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Bacteria, antibiotic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655563/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-novel-rapid-tube-test-system-for-differentiation-of-mastitis-causing-pathogen-groups
#1
S Leimbach, V Krömker
Because clinical mastitis, one of the most common diseases in dairy cows, is routinely treated with antimicrobial substances, it offers a high potential for future reduction of antimicrobial usage. In fact, intramammary antibiotic administration is not advisable in cases of clinical mastitis caused by coliform bacteria, yeasts, or protothecae or in cases with no detectable mastitis pathogen. To avoid unnecessary treatments with antimicrobials for the benefit of animal health and public welfare, the rapid identification of the mastitis-causing pathogens becomes necessary...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653049/the-influence-of-cationic-phosphatidylcholine-derivative-on-monolayer-and-bilayer-artificial-bacterial-membranes
#2
Marzena Mach, Karolina Węder, Katarzyna Hąc-Wydro, Michał Flasiński, Joanna Lewandowska-Lancucka, Kinga Wójcik, Pawel Wydro
An increasing number of bacterial infections and the rise in antibiotic resistance of a number of bacteria speciesforces to search for new antibacterial compounds. The latter facts motivate the investigations presented herein and aimed at studying the influence of a cationic lipid:1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPOPC) on model (mono,- and bilayer) membranes. The monolayer experiments involved the analysis of the interactions of EPOPC with bacterial membrane lipids in one component and mixed systems as well as Brewster Angle Microcopy studies...
April 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652690/endophthalmitis-after-pars-plana-vitrectomy-efficacy-of-intraoperative-subconjunctival-antibiotics
#3
Stephanie J Weiss, Murtaza K Adam, Xinxiao Gao, Anthony Obeid, Arunan Sivalingam, Mitchell S Fineman, Joseph I Maguire, Sunir J Garg, Julia Haller, David H Fischer, Jason Hsu
PURPOSE: To examine rates of acute infectious endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in eyes that received intraoperative subconjunctival antibiotics versus eyes that did not. METHODS: A retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series of 18,886 consecutive cases of transconjunctival 23-, 25-, and 27-gauge PPV over a 5-year period was performed. The impact of prophylactic intraoperative subconjunctival antibiotics on the development of acute infectious postoperative endophthalmitis was examined...
April 12, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650999/beyond-dose-pulsed-antibiotic-treatment-schedules-can-maintain-individual-benefit-while-reducing-resistance
#4
Christopher M Baker, Matthew J Ferrari, Katriona Shea
The emergence of treatment-resistant microbes is a key challenge for disease treatment and a leading threat to human health and wellbeing. New drugs are always in development, but microbes regularly and rapidly acquire resistance. We must consider if altering how we administer drugs at the individual level could slow development of resistance. Here we use mathematical models to show that exposing microbes to drug pulses could greatly reduce resistance without increasing individual pathogen load. Our results stem from two key factors: the presence of antibiotics creates a selection pressure for antibiotic resistant microbes, and large populations of bacteria are more likely to harbor drug resistance than small populations...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650585/draft-genomic-sequences-of-chromobacterium-sp-nov-strains-mwu13-2610-and-mwu14-2602-isolated-from-wild-cranberry-bogs-in-massachusetts
#5
Kory O'Hara-Hanley, Alisha Harrison, Scott D Soby
Chromobacterium sp. nov. strains MWU13-2610 and MWU14-2602 were isolated from cranberry bogs in the Cape Cod National Seashore. These nonpigmented bacteria represent two new presumptive species of the rapidly growing genus Chromobacterium Gene homologs are present for multiple antibiotic resistance, virulence functions, and prophages.
April 12, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649658/gentamicin-loaded-ceramic-biopolymer-dual-layer-coatings-on-the-ti-with-improved-bioactive-and-corrosion-resistance-properties-for-orthopedic-applications
#6
R Mohan Raj, P Priya, V Raj
In orthopedic surgery, osteomyelitis (bone infection) is one of the most serious complications in the last few decades and the resident drug delivery is the key strategy to overcome this issue. Combination of bioactive materials with antibiotics is broadly developed for the handling of osteomyelitis which plays a dual role as bone cell growth and as local drug delivery systems for antibiotic delivery. TiO2 -SiO2 mixtures were fabricated on Ti alloy by anodization method. Chitosan-Lysine (CS-LY) biopolymers were coated on composites by electrodeposition method and followed by gentamicin sulfate (GS) which was loaded as a model drug...
