individuals...
August 2, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769773/finding-home-landmark-ambiguity-in-human-navigation
#10
Simon Jetzschke, Marc O Ernst, Julia Froehlich, Norbert Boeddeker
Memories of places often include landmark cues, i.e., information provided by the spatial arrangement of distinct objects with respect to the target location. To study how humans combine landmark information for navigation, we conducted two experiments: To this end, participants were either provided with auditory landmarks while walking in a large sports hall or with visual landmarks while walking on a virtual-reality treadmill setup. We found that participants cannot reliably locate their home position due to ambiguities in the spatial arrangement when only one or two uniform landmarks provide cues with respect to the target...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766170/aegle-marmelos-differentially-affects-hepatic-markers-of-glycolysis-insulin-signalling-pathway-hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-hepg2-cells-grown-in-fructose-versus-glucose-rich-environment
#11
H Aggarwal, J Nair, P Sharma, R Sehgal, U Naeem, P Rajora, R Mathur
Fructose consumption is responsible for the onset of insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome. It possesses no functional utility in body and its detrimental effects on hepatic metabolic milieu are beyond those produced by glucose. The need of the hour is to identify fructose-induced IR as an unique pathological state to be managed differentially. The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic markers of insulin resistance using HepG2 cells cultured in either fructose or glucose-rich environment is investigated...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760539/dissociable-auditory-mismatch-response-and-connectivity-patterns-in-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#12
Sven Braeutigam, Danai Dima, Sophia Frangou, Anthony James
BACKGROUND: There is overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder regarding genetic risk as well as neuropsychological and structural brain deficits. Finding common and distinct event-response potential (ERP) responses and connectivity patterns may offer potential biomarkers to distinguish the disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine the neuronal auditory response elicited by a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). PARTICIPANTS: 15 Adolescents with schizophrenia (ASZ), 16 adolescents with bipolar disorder with psychosis (ABP), and 14 typically developing individuals (TD) METHODS: The data were analysed using time-series techniques and dynamic causal modelling (DCM)...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759269/disrupted-circadian-rhythms-of-body-temperature-heart-rate-and-fasting-blood-glucose-in-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
D G Gubin, A A Nelaeva, A E Uzhakova, Y V Hasanova, G Cornelissen, D Weinert
We report a progressive disruption of 24-h rhythms in fasting blood glucose (FBG), body temperature (BT) and heart rate (HR) associated with metabolic dysfunction and the development of prediabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in overweight middle-aged (40-69 years old) humans. Increasing BT and HR mean values and declining 24-h BT and HR amplitudes accompany adverse changes in metabolic state. Increased nocturnal BT and a phase delay of the 24-h BT rhythm, deviant 24-h HR profile and a phase advance of the 24-h HR and FBG rhythms are early signs of the PD metabolic state...
July 31, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755487/a-translational-neuroscience-approach-to-body-image-disturbance-and-its-remediation-in-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Jamie Feusner, Rangaprakash Deshpande, Michael Strober
Deviant perception of the body is a fundamental component of anorexia nervosa. Here we offer a potential mechanistic explanation that involves perturbations within the visual system and the brain circuits that modulate perceptual organization. Based on the model proposed, we also suggest a mechanistic strategy for altering neuronal activity in the visual system to normalize perception of the body, and set out a strategy for empirically testing its clinical application.
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748723/applying-positive-deviance-for-improving-compliance-to-adolescent-anemia-control-program-in-tribal-communities-of-india
#15
Vani Sethi, Monique Sternin, Deepika Sharma, Arti Bhanot, Saba Mebrahtu
BACKGROUND: Positive deviance (PD) is an asset-based social and behavior change communication strategy, utilizing successful outliers within a specific context. It has been applied to tackling major public health problems but not adolescent anemia. OBJECTIVE: The study, first of its kind, used PD to improve compliance to adolescent anemia control program in Jharkhand, India, where anemia prevalence in adolescent girls is 70%, and program compliance is low. METHODS: With leadership of state government, the study was designed and implemented by a multidisciplinary 42 member PD team, in Khunti district, in 2014...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742452/-the-third-sex-is-here-to-stay-rhetorical-reconstructions-of-lesbian-sexuality-in-vice-versa
#16
Kate Litterer
Vice Versa, published in Los Angeles from 1947-1948 and regarded as the first lesbian periodical in the United States, was authored and edited by Lisa Ben (anagram for "lesbian"). While Vice Versa is lauded for inspiring later lesbian publications, little scholarship has analyzed the magazine's contents. Queer rhetorical analysis allows me to demonstrate the integral role Vice Versa played in counteracting cultural and medical classifications of lesbians during the 1940s. Through an analysis of Vice Versa's book and movie reviews, an editorial, and creative writing, this article analyzes the way Ben uses queer rhetoric to turn narratives of medical and psychological deviancy and inferiority into a means for empowerment and community building...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732235/medication-takeovers-covert-druggings-and-behavioral-control-in-alzheimer-s
#17
Brandon Berry, Ester Carolina Apesoa-Varano
Older adults consume the most prescription medication in the U.S. For those who develop Alzheimer's disease, risk of medication misuse increases with the progression of the disease. Family members commonly intervene to lessen risks by taking over the management and administering of a medication regimen. Despite the potential for grave harm around the misuse of powerful drugs, few studies provide insight into the household social context of medication use for this disease. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews conducted in four waves over 2...
July 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#18
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721525/-epidemic-or-peripheral-phenomenon-a%C3%A2-medical-history-of-the-cocaine-wave-in-the-weimar-republic
#19
Hannes Walter
An empirical investigation refutes the popular conception that excessive drug usage was a widespread social phenomenon in the Weimar Republic. Although physicians warned the public and politicians of a "cocaine wave" that threatened the public health, there is no evidence that indicates a significant increase of cocaine use during the twenties. The decisive cause for this moral panic was caused instead by the disease pattern of "Cocainism". The addiction carried the imprint of an infectious disease and would destroy the body, the will, and the civic life of its victims...
July 18, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715718/when-speaker-identity-is-unavoidable-neural-processing-of-speaker-identity-cues-in-natural-speech
#20
Alba Tuninetti, Kateřina Chládková, Varghese Peter, Niels O Schiller, Paola Escudero
Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language...
July 14, 2017: Brain and Language
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