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Vladimir D Mendelevich
This article examines the psychiatric and political issues surrounding the case of the controversial Russian performance artist Pyotr Pavlensky, who received a number of court-ordered psychiatric evaluations as part of the legal actions initiated subsequent to his political protest actions. The author presents the results of his own clinical investigation into Pavlensky's case, arguing that previous diagnoses made by psychiatrists were unwarranted and unreasonable. This case draws the attention of experts to a problem: the need for more accurate criteria for the differentiation of behavioral disorders from behavior understood locally as socially-deviant...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Jeroen J Stekelenburg, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect. Here, we examined whether written text, like visual speech, can induce an illusory change in the perception of speech sounds on both the behavioral and neural level. In a sound categorization task, we found that both text and visual speech changed the identity of speech sounds from an /aba/-/ada/ continuum, but the size of this audiovisual effect was considerably smaller for text than visual speech...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Pia Rämä, Alina Leminen, Satu Koskenoja-Vainikka, Miika Leminen, Kimmo Alho, Teija Kujala
Dual language experience has typically been shown to improve various executive control functions. We investigated with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded from early (natively) bilingual speakers and control participants whether it also affects auditory selective attention. We delivered to our participants two tone streams, one to the left and one to the right ear. Both streams consisted of standard tones and two types of infrequent deviant tones which had either an enhanced duration or intensity...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Petula Sik Ying Ho, Stevi Jackson, Siyang Cao, Chi Kwok
This article examines the changing contours of Chinese sexuality studies by locating recent research in historical context. Our aim is to use the literature we review to construct a picture of the sexual landscape in China and the sociocultural and political conditions that have shaped it, enabling readers unfamiliar with China to understand its sexual culture and practices. In particular, we focus on the consequences of recent changes under the Xi regime for individuals' sexual lives and for research into sexuality...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Peter Fromberger, Kirsten Jordan, Jürgen L Müller
Despite the successful application of virtual reality (VR) in a wide variety of mental disorders and the obvious potentials that VR provides, the use of VR in the context of criminology and forensic psychology is sparse. For forensic mental health professionals, VR provides some advantages that outrun general advantages of VR, e.g., ecological validity and controllability of social situations. Most important seems to be the unique possibility to expose offenders and to train coping skills in virtual situations, which are able to elicit disorder-relevant behavior-without endangering others...
March 9, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Merle Boerrigter, Anneke Vermeulen, Henri Marres, Margreet Langereis
The aim of this study was to compare the personality traits of adolescents with cochlear implants (CIs) to a reference group (normal-hearing peers). In the past, the personality development of hearing impaired adolescents was severely compromised. Improved speech perception with CI significantly increased their perspectives. In addition, differences between the reference group and CI users were investigated on personality traits according to level of speech perception skills (high/low) and level of language comprehension (adequate/poor)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mayur Doke, Vincent Avecilla, Quentin Felty
The rising global incidence of obesity cannot be fully explained within the context of traditional risk factors such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, aging, or genetics. Adipose tissue is an endocrine as well as a metabolic organ that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental estrogenic chemicals. Since some of the endocrine disruptors are lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, they tend to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of exposed populations. Elevated exposure to these chemicals may predispose susceptible individuals to weight gain by increasing the number and size of fat cells...
2018: BioMed Research International
Patrik Roser, Eva-Maria Pichler, Benedikt Habermeyer, Wolfram Kawohl, Georg Juckel
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) generation is a characteristic finding in SCZ patients and cannabis users. This study therefore examined the effects of CUD on MMN generation in SCZ patients. METHODS: Twenty SCZ - CUD patients, 21 SCZ+CUD patients, and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. MMN to frequency and duration deviants was elicited within an auditory oddball paradigm and recorded by 32 channel EEG...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Ewa B Stefanska, Tamsin Higgs, Adam J Carter, Anthony R Beech
Degree of injury, as measured by the Homicide Injury Scale (HIS), was examined to advance understanding of the dynamics of sexual killing. A total of 350 nonserial, male sexual killers were included, and the different ways that the sexual element of their offenses and the act of killing were connected was accounted for by determining that cases were either directly sexual (the sexual element and killing were closely bound), or indirectly sexual (killing was not a source of sexual stimulation). The two groups, direct and indirect sexual killers, were each subjected to multiple linear regression analyses to examine the group-specific relationship between level of injury and predictor variables previously found to be associated with increased severity of attack...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sébastien Brouillette-Alarie, Jean Proulx
Sexual offender risk assessment practice is considered by many to be atheoretical. The identification of the most predictive risk factors and tools has typically overshadowed questions about etiology. To gain insight into the origins of criminal behavior among sexual offenders, we developed and validated an etiological model of risk based on the theoretical framework of Beech and Ward. Our model focused on persistence rather than onset, and encompassed both the sexual and nonsexual criminal activity of these offenders...
