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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635346/effect-of-drug-related-cues-on-response-inhibition-through-abstinence-a-pilot-study-in-male-heroin-abstainers
#1
Bobo Su, Ling Yang, Grace Y Wang, Sha Wang, Shaomei Li, Hua Cao, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic heroin use can cause a deficit of inhibitory function, leading to a loss of control over drug use. Exposure to drug-related cues is considered as one of the contributing factors. However, it is unclear whether there are dynamic changes on the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition following prolonged abstinence. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition in heroin abstainers at different abstinent phases...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629651/science-denial-as-a-form-of-pseudoscience
#2
Sven Ove Hansson
Science denialism poses a serious threat to human health and the long-term sustainability of human civilization. Although it has recently been rather extensively discussed, this discussion has rarely been connected to the extensive literature on pseudoscience and the science-pseudoscience demarcation. This contribution argues that science denialism should be seen as one of the two major forms of pseudoscience, alongside of pseudotheory promotion. A detailed comparison is made between three prominent forms of science denialism, namely relativity theory denialism, evolution denialism, and climate science denialism...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620288/age-related-changes-in-resting-state-eeg-activity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Katarzyna Giertuga, Marta Z Zakrzewska, Maksymilian Bielecki, Ewa Racicka-Pawlukiewicz, Malgorzata Kossut, Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz
Numerous studies indicate that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to some developmental trends, as its symptoms change widely over time. Nevertheless, the etiology of this phenomenon remains ambiguous. There is a disagreement whether ADHD is related to deviations in brain development or to a delay in brain maturation. The model of deviated brain development suggests that the ADHD brain matures in a fundamentally different way, and does not reach normal maturity at any developmental stage...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618054/ethics-intimacy-and-sexuality-in-aged-care
#4
Catherine Cook, Vanessa Schouten, Mark Henrickson, Sandra Mcdonald
AIM: To analyse the accounts of staff, family and residents in order to advance ethical insights into intimacy and sexuality in residential care. BACKGROUND: Discourses of ageing readily construct people in residential aged care as post-sexual, vulnerable and at risk of sexual exploitation and therefore expressions of intimacy and sexuality may be responded to as deviant and inherently risky. Staff may manage decision-making tacitly, without recourse to policies and education...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616199/global-realized-niche-divergence-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#5
Dennis Rödder, Flora Ihlow, Julien Courant, Jean Secondi, Anthony Herrel, Rui Rebelo, G J Measey, Francesco Lillo, F A De Villiers, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau
Although of crucial importance for invasion biology and impact assessments of climate change, it remains widely unknown how species cope with and adapt to environmental conditions beyond their currently realized climatic niches (i.e., those climatic conditions existing populations are exposed to). The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, native to southern Africa, has established numerous invasive populations on multiple continents making it a pertinent model organism to study environmental niche dynamics. In this study, we assess whether the realized niches of the invasive populations in Europe, South, and North America represent subsets of the species' realized niche in its native distributional range or if niche shifts are traceable...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612935/early-adversity-and-brain-response-to-faces-in-young-adulthood
#6
Johannes Lieslehto, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Jenni Koivukangas, Tanja Nordström, Jouko Miettunen, Jennifer H Barnett, Peter B Jones, Graham K Murray, Irma Moilanen, Tomáš Paus, Juha Veijola
Early stressors play a key role in shaping interindividual differences in vulnerability to various psychopathologies, which according to the diathesis-stress model might relate to the elevated glucocorticoid secretion and impaired responsiveness to stress. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that individuals exposed to early adversity have deficits in emotion processing from faces. This study aims to explore whether early adversities associate with brain response to faces and whether this association might associate with the regional variations in mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1)...
June 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610950/coherence-in-p300-as-a-predictor-for-the-recovery-from-disorders-of-consciousness
#7
Ye Zhang, Ran Li, Jubao Du, Su Huo, Jianhui Hao, Weiqun Song
Accurate and reliable prognostic judgments for disorders of consciousness (DOCs) can provide useful information for clinicians in the establishment of appropriate care plan, and may affect end-of-life decisions of caregivers. But until now no certain or standardized prognostic indicator has been constructed to predict the probability of awareness recovery. This study aims to assess higher-order cortical information processing in DOCs by event-related potential (ERP) and determine the value of P300 to predict the long-term prognosis...
