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Bacteria, antibiotic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110506/antibiotic-discovery-throughout-the-small-world-initiative-a-molecular-strategy-to-identify-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-involved-in-antagonistic-activity
#1
Elizabeth Davis, Tyler Sloan, Krista Aurelius, Angela Barbour, Elijah Bodey, Brigette Clark, Celeste Dennis, Rachel Drown, Megan Fleming, Allison Humbert, Elizabeth Glasgo, Trent Kerns, Kelly Lingro, MacKenzie McMillin, Aaron Meyer, Breanna Pope, April Stalevicz, Brittney Steffen, Austin Steindl, Carolyn Williams, Carmen Wimberley, Robert Zenas, Kristen Butela, Hans Wildschutte
The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production...
January 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109883/probing-transport-of-charged-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-through-ompc-a-membrane-channel-from-e-coli
#2
Ishan Ghai, Mathias Winterhalter, Richard Wagner
One of the major causes of antibiotic resistance in the Gram-negative bacteria is the low permeability across the outer membrane. Currently a main bottleneck in the development of effective antibiotics is the lack of a general method to quantify permeation which would allow screening for optimal scaffolds. Here, we present a permeation assay based on conventional electrophysiology. The method mainly involves application of concentration gradients of charged molecules with different electrophoretic mobilities through a membrane channel...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109787/synthesis-and-in-vitro-activity-of-dicationic-indolyl-diphenyl-ethers-as-novel-potent-antibiotic-agents-against-drug-resistant-bacteria
#3
Xiaofang Chen, Xinxin Hu, Yanbin Wu, Yonghua Liu, Cong Bian, Tongying Nie, Xuefu You, Laixing Hu
A series of 4,4'-bis-[2-(6-N-substituted-amidino)indolyl] diphenyl ether have been synthesized and tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity including a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and cytotoxicity. Most of these compounds have mainly shown anti-Gram positive bacteria activities especially against drug resistant bacterial strains MRSA, MRSE and VRE. The anti-MRSA and anti-MRSE activities of compound 7a and 7j were more potent than that of the lead compound 2, levofloxacin and vancomycin...
January 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109770/modulation-of-the-antibiotic-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-strains-of-coumarins-isolated-from-rutaceae-species
#4
Sara A L Madeiro, Nathalie H P B Borges, Augusto L Souto, Pedro T R de Figueiredo, José P Siqueira-Junior, Josean F Tavares
The first occurrences and dissemination of resistant microorganisms led to the inefficacy of many antibiotics, available in the market nowadays, therefore, the search for new substances with antimicrobial activity from natural sources has gained a great importance. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by coumarins such as bergapten, xantotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin obtained from two Rutaceae species (Metrodorea mollis and Pilocarpus spicatus)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109583/detection-of-recombinant-human-lactoferrin-and-lysozyme-produced-in-a-bitransgenic-cow
#5
Germán G Kaiser, Nicolás C Mucci, Vega González, Lourdes Sánchez, José A Parrón, María D Pérez, Miguel Calvo, Juan F Aller, Federico A Hozbor, Adrián A Mutto
Lactoferrin and lysozyme are 2 glycoproteins with great antimicrobial activity, being part of the nonspecific defensive system of human milk, though their use in commercial products is difficult because human milk is a limited source. Therefore, many investigations have been carried out to produce those proteins in biological systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, or plants. Mammals seem to be more suitable as expression systems for human proteins, however, especially for those that are glycosylated. In the present study, a bicistronic commercial vector containing a goat β-casein promoter and an internal ribosome entry site fragment between the human lactoferrin and human lysozyme genes was developed to allow the introduction of both genes into bovine adult fibroblasts in a single transfection...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108098/comparative-efficacies-of-daptomycin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-in-experimental-enterococcal-peritonitis
#6
Toshiki Kajihara, Shigeki Nakamura, Naoki Iwanaga, Kazuhiro Oshima, Katsuji Hirano, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae
Enterococci have become increasingly important pathogens for nosocomial infection (e.g. bacteremia, intra-abdominal infection, endocarditis, etc.), related to their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Although the in vitro susceptibility of daptomycin (DAP) against Enterococci is well established, the Food and Drug Administration has only approved its use for complicated skin and skin structure infections induced by Enterococcus faecalis. In this study we evaluated the potential therapeutic application of DAP in a murine model of enterococcal experimental peritonitis...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#7
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107379/experimental-and-in-silico-investigation-of-anti-microbial-activity-of-1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane-derivatives-of-thiomorpholine-piperazine-and-morpholine
#8
Charles O Nwuche, Oguejiofo T Ujam, Akachukwu Ibezim, Ifeoma B Ujam
The Antibiogram properties of 1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane derivatives of thiomorpholine (CTC), piperazine (CPC) and morpholine (CMC) were evaluated by the approved agar well diffusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in silico techniques. A total of fourteen microbial cultures consisting of ten bacteria and four yeast strains were used in the biological study while affinity of the compounds for DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, was investigated by docking method. Results indicate that both thiomorpholine and piperazine had zero activity against the Gram negative organisms tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106859/burkholderia-cepacia-complex-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Sílvia A Sousa, Joana R Feliciano, Tiago Pita, Soraia I Guerreiro, Jorge H Leitão
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria emerged as opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Their eradication is very difficult due to the high level of intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Bcc bacteria have large and complex genomes, composed of two to four replicons, with variable numbers of insertion sequences. The complexity of Bcc genomes confers a high genomic plasticity to these bacteria, allowing their adaptation and survival to diverse habitats, including the human host...