March 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Pegah Sarkheil, Niclas Kilian-Hütten, Kristina Mickartz, Thomas Vornholt, Klaus Mathiak
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that depressive disorders are associated with abnormalities in the processing of affective information. However, type of stimuli, perceptual complexity and cognitive demand are important factors in evaluating these findings. In particular, processing mechanisms of perceptual boundaries in ecologically valid face stimuli are largely unknown in depression. METHODS: In the current study, intensity-ordered frame sequences provided a dynamic visualisation of happy or sad facial expressions fading from or to neutral expressions...
March 4, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Derek J Fisher, Debra J Campbell, Shelagh C Abriel, Emma M L Ells, Erica D Rudolph, Philip G Tibbo
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory "rule," regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Redirection of attention toward a rare, distracting stimulus event, however, can be measured by the subsequent P3a component of the P300. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, as well as reductions in P3a amplitude. While, the substantial literature on the MMN in first-episode and early phase schizophrenia in this population reports reduced amplitudes, there also exist several contradictory studies...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Bob O Vogel, Joanna Stasch, Henrik Walter, Andres H Neuhaus
The mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit in schizophrenia is a consistently replicated finding and is considered a potential biomarker. From the cognitive neuroscience perspective, MMN represents a cortical correlate of the prediction error, a fundamental computational operator that may be at the core of various cognitive and clinical deficits observed in schizophrenia. The impact of emotion on cognitive processes in schizophrenia is insufficiently understood, and its impact on basic operators of cortical computation is largely unknown...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Yao Zhang, Jie Li, Ziwei Wang, Lun Zhao, Wei Wang, Danmin Miao
Perceptual expertise can be defined as enhanced abilities of discriminating, learning, and recognizing object of special categories. It is unclear whether the perceptual expertise effects occur at the preattentive stage. In the present study, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90°/270° vs. 0°) for faces, houses, and arrows, respectively, was investigated. Compared with standard stimuli (0° orientation), the orientation changes elicited posterior vMMNs for all deviant stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Motohiro Kimura
Visual mismatch negativity (VMMN) is an event-related brain potential component that is automatically elicited by infrequent (deviant) stimuli that are inserted among frequent (standard) stimuli (i.e., an oddball sequence). Although the elicitation of VMMN is basically determined in a stimulus-driven manner, it can be modulated by top-down control. In a previous study using a "patterned" oddball sequence, where deviant (D) stimuli were regularly inserted among standard (S) stimuli (i.e., repetitions of an SSSSD pattern), VMMN was largely reduced when participants noticed the SSSSD pattern and actively predicted both the identity and timing of the deviant stimuli compared to when they did not notice the SSSSD pattern and did not form such active prediction...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Kenia S Correa-Jaraba, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI) or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Barbara Karolina Zajac, Richard Zehner, Stefanie Scheiper, Melanie Weissenberger
Throughout the last decade more companies have been offering multiplex PCR kits for forensic STR typing. As a consequence, it has been demonstrated, that an observed genotype may unexpectedly vary at a single locus when different STR kits have been used. Analysing STR profiles which have to be entered in a national database, unknown or undetected primer binding site mutations, insertions or deletions within the flanking region of STR loci may hinder matches and therefore have far-reaching consequences. The current study is a further example indicating that sequence variations in flanking regions are a common problem within STR typing which should not be underestimated...
February 20, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Amie R Newins, Laura C Wilson, Susan W White
Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted...
February 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Cheukkai B Hui, Hamidreza Nourzadeh, William T Watkins, Daniel M Trifiletti, Clayton E Alonso, Sunil W Dutta, Jeffrey V Siebers
PURPOSE: To develop a quality assurance (QA) tool that identifies inaccurate organ at risk (OAR) delineations. METHODS: The QA tool computed volumetric features from prior OAR delineation data from 73 thoracic patients to construct a reference database. All volumetric features of the OAR delineation are computed in 3-dimensional space. Volumetric features of a new OAR are compared with respect to those in the reference database to discern delineation outliers. A multi-criteria outlier detection system warns users of specific delineation outliers based on combinations of deviant features...
February 26, 2018: Medical Physics
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