June 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603633/in-vitro-metabolism-of-exemestane-by-hepatic-cytochrome-p450s-impact-of-nonsynonymous-polymorphisms-on-formation-of-the-active-metabolite-17%C3%AE-dihydroexemestane
#8
Amity Peterson, Zuping Xia, Gang Chen, Philip Lazarus
Exemestane (EXE) is an endocrine therapy commonly used by postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer due to its potency in inhibiting aromatase-catalyzed estrogen synthesis. Preliminary in vitro studies sought to identify phase I EXE metabolites and hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) that participate in EXE biotransformation. Phase I metabolites were identified by incubating EXE with HEK293-overexpressed CYP450s. CYP450s 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 3A5 produce 17β-dihydroexemestane (17β-DHE), an active major metabolite, as well as two inactive metabolites...
June 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599838/attitudinal-segmentaion-of-drivers-in-pakistan-the-potential-for-effective-road-safety-campaigns
#9
Zahara Batool, Oliver Carsten
Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation...
June 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597509/child-and-adolescent-risk-factors-that-differentially-predict-violent-versus-nonviolent-crime
#10
Carla B Kalvin, Karen L Bierman
While most research on the development of antisocial and criminal behavior has considered nonviolent and violent crime together, some evidence points to differential risk factors for these separate types of crime. The present study explored differential risk for nonviolent and violent crime by investigating the longitudinal associations between three key child risk factors (aggression, emotion dysregulation, and social isolation) and two key adolescent risk factors (parent detachment and deviant peer affiliation) predicting violent and nonviolent crime outcomes in early adulthood...
June 8, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595809/neuroticism-in-child-sex-offenders-and-its-association-with-sexual-dysfunctions-cognitive-distortions-and-psychological-complaints
#11
Coralie Boillat, Gunnar Deuring, Marlon O Pflueger, Marc Graf, Timm Rosburg
Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594630/psychopathy-and-deviant-workplace-behavior-a-comparison-of-two-psychopathy-models
#12
Jessica R Carre, Steven M Mueller, Karly M Schleicher, Daniel N Jones
Although psychopathy is an interpersonally harmful construct, few studies have compared different psychopathy models in predicting different types of workplace deviance. We examined how the Triarchic Psychopathy Model (TRI-PM) and the Self-Report Psychopathy-Short Form (SRP-SF) predicted deviant workplace behaviors in two forms: sexual harassment and deviant work behaviors. Using structural equations modeling, the latent factor of psychopathy was predictive for both types of deviant workplace behavior. Specifically, the SRP-SF significantly predicted both measures of deviant workplace behavior...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594208/field-measures-of-psychopathy-and-sexual-deviance-as-predictors-of-recidivism-among-sexual-offenders
#13
Paige B Harris, Marcus T Boccaccini, Amanda K Rice
Offenders with high levels of both psychopathy and deviant sexual interests are often described as being more prone to recidivate than other sexual offenders, and many forensic evaluators report considering this psychopathy and sexual deviance interaction when coming to conclusions about sex offender risk. However, empirical support for the interaction comes from studies using sexual deviance measures that are rarely used in the field. We examined the ability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) field scores and possible field measures of sexual deviance (e...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581651/configurations-of-adolescents-peer-experiences-associations-with-parent-child-relationship-quality-and-parental-problem-behavior
#14
Tina Kretschmer, Miranda Sentse, Wim Meeus, Frank C Verhulst, René Veenstra, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescents, four profiles were identified: High Quality, Low Quality, Low Quality Victimized, and Deviant Peers. Multinomial logistic regressions showed that negative parent-child relationships in preadolescence reduced the likelihood of High Quality peer relations in mid-adolescence but only partly differentiated between the other three profiles...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581192/sibling-influences-on-risky-behaviors-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-vertical-socialization-or-bidirectional-effects
#15
REVIEW
Shawn D Whiteman, Alexander C Jensen, Susan M McHale
This study built on research on sibling influences to assess potential bidirectional effects of older and younger siblings' risky behaviors on one another's risky behaviors; our longitudinal design allowed us to test these effects when siblings were at about the same chronological age, at different points in time. We also tested whether the strength and/or direction of effects of siblings' risky behaviors changed from middle adolescence to young adulthood. Reports of risky behaviors (i.e., deviant behaviors and excessive alcohol use) were provided by firstborn and secondborn siblings from up to 201 families on five occasions spanning 10 years...
