Read by QxMD icon Read

Bacteria, antibiotic resistance

Geovana B Michael, Janine T Bossé, Stefan Schwarz
Members of the highly heterogeneous family Pasteurellaceae cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. Antimicrobial agents are the most powerful tools to control such infections. However, the acquisition of resistance genes, as well as the development of resistance-mediating mutations, significantly reduces the efficacy of the antimicrobial agents. This article gives a brief description of the role of selected members of the family Pasteurellaceae in animal infections and of the most recent data on the susceptibility status of such members...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Emel Ficici, Wenchang Zhou, Steven Castellano, José D Faraldo-Gómez
Multidrug and toxic-compound extrusion (MATE) proteins comprise an important but largely uncharacterized family of secondary-active transporters. In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, these transporters protect the cell by catalyzing the efflux of a broad range of cytotoxic compounds, including human-made antibiotics and anticancer drugs. MATEs are thus potential pharmacological targets against drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria and tumor cells. The activity of MATEs is powered by transmembrane electrochemical ion gradients, but their molecular mechanism and ion specificity are not understood, in part because high-quality structural information is limited...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Inês N Silva, Filipa D Pessoa, Marcelo J Ramires, Mário R Santos, Jörg D Becker, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex grow in different natural and man-made environments and are feared opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Previous studies showed that Burkholderia mucoid clinical isolates grown under stress conditions give rise to nonmucoid variants devoid of the exopolysaccharide cepacian. Here, we have determined that a major cause of the nonmucoid morphotype involves nonsynonymous mutations and small indels in the ompR gene encoding a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Anna Vickers, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Michel Doumith, David M Livermore
Pyrrolocytosines RX-04A-D are designed to bind to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit differently from currently-used antibiotics. The four analogs had broad anti-Gram-negative activity: RX-04A inhibited 94.7% of clinical Enterobacteriaceae , Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5-4 μg/ml, with no MICs >8 μg/ml. MICs for multi-resistant carbapenemase producers were up to two-fold higher than for control strains, with values ≥8 μg/ml for one Serratia isolate with porin and efflux lesions...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Live L Nesse, Roger Simm
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. As bacteria commonly reside in biofilms, there has been an increased interest in studying these phenomena within biofilms in recent years...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Susanne Herold, Florian M Wagenlehner, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Trinad Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. The organisms in question include enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and non-fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of coresistance...
May 21, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Vishal Diwan, Nada Hanna, Manju Purohit, Salesh Chandran, Emilia Riggi, Vivek Parashar, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the seasonal variation, over one year, in water-quality, antibiotic residue levels, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from water and sediment of the Kshipra River in Central India. METHODS: Water and sediment samples were collected from seven selected points from the Kshipra River in the Indian city of Ujjain in the summer, rainy season, autumn and winter seasons in 2014. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Beatriz Suay-García, María Teresa Pérez-Gracia
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics...
June 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Liang-Chun Wang, Madeline Litwin, Zahraossadat Sahiholnasab, Wenxia Song, Daniel C Stein
Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) has become an emerging threat worldwide and heightens the need for monitoring treatment failures. N. gonorrhoeae , a gram-negative bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, infects humans exclusively and can form aggregates during infection. While minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests are often used for determining antibiotic resistance development and treatment, the knowledge of the true MIC in individual patients and how it relates to this laboratory measure is not known...
June 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Ashish Kumar Singh, Saurav Das, Samer Singh, Varsha Rani Gajamer, Nilu Pradhan, Yangchen Doma Lepcha, Hare Krishna Tiwari
Commensal bacteria are the representative of the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes present in a community. The usage of antibiotics along with the demographic factors is generally associated with an increase in antibiotics resistance in pathogens. Northeast (NE) India is untapped with regard to antibiotic resistance prevalence and spread. In the current study, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli in pre-school and school-going children (n = 550, 1-14 years old) from the rural areas of the state of Sikkim-an NE Indian state, with respect to associated demographic factors was investigated...
