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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#1
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910247/auditory-processing-in-noise-is-associated-with-complex-patterns-of-disrupted-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Fahimeh Mamashli, Sheraz Khan, Hari Bharadwaj, Konstantinos Michmizos, Santosh Ganesan, Keri-Lee A Garel, Javeria Ali Hashmi, Martha R Herbert, Matti Hämäläinen, Tal Kenet
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulty in processing speech in a noisy background, but the neural mechanisms that underlie this deficit have not been mapped. To address this question, we used magnetoencephalography to compare the cortical responses between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to a passive mismatch paradigm. We repeated the paradigm twice, once in a quiet background, and once in the presence of background noise. We focused on both the evoked mismatch field (MMF) response in temporal and frontal cortical locations, and functional connectivity with spectral specificity between those locations...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895567/cognitive-processing-in-non-communicative-patients-what-can-event-related-potentials-tell-us
#3
Zulay R Lugo, Lucia R Quitadamo, Luigi Bianchi, Fréderic Pellas, Sandra Veser, Damien Lesenfants, Ruben G L Real, Cornelia Herbert, Christoph Guger, Boris Kotchoubey, Donatella Mattia, Andrea Kübler, Steven Laureys, Quentin Noirhomme
Event-related potentials (ERP) have been proposed to improve the differential diagnosis of non-responsive patients. We investigated the potential of the P300 as a reliable marker of conscious processing in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS). Eleven chronic LIS patients and 10 healthy subjects (HS) listened to a complex-tone auditory oddball paradigm, first in a passive condition (listen to the sounds) and then in an active condition (counting the deviant tones). Seven out of nine HS displayed a P300 waveform in the passive condition and all in the active condition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891242/community-factors-related-to-healthy-eating-active-living-in-counties-with-lower-than-expected-adult-obesity-rates
#4
Maureen E Canavan, Emily Cherlin, Stephanie Boegeman, Elizabeth H Bradley, Kristina M Talbert-Slagle
BACKGROUND: Adult obesity rates in the United States have reached epidemic proportions, yet vary considerably across states and counties. We sought to explore community-level factors that may be associated with reduced adult obesity rates at the county level. METHODS: We identified six U.S. counties that were positive deviants for adult obesity and conducted semi-structured interviews with community leaders and government officials involved in efforts to promote healthier lifestyles...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891201/the-n170-component-is-sensitive-to-face-like-stimuli-a-study-of-chinese-peking-opera-makeup
#5
Tiantian Liu, Shoukuan Mu, Huamin He, Lingcong Zhang, Cong Fan, Jie Ren, Mingming Zhang, Weiqi He, Wenbo Luo
The N170 component is considered a neural marker of face-sensitive processing. In the present study, the face-sensitive N170 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) was investigated with a modified oddball paradigm using a natural face (the standard stimulus), human- and animal-like makeup stimuli, scrambled control images that mixed human- and animal-like makeup pieces, and a grey control image. Nineteen participants were instructed to respond within 1000 ms by pressing the 'F' or 'J' key in response to the standard or deviant stimuli, respectively...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885651/barossa-night-cohesion-in-the-british-army-officer-corps
#6
Patrick Bury
Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882022/association-of-rs1800668-polymorphism-in-glutathione-peroxidase-1-gene-and-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-pakistani-population
#7
Shazia Irfan, Asima Rani, Maryam Sameem, Syed Kashif Nawaz, Iram Liaqat, Muhammad Arshad
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) C/T polymorphism (rs1800668) in modulating the chances of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Pakistani population. METHODS: A total of 400 individuals including 200 controls and 200 patients of RA, were genotyped. Detection of rs1800668 polymorphism was carried out using PCR based amplification strategy (allele specific). RESULTS: The results for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) indicated that the allele frequencies for GPX1 polymorphism were not deviant from HWE in whole population under observation...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881731/factors-distinguishing-positive-deviance-among-low-income-african-american-women-a-qualitative-study-on-infant-feeding
#8
Cecilia E Barbosa, Saba W Masho, Kellie E Carlyle, Maghboeba Mosavel
BACKGROUND: Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. METHODS: Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880850/visual-enhancement-of-illusory-phenomenal-accents-in-non-isochronous-auditory-rhythms
#9
Yi-Huang Su
Musical rhythms encompass temporal patterns that often yield regular metrical accents (e.g., a beat). There have been mixed results regarding perception as a function of metrical saliency, namely, whether sensitivity to a deviant was greater in metrically stronger or weaker positions. Besides, effects of metrical position have not been examined in non-isochronous rhythms, or with respect to multisensory influences. This study was concerned with two main issues: (1) In non-isochronous auditory rhythms with clear metrical accents, how would sensitivity to a deviant be modulated by metrical positions? (2) Would the effects be enhanced by multisensory information? Participants listened to strongly metrical rhythms with or without watching a point-light figure dance to the rhythm in the same meter, and detected a slight loudness increment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#10
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878413/does-the-general-strain-theory-explain-gambling-and-substance-use
#11
Romy Greco, Antonietta Curci
General Strain Theory (GST: Agnew Criminology 30:47-87, 1992) posits that deviant behaviour results from adaptation to strain and the consequent negative emotions. Empirical research on GST has mainly focused on aggressive behaviours, while only few research studies have considered alternative manifestations of deviance, like substance use and gambling. The aim of the present study is to test the ability of GST to explain gambling behaviours and substance use. Also, the role of family in promoting the adoption of gambling and substance use as coping strategies was verified...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874270/neurodevelopmental-disorders-are-highly-over-represented-in-children-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Elisabet Wentz, Anna Björk, Jovanna Dahlgren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children with obesity and to compare body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile in the children. METHODS: Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys) were consecutively recruited from a university outpatient clinic specialized in severe obesity. Neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were assessed using interviews and questionnaires...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866990/longitudinal-auditory-learning-facilitates-auditory-cognition-as-revealed-by-microstate-analysis
#13
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Katarina L Matthes, Martin Meyer
The current study investigates cognitive processes as reflected in late auditory-evoked potentials as a function of longitudinal auditory learning. A normal hearing adult sample (n=15) performed an active oddball task at three consecutive time points (TPs) arranged at two week intervals, and during which EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised of syllables consisting of a natural fricative (/sh/,/s/,/f/) embedded between two /a/ sounds, as well as morphed transitions of the two syllables that served as deviants...
