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Antibiotics for escherichia coli

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099061/iodometric-and-molecular-detection-of-esbl-production-among-clinical-isolates-of-e-coli-fingerprinted-by-eric-pcr-the-first-egyptian-report-declares-the-emergence-of-e-coli-o25b-st131clone-harboring-blages
#1
Mohamed F El-Badawy, Wael M Tawakol, Ibrahim A Maghrabi, Moselhy S Mansy, Mohamed M Shohayeb, Mohammed S Ashour
The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaVEB, blaPER, blaGES, and blaOXA-10) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (blaOXA-1) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#2
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098447/the-stories-tryptophans-tell-exploring-protein-dynamics-of-heptosyltransferase-i-from-escherichia-coli
#3
Joy M Cote, Carlos Andres Ramirez-Mondragon, Zarek S Siegel, Daniel Joseph Czyzyk, Jiali Gao, Yuk Yin Sham, Ishita Mukerji, Erika A Taylor
Heptosyltransferase I (HepI) catalyzes the addition of a single L-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose sugar (heptose) onto the membrane incorporated Kdo2-Lipid A as part of the biosynthesis of the core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Gram-negative bacteria with gene knockouts of HepI have reduced virulence with enhanced susceptibility to hydrophobic antibiotics, making design of inhibitors against HepI of interest. Previous studies have shown that HepI protein dynamics are partially rate limiting, and therefore disruption of protein dynamics might provide a new strategy for inhibiting HepI...
January 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#4
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
January 17, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#5
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#6
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096447/pbp1b-glycosyltransferase-and-transpeptidase-activities-play-different-essential-roles-during-the-de-novo-regeneration-of-rod-shaped-morphology-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Dev K Ranjit, Matthew A Jorgenson, Kevin D Young
: Peptidoglycan is a vital component of nearly all cell wall-bearing bacteria and is a valuable target for antibacterial therapy. However, despite decades of work, there remain important gaps in understanding how this macromolecule is synthesized and molded into a three-dimensional structure that imparts specific morphologies to individual cells. Here, we investigate the particularly enigmatic area of how peptidoglycan is synthesized and shaped during the first stages of creating cell shape de novo, that is, in the absence of a pre-existing template...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096446/the-rpn-yhga-like-proteins-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-their-contribution-to-reca-independent-horizontal-transfer
#8
Anthony W Kingston, Christine Ponkratz, Elisabeth A Raleigh
: Bacteria use a variety of DNA mobilizing enzymes to facilitate environmental niche adaptation via horizontal gene transfer. This has led to real world problems, like the spread of antibiotic resistance, yet many mobilization proteins remain undefined. Here, we investigate the uncharacterized family of YhgA-like "transposase_31" proteins (PF04754). Our primary focus was the genetic and biochemical properties of the five E. coli K-12 members of this family, which we designate RpnA-RpnE for recombination promoting nuclease...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096159/genome-analysis-of-the-carbapenem-and-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolate-nrz14408-reveal-horizontal-gene-transfer-pathways-towards-pan-resistance-and-enhanced-virulence
#9
Linda Falgenhauer, Hiren Ghosh, Swapnil Doijad, Yancheng Yao, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Martin Kaase, Rolf Hilker, Jörg Overmann, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty
Colistin is used as a last-resort antibiotic for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, in particular for carbapenem-resistant isolates.….
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096153/plasmidic-qnr-genes-confer-clinical-resistance-to-ciprofloxacin-under-urinary-tract-physiological-conditions
#10
Guillermo Martín-Gutiérrez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Álvaro Pascual, Jerónimo Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jesús Blázquez
Escherichia coli variants expressing plasmid-mediated qnr genes are usually susceptible to fluoroquinolones by standard susceptibility testing. Here we show that, under specific urinary tract physiological conditions, susceptible laboratory and clinical strains harboring qnr determinants become fully resistant to ciprofloxacin. Therefore, physiological conditions, mainly urine pH values, should be considered for susceptibility testing of CIP activity against E. coli in UTIs and for selecting appropriate antibiotics for UTI treatment...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095794/development-of-an-algorithm-for-phenotypic-screening-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-routine-laboratory
#11
Jérôme Robert, Alix Pantel, Audrey Merens, Elodie Meiller, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are difficult to identify among carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NSE). We designed phenotypic strategies giving priority to high sensitivity for screening putative CPE before further testing. METHODS: Presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in ertapenem NSE (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) consecutively isolated in 80 French laboratories between November 2011 and April 2012 was determined by the Check-MDR-CT103 array method...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095785/risk-factors-and-medical-costs-for-healthcare-associated-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-infection-among-hospitalized-patients-in-a-chinese-teaching-hospital
#12
Xiujuan Meng, Sidi Liu, Juping Duan, Xun Huang, Pengcheng Zhou, Xinrui Xiong, Ruie Gong, Ying Zhang, Yao Liu, Chenchao Fu, Chunhui Li, Anhua Wu