January 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106771/independent-effects-of-a-herbivore-s-bacterial-symbionts-on-its-performance-and-induced-plant-defences
#11
Heike Staudacher, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Mart M Lamers, Nicky Wybouw, Astrid T Groot, Merijn R Kant
It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106348/a-biosurfactant-inspired-heptapeptide-with-improved-specificity-to-kill-mrsa
#12
Yuan Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
The emergence and rapid spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to public health. New antibiotics and strategies are urgently needed to combat S. aureus associated infections. Bacaucin, a novel cyclic lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis CAU21, is reported. Bacaucin shows broad antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but is also hemolytic and cytotoxic. However, bacaucin-1, a bacaucin-inspired ring-opened heptapeptide, shows specific antibacterial activity against MRSA by a membrane-disruptive mechanism without detectable toxicity to mammalian cells or induction of bacterial resistance...
February 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105270/1-2-4-triazolidine-3-thiones-as-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
William M Huggins, Bradley M Minrovic, Brendan W Corey, Anna C Jacobs, Roberta J Melander, Roger D Sommer, Daniel V Zurawski, Christian Melander
With only two new classes of antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, novel antibiotics are desperately needed to combat the growing problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacteria. Described in this letter is the synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thiones as narrow spectrum antibiotics. Optimization of the 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thione scaffold identified a small molecule with potent antibiotic activity against multiple strains of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104524/the-role-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-clean-neurosurgery
#14
YiYao Cao, Ke Pu, Quodong Li, XueJiang Yan, Yue Ma, Kai Xue, ZhiMing Sun, QingGuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) and the risk factors for postoperative infections in clean neurosurgery. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on all patients who had undergone clean neurosurgical operation at our institution between January 2009 and December 2014.From January 2009 until October 2011, antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to every clean neurosurgical patient. From November 2011 to December 2014, no antibiotic prophylaxis (n-AP) was prescribed for all clean neurosurgical operations...
January 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104340/why-new-antibiotics-are-not-obviously-useful-now
#15
Grégory Dubourg, Cédric Abat, Didier Raoult
For several years, the threat of antibiotic resistance and its health cost has dramatically risen and various alarming figures have been proposed to illustrate the mortality due to antibiotic resistance. However, predictions concerning different living beings are doomed to failure, as theorised in Alice's 'living croquet' theory. Actors of antibiotic resistance are the doctors, the patient and the bacteria. Considering that animals and the environment are involved, future disasters are unpredictable. Here we evaluate in a rational manner the reliability of scientific sources showing increasing resistance to antibiotics or increasing mortality related to antibiotic resistance, and we finally consider antibiotic resources to face the situation...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101156/clinical-and-microbiological-profile-of-babies-born-with-risk-of-neonatal-sepsis
#16
Bin Zhou, Xiao Liu, Jie-Bin Wu, Bao Jin, Yan-Yan Zhang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antibiotics on the condition of babies born with risk of neonatal sepsis. From March, 2014 to February, 2015, 200 neonates born with risk factors of septicemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Xuzhou Central Hospital, were enrolled in the present study. Venous blood samples were collected within 6 h of birth using aseptic technique. Part of the blood specimens were cultured using BACTEC PEDS PLUS/F Culture Vials. Subsequently, the subcultures were prepared from each presumptive positive vial and bacterial isolates were identified...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101153/upregulated-effects-of-mir-7-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Hong Zhang, Haiqing Li, Yan Liu, Qingyan Li, Yufang Bi, Guiqing Fang
The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristic function of the upregulated effects of miR-7 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After separating the MRSA in clinic, the expression of miR-7 mRNA was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The overexpression, inhibition of miR-7, and control group were established by plasmid in vitro. Following transfection of the bacterial strain, the effect of β-lactam antibiotics in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed using the microporous dilution method, and antibacterial effects in vitro were observed using the dynamic growth curve method...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#18
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098416/motuporamine-derivatives-as-antimicrobial-agents-and-antibiotic-enhancers-against-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#19
Diane Borselli, Marine Blanchet, Jean-Michel Bolla, Aaron Muth, Kristen Skruber, Otto Phanstiel, Jean Michel Brunel
Dihydromotuporamine C and its derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and antibiotic enhancement properties against Gram-negative bacteria and clinical isolates. The mechanism of action of one of these derivatives, MOTU-N44, was investigated against Enterobacter aerogenes by using fluorescent dyes to evaluate outer-membrane depolarization and permeabilization. Its efficiency correlated with inhibition of dye transport, thus suggesting that these molecules inhibit drug transporters by de-energization of the efflux pump rather than by direct interaction of the molecule with the pump...
January 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097716/parental-knowledge-of-antibiotic-use-in-children-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Lourdes Cantarero-Arévalo, Mia Pavelics Hallas, Susanne Kaae
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global problem. AMR threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics (AB) is the major contributor to the emergence of resistant bacteria in humans. To present and describe characteristics in parents' knowledge about when and how to use AB for an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), their attitudes towards doctors and AB use in general, and their behaviour when their child suffers from an URTI...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
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