2018: PloS One
Valentina Maggini, Elisangela Miceli, Camilla Fagorzi, Isabel Maida, Marco Fondi, Elena Perrin, Alessio Mengoni, Patrizia Bogani, Carolina Chiellini, Stefano Mocali, Arturo Fabiani, Francesca Decorosi, Luciana Giovannetti, Fabio Firenzuoli, Renato Fani
A key factor in the study of plant-microbes interaction is the composition of plant microbiota, but little is known about the factors determining its functional and taxonomic organization. Here we investigated the possible forces driving the assemblage of bacterial endophytic and rhizospheric communities, isolated from two congeneric medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Heller, grown in the same soil, by analyzing bacterial strains (isolated from three different compartments, i...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Hiroshi Ogawara
Drug resistance, especially antibiotic resistance, is a growing threat to human health. To overcome this problem, it is significant to know precisely the mechanisms of drug resistance and/or self-resistance in various kingdoms, from bacteria through plants to animals, once more. This review compares the molecular mechanisms of the resistance against phycotoxins, toxins from marine and terrestrial animals, plants and fungi, and antibiotics. The results reveal that each kingdom possesses the characteristic features...
June 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Médea Padra, János Tamás Padra, John Benktander, Sara K Lindén
Gastrointestinal infections cause significant challenges and economic losses in animal husbandry. As pathogens becoming resistant to antibiotics are a growing concern worldwide, alternative strategies to treat infections in farmed animals are necessary in order to decrease the risk to human health and increase animal health and productivity. Mucosal surfaces are the most common route used by pathogens to enter the body. The mucosal surface that lines the gastrointestinal tract is covered by a continuously secreted mucus layer that protects the epithelial surface...
June 18, 2018: Microorganisms
Bat-Sheva Gottesman, Pnina Shitrit, Michal Katzir, Michal Chowers
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance in the community results in greater use of empiric broad spectrum antibiotics for patients at hospital admission. As a measure of antibiotic stewardship it is important to identify a patient population that can receive narrow spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate resistance patterns of Escherichia coli bloodstream infection (BSI) from strictly community-acquired infection and the impact of recent antibiotic use on this resistance...
June 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Ellen K Wagner, Jennifer A Maynard
Serum therapy fell out of favor 80 years ago, but antibodies against infectious diseases are now experiencing a renaissance. With the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the emergence of new pathogens, and a growing population of immunocompromised individuals coupled with improvements in antibody manufacturing and biological efficacy, antibodies are an increasingly attractive therapeutic option. In this review, we highlight successful clinical strategies and discuss recent applications of advanced antibody engineering approaches to combat infectious diseases...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
Carla Dias, Anabela Borges, Diana Oliveira, Antonio Martinez-Murcia, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
Background: The "One Health" concept recognizes that human health and animal health are interdependent and bound to the health of the ecosystem in which they (co)exist. This interconnection favors the transmission of bacteria and other infectious agents as well as the flow of genetic elements containing antibiotic resistance genes. This problem is worsened when pathogenic bacteria have the ability to establish as biofilms. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics and behaviour of microorganisms in both planktonic and biofilms states from the most diverse environmental niches to mitigate the emergence and dissemination of resistance...
2018: PeerJ
Fabian Panter, Daniel Krug, Sascha Baumann, Rolf Müller
There is astounding discrepancy between the genome-inscribed production capacity and the set of known secondary metabolite classes from many microorganisms as detected under laboratory cultivation conditions. Genome-mining techniques are meant to fill this gap, but in order to favor discovery of structurally novel as well as bioactive compounds it is crucial to amend genomics-based strategies with selective filtering principles. In this study, we followed a self-resistance guided approach aiming at the discovery of inhibitors of topoisomerase, known as valid target in both cancer and antibiotic therapy...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Aldo Tagliabue, Rino Rappuoli
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently the most alarming issue for human health. AMR already causes 700,000 deaths/year. It is estimated that 10 million deaths due to AMR will occur every year after 2050. This equals the number of people dying of cancer every year in present times. International institutions such as G20, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), UN General Assembly, European Union, and the UK and USA governments are calling for new antibiotics. To underline this emergency, a list of antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" has been published by WHO...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bao-Tao Liu, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Shu-Wei Wan, Jun-Jie Hao, Rui-De Jiang, Feng-Jing Song
Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer's markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Venkata K Ramaswamy, Attilio V Vargiu, Giuliano Malloci, Jürg Dreier, Paolo Ruggerone
Secondary multidrug transporters of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily contribute crucially to antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Compared to the most studied transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli , little is known about the molecular determinants of distinct polyspecificities of the most important RND transporters MexB and MexY of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . In an effort to add knowledge on this topic, we performed an exhaustive atomic-level comparison of the main putative recognition sites (access and deep binding pockets) in these two Mex transporters...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"