June 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580697/genetic-influences-on-individual-differences-in-longitudinal-changes-in-global-and-subcortical-brain-volumes-results-of-the-enigma-plasticity-working-group
#16
Rachel M Brouwer, Matthew S Panizzon, David C Glahn, Derrek P Hibar, Xue Hua, Neda Jahanshad, Lucija Abramovic, Greig I de Zubicaray, Carol E Franz, Narelle K Hansell, Ian B Hickie, Marinka M G Koenis, Nicholas G Martin, Karen A Mather, Katie L McMahon, Hugo G Schnack, Lachlan T Strike, Suzanne C Swagerman, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Wei Wen, John H Gilmore, Nitin Gogtay, René S Kahn, Perminder S Sachdev, Margaret J Wright, Dorret I Boomsma, William S Kremen, Paul M Thompson, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h(2) ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861)...
June 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578432/effects-of-childhood-and-adolescence-physical-activity-patterns-on-psychosis-risk-a-general-population-cohort-study
#17
Elina Sormunen, Maiju M Saarinen, Raimo K R Salokangas, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality in somatic diseases. The risk factors of this excess mortality include, e.g., obesity, dietary factors, and physical inactivity, especially after the onset of psychosis, but there are limited early developmental data on these factors in individuals who later develop psychosis. A population-based cohort study "Cardiovascular Risk of Young Finns" started in 1980 with 3596 children and adolescents from six different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years)...
January 13, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576412/test-retest-reliability-of-the-magnetic-mismatch-negativity-response-to-sound-duration-and-omission-deviants
#18
Marc Recasens, Peter J Uhlhaas
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a neurophysiological measure of auditory novelty detection that could serve as a translational biomarker of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, the replicability of its magnetoencephalographic (MEG) counterpart (MMNm) has been insufficiently addressed. In the current study, test-retest reliability of the MMNm response to both duration and omission deviants was evaluated over two MEG sessions in 16 healthy adults. MMNm amplitudes and latencies were obtained at both sensor- and source-level using a cortically-constrained minimum-norm approach...
May 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575738/perceived-parental-monitoring-and-adolescent-internet-addiction-a-moderated-mediation-model
#19
Qingwen Ding, Dongping Li, Yueyue Zhou, Hongning Dong, Jinjing Luo
Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model focuses on the interrelation between different contexts and the interaction between individuals and their proximal contexts. Based on this theory, the present study tested a moderated mediation model of family, peer, and individual characteristics to investigate how they impact adolescent Internet addiction. Specifically, we examined whether deviant peer affiliation partially mediated the relation between perceived parental monitoring and adolescent Internet addiction, and whether this indirect relation was moderated by effortful control...
May 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574442/electrophysiological-indices-of-audiovisual-speech-perception-in-the-broader-autism-phenotype
#20
Julia Irwin, Trey Avery, Jacqueline Turcios, Lawrence Brancazio, Barbara Cook, Nicole Landi
When a speaker talks, the consequences of this can both be heard (audio) and seen (visual). A novel visual phonemic restoration task was used to assess behavioral discrimination and neural signatures (event-related potentials, or ERP) of audiovisual processing in typically developing children with a range of social and communicative skills assessed using the social responsiveness scale, a measure of traits associated with autism. An auditory oddball design presented two types of stimuli to the listener, a clear exemplar of an auditory consonant-vowel syllable /ba/ (the more frequently occurring standard stimulus), and a syllable in which the auditory cues for the consonant were substantially weakened, creating a stimulus which is more like /a/ (the infrequently presented deviant stimulus)...
June 2, 2017: Brain Sciences
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