January 31, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649276/carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-german-university-medical-center-prevalence-clinical-implications-and-the-role-of-novel-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#7
Juri Katchanov, Lucia Asar, Eva-Maria Klupp, Anna Both, Camilla Rothe, Christina König, Holger Rohde, Stefan Kluge, Florian P Maurer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the spectrum of infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and the clinical impact of the newly available betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam in a German academic tertiary care center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016, 119 individual patients (0.22% of all hospital admissions) were colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649135/development-and-validation-of-a-microtiter-plate-based-assay-for-determination-of-bacteriophage-host-range-and-virulence
#8
Yicheng Xie, Laith Wahab, Jason J Gill
Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the phage as antimicrobials. The most common method for phage host range determination has been to spot phage lysates on soft agar overlays and observe plaque formation. In this study, a liquid culture-based assay was developed in a 96-well microtiter plate format to measure the phage host range and virulence for a collection of 15 Salmonella phages against a panel of 20 Salmonella strains representing 11 serovars...
April 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648529/gram-negative-bloodstream-infections-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-retrospective-study
#9
Orit Shimon, Hefziba Green, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Benaya Rozen-Zvi, Haim Ben-Zvi, Iris Zohar, Jihad Bishara, Dafna Yahav
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an important cause of hospitalizations and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Epidemiology of these infections is changing, with increasing rates of Gram-negative pathogens, including resistant ones. Few studies have focused on the characteristics and outcomes of these infections. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to document the causative pathogens of BSIs in HD patients and their clinical outcomes during 2008 - 2015, and to compare risk factors, clinical features, appropriateness of therapy, and outcomes between patients with Gram-negative vs...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648438/a-nanocomposite-hydrogel-with-potent-and-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-activity
#10
Tianjiao Dai, Changping Wang, Yuqing Wang, Wei Xu, Jingjing Hu, Yiyun Cheng
Local bacterial infection is a challenging task and still remains a serious threat to human health in clinics. Systemic administration of antibiotics has only short-term antibacterial activity, and usually causes adverse effects and bacterial resistance. A bioadhesive hydrogel with broad-spectrum and on-demand antibiotic activity is highly desirable. Here, we designed a pH-responsive nanocomposite hydrogel via a Schiff base linkage between oxidized polysaccharides and cationic dendrimers encapsulated with silver NPs...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643848/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-selection-of-potentially-probiotic-lactobacilli-from-nocellara-del-belice-table-olives
#11
Barbara Guantario, Paola Zinno, Emily Schifano, Marianna Roselli, Giuditta Perozzi, Claudio Palleschi, Daniela Uccelletti, Chiara Devirgiliis
Table olives are increasingly recognized as a vehicle as well as a source of probiotic bacteria, especially those fermented with traditional procedures based on the activity of indigenous microbial consortia, originating from local environments. In the present study, we report characterization at the species level of 49 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains deriving from Nocellara del Belice table olives fermented with the Spanish or Castelvetrano methods, recently isolated in our previous work. Ribosomal 16S DNA analysis allowed identification of 4 Enterococcus gallinarum , 3 E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643807/antimicrobial-peptides-and-their-therapeutic-potential-for-bacterial-skin-infections-and-wounds
#12
REVIEW
Anja Pfalzgraff, Klaus Brandenburg, Günther Weindl
Alarming data about increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics are reported, while at the same time the development of new antibiotics is stagnating. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are mainly caused by the so called ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) which belong to the most recalcitrant bacteria and are resistant to almost all common antibiotics. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are the most frequent pathogens isolated from chronic wounds and increasing resistance to topical antibiotics has become a major issue...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643217/human-animal-and-environmental-contributors-to-antibiotic-resistance-in-low-resource-settings-integrating-behavioural-epidemiological-and-one-health-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Emily K Rousham, Leanne Unicomb, Mohammad Aminul Islam
