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Bacteria, antibiotic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340477/environmental-analysis-of-typical-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-args-in-farmland-soil-chronically-fertilized-with-chicken-manure
#1
Xiang Zhao, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Weili Ge, Jun Wang
Antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria and resistance genes (ARGs) are generally considered emerging pollutants. To assess the impacts of tetracycline (TC) and sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics that are eliminated with fecaluria as drug prototypes, farmland soil used to research long-term fertilization with chicken manure was collected at four sites in Shandong Province. In this study, the rates of bacterial drug resistance to the same antibiotic decreased with an increase in the concentration of that antibiotic, and the resistance rates to TCs were lower than those to SAs...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#2
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335413/chitin-oligosaccharide-cos-reduces-antibiotics-dose-and-prevents-antibiotics-caused-side-effects-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais-patients-with-spinal-fusion-surgery
#3
Yang Qu, Jinyu Xu, Haohan Zhou, Rongpeng Dong, Mingyang Kang, Jianwu Zhao
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily)...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334924/throat-swabs-in-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-associations-with-clinical-presentation-and-potential-targets-for-point-of-care-testing
#4
Hannah V Thornton, Alastair D Hay, Niamh M Redmond, Sophie L Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Tim J Peters, John P Leeming, Andrew Lovering, Barry Vipond, Peter Muir, Peter S Blair
Background and objectives.: Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Methods.: Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to <16 years presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334251/isolation-of-vibrionaceae-from-wild-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis-adults-and-their-impact-on-blue-mussel-larviculture
#5
Mieke Eggermont, Peter Bossier, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Vyshal Delahaut, Ali Md Rayhan, Nipa Gupta, Shikder Saiful Islam, Elsie Yumo, Nancy Nevejan, Patrick Sorgeloos, Bruno Gomez-Gil, Tom Defoirdt
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is known as a robust mollusk species, although its larviculture appears to be highly susceptible to diseases. In this study, we isolated 17 strains from induced mortality events in healthy wild-caught blue mussel adults and demonstrated that they caused between 17 and 98% mortality in blue mussel larvae in a newly developed, highly controlled immersion challenge test model. Eight of the isolates belong to the Splendidus clade of vibrios, while the other isolates belong to the genus Photobacterium...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#6
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332827/subcellular-chemical-imaging-of-antibiotics-in-single-bacteria-using-c60-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#7
Hua Tian, David A Six, Thomas Krucker, Jennifer A Leeds, Nicholas Winograd
The inherent difficulty of discovering new and effective antibacterials and the rapid development of resistance particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, illustrates the urgent need for new methods that enable rational drug design. Here we report the development of 3D imaging cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a label-free approach to chemically map small molecules in aggregated and single Escherichia coli cells, with ~300 nm spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity. The feasibility of quantitative analysis was explored, and a non-linear relationship between treatment dose and signal for tetracycline and ampicillin, two clinically-used antibacterials, was observed...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332754/detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-organisms-with-a-carbapenem-based-fluorogenic-probe
#8
Wuyu Mao, Lingying Xia, Hexin Xie
Antibiotic resistance has become a major challenge to public health worldwide. This crisis is further aggravated by the increasing emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenems, typically considered as the antibiotics of last resort, which is mainly due to the production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing carbapenemases in bacteria. Herein, the carbapenem-based fluorogenic probe CB-1 with an unprecedented enamine-BODIPY switch is developed for the detection of carbapenemase activity. This reagent is remarkably specific towards carbapenemases over other prevalent β-lactamases...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332311/characterization-of-blue-light-irradiation-effects-on-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Courtney M Abana, John R Brannon, Rebecca A Ebbott, Taryn L Dunigan, Kirsten R Guckes, Hubaida Fuseini, Jennifer Powers, Bridget R Rogers, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
Blue light irradiation (BLI) is an FDA-approved method for treating certain types of infections, like acne, and is becoming increasingly attractive as an antimicrobial strategy as the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant "superbugs" rises. However, no study has delineated the effectiveness of BLI throughout different bacterial growth phases, especially in more BLI-tolerant organisms such as Escherichia coli. While the vast majority of E. coli strains are nonpathogenic, several E. coli pathotypes exist that cause infection within and outside the gastrointestinal tract...