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) is becoming a serious problem in Chinese hospitals, however, the data on this is scarce. Therefore, we investigate the risk factors for healthcare-associated CREC infection and study the incidence, antibiotic resistance and medical costs of CREC infections in our hospital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control-control, parallel study in a tertiary teaching hospital...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095119/fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-strains-is-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalized-in-the-pediatric-oncology-unit-of-beni-messous-hospital-in-algiers-algeria
#13
Chafiaa Medboua-Benbalagh, Abdelaziz Touati, Rachida Kermas, Alima Gharout-Sait, Lucien Brasme, Halima Mezhoud, Djamila Touati, Thomas Guillard, Christophe de Champs
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) fecal carriage in children with different cancers admitted in the pediatric oncology unit of Beni-Messous Hospital (Algiers, Algeria). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs from children with cancer were sampled from February 2012 to May 2013 within 48 hours following their admission. After species identification and detection of ESBL production by double-disk synergy test (DD test), antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093452/a-time-to-save
#14
Carol J Baker
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), characterized by Lancefield in 1933, was not recognized as a human pathogen until the early 1970s when it emerged and replaced Escherichia coli as the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis among neonates and young infants. This article briefly gives a personnel account of the discovery of clinical syndromes of GBS distinguished by age at onset, vertical mode of transmission for early-onset disease, meningeal tropism for GBS capsular (CPS) type III strains, and protective CPS epitopes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093116/captive-and-free-living-urban-pigeons-columba-livia-from-brazil-as-carriers-of-multidrug-resistant-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Clarissa A Borges, Renato P Maluta, Lívia G Beraldo, Marita V Cardozo, Elisabete A L Guastalli, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Chitrita DebRoy, Fernando A Ávila
Thirty Escherichia coli isolates from captive and free-living pigeons in Brazil were characterised. Virulence-associated genes identified in pigeons included those which occur relatively frequently in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from commercial poultry worldwide. Eleven of 30 E. coli isolates from pigeons, belonging mainly to B1 and B2 phylogenetic groups, had high or intermediate pathogenicity for 1-day-old chicks. The frequency of multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli in captive pigeons was relatively high and included one isolate positive for the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-8...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091786/a-new-look-at-the-drug-resistance-investigation-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-strains
#16
Wioletta Adamus-Białek, Łukasz Lechowicz, Anna B Kubiak-Szeligowska, Monika Wawszczak, Ewelina Kamińska, Magdalena Chrapek
Bacterial drug resistance and uropathogenic tract infections are among the most important issues of current medicine. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are the primary factor of this issue. This article is the continuation of the previous study, where we used Kohonen relations to predict the direction of drug resistance. The characterized collection of uropathogenic E. coli strains was used for microbiological (the disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing), chemical (ATR/FT-IR) and mathematical (artificial neural networks, Ward's hierarchical clustering method, the analysis of distributions of inhibition zone diameters for antibiotics, Cohen's kappa measure of agreement) analysis...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087946/invasion-of-host-cells-and-tissues-by-uropathogenic-bacteria
#17
Adam J Lewis, Amanda C Richards, Matthew A Mulvey
Within the mammalian urinary tract uropathogenic bacteria face many challenges, including the shearing flow of urine, numerous antibacterial molecules, the bactericidal effects of phagocytes, and a scarcity of nutrients. These problems may be circumvented in part by the ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and several other uropathogens to invade the epithelial cells that line the urinary tract. By entering host cells, uropathogens can gain access to additional nutrients and protection from both host defenses and antibiotic treatments...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087782/mutation-supply-and-relative-fitness-shape-the-genotypes-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli
#18
Douglas L Huseby, Franziska Pietsch, Gerrit Brandis, Linnéa Garoff, Angelica Tegehall, Diarmaid Hughes
Ciprofloxacin is an important antibacterial drug targeting Type II topoisomerases, highly active against Gram-negatives including Escherichia coli The evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli always requires multiple genetic changes, usually including mutations affecting two different drug target genes, gyrA and parC Resistant mutants selected in vitro or in vivo can have many different mutations in target genes and efflux regulator genes that contribute to resistance. Among resistant clinical isolates the genotype, gyrA S83L D87N, parC S80I is significantly overrepresented suggesting that it has a selective advantage...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#19
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081583/-early-results-of-adjuvant-topical-treatment-of-recurrent-osteomyelitis-with-absorbable-antibiotic-carriers
#20
Y Gramlich, G Walter, J Gils, R Hoffmann
Background Treatment of musculoskeletal infections principally consists of radical surgical debridement and systemic administration of antibiotics. Additional local antibiotic therapy is not yet generally established, and lacks evidence-based proof of efficacy. Nonetheless, there are a variety of practical approaches, as most specialised departments are unwilling to forego this option. The established polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) carrier system has a number of practical disadvantages. This has led to the increased use of absorbable carrier systems, and those based on calcium sulphate have given particularly encouraging results...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
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