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognized as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans, animals and the environment in low-resource settings. This critical review seeks to identify the extent of One Health research on ABR in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing research has highlighted hotspots for environmental contamination; food-animal production systems that are likely to harbour reservoirs or promote transmission of ABR as well as high and increasing human rates of colonization with ABR commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli However, very few studies have integrated all three components of the One Health spectrum to understand the dynamics of transmission and the prevalence of community-acquired resistance in humans and animals...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642831/-identification-of-anaerobic-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-various-clinical-specimens-and-determination-of-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-with-e-test-methods
#14
Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli
The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642825/-investigation-of-carbapenemase-genes-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-enterobacteriaceae-strains-isolated-between-2010-2014-in-a-university-hospitals
#15
Hüseyin Haydar Kutlu, Ebru Us, Alper Tekeli
The worldwide spread of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates has become a major threat of public health. This worrisome situation leads the development of new methods for carbapenemase screening, detection, prevention of spread and epidemiological data collection as mandatory. In this study, it was aimed to investigate existence and distribution of carbapenemase-encoding genes (CEGs) among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from various clinical samples in Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ibni Sina Hospital, Central Microbiology Laboratory between June 2010-May 2014 and detect their clonal relationship...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642473/resistance-to-carbapenems-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-enterica-serovars-from-humans-animals-and-food
#16
REVIEW
Javier Fernández, Beatriz Guerra, M Rosario Rodicio
Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical "last resort" antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Enterobacter , which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS...
April 8, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629858/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-puma-acts-on-an-endogenous-phenazine-to-promote-self-resistance
#17
Abigail J Sporer, Christopher Beierschmitt, Anastasia Bendebury, Katherine E Zink, Alexa Price-Whelan, Marisa C Buzzeo, Laura M Sanchez, Lars E P Dietrich
The activities of critical metabolic and regulatory proteins can be altered by exposure to natural or synthetic redox-cycling compounds. Many bacteria, therefore, possess mechanisms to transport or transform these small molecules. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 synthesizes phenazines, redox-active antibiotics that are toxic to other organisms but have beneficial effects for their producer. Phenazines activate the redox-sensing transcription factor SoxR and thereby induce the transcription of a small regulon, including the operon mexGHI-opmD, which encodes an efflux pump that transports phenazines, and PA14_35160 (pumA), which encodes a putative monooxygenase...
April 9, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629769/developing-equipotent-teixobactin-analogues-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-discovering-a-hydrophobic-interaction-between-lipid-ii-and-teixobactin
#18
Yu Zong, Xiuyun Sun, Hongying Gao, Kirsten J Meyer, Kim Lewis, Yu Rao
Teixobactin, targeting lipid II, represents a new class of antibiotics with novel structures and has excellent activity against Gram-positive pathogens. We developed a new convergent method to synthesize a series of teixobactin analogues and explored structure-activity relationships. We obtained equipotent and simplified teixobactin analogues, replacing the l- allo-enduracididine with lysine, substituting oxygen to nitrogen on threonine, and adding a phenyl group on the d-phenylalanine. On the basis of the antibacterial activities that resulted from corresponding modifications of the d-phenylalanine, we propose a hydrophobic interaction between lipid II and the N-terminal of teixobactin analogues, which we map out with our analogue 35...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628915/gas-plasma-pre-treatment-increases-antibiotic-sensitivity-and-persister-eradication-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627603/impact-of-biofilm-formation-and-detachment-on-the-transmission-of-bacterial-antibiotic-resistance-in-drinking-water-distribution-systems
#20
REVIEW
Junpeng Zhang, Weiying Li, Jiping Chen, Wanqi Qi, Feng Wang, Yanyan Zhou
There is growing awareness of the antibiotic-resistance crisis and its implications for public health among clinicians, researchers, politicians, and the public. We studied bacterial antibiotic resistance transition and the role of biofilms in a drinking water distribution system (DWDS). We tracked several different antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) with resistance to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, and norfloxacin for one year in a DWDS. The results indicated that the amount of ARB increased in tap water, presumably due to biofilm detachment...
March 22, 2018: Chemosphere
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