March 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330268/antimicrobial-activity-of-pvp-coated-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-lysinibacillus-varians
#10
Divya Bhatia, Ashwani Mittal, Deepak Kumar Malik
Emergence of resistant microbes to conventional antibiotics and increased emphasis on health-care costs has raised the concern for the development of new effective antimicrobial reagents. Silver nanoparticles being an excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial agent could be considered as a suitable alternative for existing antibiotic. This study demonstrates the extra-cellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using supernatant of Lysinibacillus varians. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR analysis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330238/isolation-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-of-patients
#11
Li-Min Wang, Xiao-Liang Qiao, Liang Ai, Jing-Jing Zhai, Xue-Xia Wang
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are usual cause of upper respiratory tract infection cases. The present study aims the isolation of bacterial strains which are resistant to the commonly prescribed antibiotics. In total, 900 throat swabs were obtained from the patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections residing in three different localities. The maximum number of isolates (64 %) were obtained from locality-1 (L-1), whereas lowest isolates were found in second locality (L-2)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330094/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistant-and-enzyme-producing-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-arabian-sea
#12
Preeti N Tallur, Dayanand B Sajjan, Sikandar I Mulla, Manjunatha P Talwar, A Pragasam, Vinayak M Nayak, Harichandra Z Ninnekar, Shivanand S Bhat
Marine bacteria are known to produce many bioactive molecules and extracellular enzymes of commercial importance. We have investigated the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Karwar, Karnataka State, India. Among these bacterial isolates, five bacterial strains were selected and identified by their morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The identified bacterial isolates, Bacillus toyonensis PNTB1, Lysinibacillus sphaericus PTB, Vibrio vulnificus PMD, Shewanella MPTDBS, and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PNTB were characterized for their tolerance to salt and antibiotics...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326851/evaluation-of-antibacterial-activity-of-the-bark-and-leaf-extracts-of-brosimum-gaudichaudii-tr%C3%A3-cul-against-multidrug-resistant-strains
#13
Joelma da Costa Borges, Michele Cezimbra Perim, Rodrigo Orlandini de Castro, Thiago Antônio de Sousa Araújo, Tadeu José da Silva Peixoto Sobrinho, Ana Carolina Oliveira da Silva, Sandra Maria Botelho Mariano, Solange Cristina Carreiro, Maria Cristina da Silva Pranchevicius
Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul., a plant that belongs to Moraceae family, is found throughout the Brazilian Cerrado. The antimicrobial activities of ethanolic bark and leaf extracts of B. gaudichaudii were tested against multiresistant bacteria isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated by agar disc diffusion (DD) and broth dilution (BD) methods. By BD method, bark (53.85, 45.83%) and leaf (42.31, 50.00%) extracts contained antimicrobial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria...
March 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326075/advantages-of-the-silkworm-as-an-animal-model-for-developing-novel-antimicrobial-agents
#14
REVIEW
Suresh Panthee, Atmika Paudel, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The demand for novel antibiotics to combat the global spread of multi drug-resistant pathogens continues to grow. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi that cause fatal human infections can also kill silkworms and the infected silkworms can be cured by the same antibiotics used to treat infections in the clinic. As an invertebrate model, silkworm model is characterized by its convenience, low cost, no ethical issues. The presence of conserved immune response and similar pharmacokinetics compared to mammals make silkworm infection model suitable to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326070/antimicrobial-protection-of-marsupial-pouch-young
#15
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Cheng, Katherine Belov
Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326066/beneficial-microorganisms-for-corals-bmc-proposed-mechanisms-for-coral-health-and-resilience
#16
REVIEW
Raquel S Peixoto, Phillipe M Rosado, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Alexandre S Rosado, David G Bourne
The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325856/prevalence-of-undiagnosed-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-and-associated-risk-factors-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-at-two-tertiary-centres-in-cairo-egypt
#17
Mohamed Abdel-Aziz Elzayat, Ashton Barnett-Vanes, Mohamed Farag Elmorsy Dabour, Feng Cheng
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy is poorly understood in Egypt-a country with a high birth rate. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of ASB among pregnant women booking at El Hussein and Sayed Galal Hospitals in Al-Azhar University in Egypt; and to observe the relationship between ASB prevalence and risk factors such as socioeconomic level and personal hygiene. SETTING: Obstetrics and gynaecology clinics of 2 university hospitals in the capital of Egypt...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325219/homeopathy-outperforms-antibiotics-treatment-in-juvenile-scallop-argopecten-ventricosus-effects-on-growth-survival-and-immune-response
#18
José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Milagro García-Bernal, Pedro Enrique Saucedo, Ángel Campa-Córdova, Fernando Abasolo-Pacheco
BACKGROUND: Mortality from vibriosis in mollusk production is attributed to pathogenic bacteria, particularly Vibrio alginolyticus. Use of increasingly potent antibiotics has led to bacterial resistance and increased pathogenicity. Alternatives in sanitation, safety, and environmental sustainability are currently under analysis. To-date, homeopathy has been investigated in aquaculture of freshwater fish, but not in marine mollusks. The effect of the homeopathic complexes in the growth, survival, and immune response of the Catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus were assessed...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324231/occurrence-and-virulence-properties-of-vibrio-and-salinivibrio-isolates-from-tropical-lagoons-of-the-southern-caribbean-sea
#19
Milagro Fernández-Delgado, Paula Suárez, Sandra Giner, Virginia Sanz, Jessy Peña, Damarys Sánchez, M Alexandra García-Amado
The Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria present in marine and estuarine environments worldwide, including several species known as important pathogens to humans and aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolated from lagoons at Cuare Wildlife Refuge and Margarita Island in the southern Caribbean Sea. Water, plankton and oyster samples were collected during October 2011 and March 2012 and examined by specific PCR and culture methods...
March 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323446/leguminosae-native-nodulating-bacteria-from-a-gold-mine-as-contaminated-soil-multi-resistance-to-trace-elements-and-possible-role-in-plant-growth-and-mineral-nutrition
#20
Wesley de M Rangel, Silvia M de Oliveira Longatti, Paulo A A Ferreira, Daiane S Bonaldi, Amanda A Guimarães, Sofie Thijs, Nele Weyens, Jaco Vangronsveld, Fatima M S Moreira
Efficient N2-fixing Leguminosae nodulating bacteria resistant to As may facilitate plant growth on As-contaminated sites. In order to identify bacteria possessing these features, 24 strains were isolated from nodules of the trap species Crotalaria spectabilis (12) and Stizolobium aterrimum (12) growing on an As-contaminated gold mine site. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that most of the strains belonged to the group of α-Proteobacteria, being representatives of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Inquilinus, Labrys, Bosea, Starkeya and Methylobacterium...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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