November 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863952/differences-in-the-dynamics-of-affective-and-cognitive-processing-an-erp-study
#14
Christina J Mueller, Nathalie Fritsch, Markus J Hofmann, Lars Kuchinke
A controversy in emotion research concerns the question of whether affective or cognitive primacy are evident in processing affective stimuli and the factors contributing to each alternative. Using electrophysiological recordings in an adapted visual oddball paradigm allowed tracking the dynamics of affective and cognitive effects. Stimuli consisted of face pictures displaying affective expressions with rare oddballs differing from frequent stimuli in either affective expression, structure (while frequent stimuli were shown frontally these deviants were turned sideways) or they differed on both dimensions, i...
November 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863627/a-mismatch-negativity-study-in-mandarin-speaking-children-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#15
Mingfu Fu, Liyan Wang, Mengchao Zhang, Ying Yang, Xibin Sun
OBJECTIVE: a) To examine the effects of sensorineural hearing loss on the discriminability of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli at the cortical level, and b) to examine whether the cortical responses differ based on the chronological age at intervention, the degree of hearing loss, or the acoustic stimulation mode in children with severe and profound hearing loss. METHODS: Mismatch negativity (MMN) responses were collected from 43 children with severe and profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 children with normal hearing (age: 3-6 years)...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862172/investigation-of-brain-electrophysiological-properties-among-heroin-addicts-quantitative-eeg-and-event-related-potentials
#16
Farid Motlagh, Fatimah Ibrahim, Rusdi Rashid, Tahereh Seghatoleslam, Hussain Habil
This study aims to introduce a new approach of a comprehensive paradigm to evaluate brain electrophysiological properties among addicts. Electroencephalographic spectral power as well as amplitudes and latencies of mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and P600 components were evaluated among 19 male heroin addicts and 19 healthy nonsmoker subjects using a paradigm consisting of three subparadigms, namely (1) digit span Wechsler test, (2) auditory oddball, and (3) visual cue-reactivity oddball paradigms. Task 1 provided auditory P300 and P600 in association with working memory...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859903/corticostriatal-connectivity-fingerprints-probability-maps-based-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#17
Ellen Jaspers, Joshua H Balsters, Pegah Kassraian Fard, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Over the last decade, structure-function relationships have begun to encompass networks of brain areas rather than individual structures. For example, corticostriatal circuits have been associated with sensorimotor, limbic, and cognitive information processing, and damage to these circuits has been shown to produce unique behavioral outcomes in Autism, Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and healthy ageing. However, it remains an open question how abnormal or absent connectivity can be detected at the individual level...
November 12, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856768/treatment-for-youth-paraphilic-disorders-opportunities-to-reduce-harm
#18
John Kasinathan
OBJECTIVE: To outline current understanding and recommended treatments for paraphilic or sexual deviant disorders in adolescents and youth. METHOD: An overview of the diagnosis, development and scope of paraphilic disorders. Evidence and an algorithm for pharmacological treatments in youth are outlined. RESULTS: Paraphilic disorders are relatively common in adolescents and youth, with fantasies and urges preceding the onset of deviant behaviour by a handful of years...
November 17, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855322/standardizing-psycho-medical-torture-during-the-war-on-terror-why-it-happened-how-it-happened-and-why-it-didn-t-work
#19
Myles Balfe
After 9/11/2001 the United States launched a global War on Terror. As part of this War, terrorism suspects were detained by the U.S. military and by the C.I.A. It is now widely recognized that the United States tortured a number of these detainees in the context of its 'enhanced interrogation' programme. This article examines how and why U.S. organizations developed standards that allowed healthcare professionals to become involved in torture; why the standards developed by U.S. security institutions failed to control the actions of enhanced interrogation personnel on the ground; and what the role of standards were in stopping the enhanced interrogation initiative...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854467/parental-management-of-peers-and-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-in-predicting-adolescent-peer-relationships
#20
Kelly M Tu, Stephen A Erath, Mona El-Sheikh
The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1) [47% boys; 66% European American (EA), 34% African American (AA)] and 226 adolescents at Time 2 (T2; 45% boys; 67% EA, 33% AA). Adolescents were approximately 16 and 17 years old at T1 and T2, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
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