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Antibiotics for escherichia coli

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#1
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635681/antimicrobial-activity-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-ti-6al-4v-metal-oxide
#2
Nina A Reger, Wilson S Meng, Ellen S Gawalt
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632788/high-throughput-identification-and-rational-design-of-synergistic-small-molecule-pairs-for-combating-and-bypassing-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Morgan A Wambaugh, Viplendra P S Shakya, Adam J Lewis, Matthew A Mulvey, Jessica C S Brown
Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630239/an-unusual-case-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection-with-pseudomembranous-colitis-like-lesions-associated-with-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-and-neurological-sequelae
#4
James Kennedy, Lauren Simmonds, Robert Orme, Warren Doherty
A 75-year-old man was admitted with abdominal pain and fresh rectal bleeding. Significantly, he had no risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. An abdominal CT demonstrated colonic thickening, and flexible sigmoidoscopy identified pseudomembranous colitis-like lesions. After initial treatment as C. difficile colitis, a stool sample revealed Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Antibiotic therapy was stopped due to the risk of lysis-mediated toxin release, but unfortunately, the patient continued to deteriorate...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630184/occurrence-of-clinically-important-lineages-including-the-st131-c1-m27-subclone-among-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-wastewater
#5
Ryota Gomi, Tomonari Matsuda, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Michio Tanaka, Satoshi Ichiyama, Minoru Yoneda
Contamination of environmental waters by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) is of great concern. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospitals release large amounts of ESBLEC into the environment. In the present study, we isolated ESBLEC strains from wastewater collected from a WWTP and a hospital in Japan and performed whole-genome sequencing to characterize these strains. Genomic analysis of 54 strains (32 from the WWTP and 22 from hospital wastewater) revealed the occurrence of clinically important clonal groups with extraintestinal pathogenic E...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629757/bacterial-biofilm-based-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-causative-pathogens-and-antibiotic-resistance
#6
Nargis Sabir, Aamer Ikram, Gohar Zaman, Luqman Satti, Adeel Gardezi, Abeera Ahmed, Parvez Ahmed
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the incidence of bacterial biofilm-based catheter-associated urinary tract infections, identify variables affecting biofilm formation, and identify etiologic bacterial pathogens and antibiotic-resistance patterns associated with biofilm-based catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in our setup. METHODS: Patients who developed at least 2 symptoms of urinary tract infection after at least 2 days of indwelling urinary catheters were included...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626737/high-level-bacterial-contamination-of-secondary-school-students-mobile-phones
#7
Siiri Kõljalg, Rando Mändar, Tiina Sõber, Tiiu Rööp, Reet Mändar
INTRODUCTION: While contamination of mobile phones in the hospital has been found to be common in several studies, little information about bacterial abundance on phones used in the community is available. Our aim was to quantitatively determine the bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones. METHODS: Altogether 27 mobile phones were studied. The contact plate method and microbial identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used for culture studies...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626609/detection-and-drug-resistance-profile-of-escherichia-coli-from-subclinical-mastitis-cows-and-water-supply-in-dairy-farms-in-saraburi-province-thailand
#8
Woranich Hinthong, Natapol Pumipuntu, Sirijan Santajit, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Shutipen Buranasinsup, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pisinee Aiumurai, Nitaya Indrawattana
Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625768/screening-and-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacterial-strains-that-produce-fermented-milk-and-reduce-cholesterol-levels
#9
Xuefang Guan, Qingxian Xu, Yi Zheng, Lei Qian, Bin Lin
OBJECTIVE: To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. METHODS: The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. RESULTS: The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study...
June 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625025/-causative-bacterial-strains-and-sensitivityto-antimicrobial-agents-in-female-acute-uncomplicated-cystitis
#10
Takuya Owari, Tomoki Yamamoto, Shinichiro Mizobuchi, Yositaka Itami, Tomonori Nakahama, Yosihiro Matsumoto, Kaoru Yamada, Hitoshi Momose
Recently, wide spreading of fluoloquinolone resistant Escherichia coli is a serious problem inthe treatment of urinary tract infection. To investigate the causative bacterial strains of female acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in the community and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 215 female AUC patients treated at our clinics from April 2014 to June 2015. Two hundred and nineteen strains were isolated as the causative bacteria from the patients'urine samples, including E...
May 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623341/metabolic-fingerprinting-of-bacteria-by-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#11
Arunima Bhattacharjee, Rupsa Datta, Enrico Gratton, Allon I Hochbaum
Bacterial populations exhibit a range of metabolic states influenced by their environment, intra- and interspecies interactions. The identification of bacterial metabolic states and transitions between them in their native environment promises to elucidate community behavior and stochastic processes, such as antibiotic resistance acquisition. In this work, we employ two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to create a metabolic fingerprint of individual bacteria and populations. FLIM of autofluorescent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), NAD(P)H, has been previously exploited for label-free metabolic imaging of mammalian cells...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622712/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-modulatory-potential-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-%C3%AE-bisabolol-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-complex
#12
Fernanda de Sousa Oliveira, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Maria do Socorro Costa, Raimundo Luiz Silva Pereira, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Tatianny de Araújo Andrade, Paula Dos Passos Menezes, Bruna Maria Hipólito de Sousa, Paula Santos Nunes, Mairim Russo Serafini, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and modulatory potential of α-bisabolol, β-cyclodextrin and α-bisabolol/β-cyclodextrin complex. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined through the broth microdilution technique using the bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The drugs norfloxacin, imipenem and gentamicin were used in the tests, and the compounds α-bisabolol and β-cyclodextrin; all the compounds were diluted in DMSO. To obtain the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) a serial microdilution of the substances in volumes corresponding to the sub-inhibitory concentration (MIC/8), and microdilution with the antibiotic until the penultimate well were performed...
June 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621711/indigenous-probiotic-lactobacillus-isolates-presenting-antibiotic-like-activity-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
Debashis Halder, Manisha Mandal, Shiv Sekhar Chatterjee, Nishith Kumar Pal, Shyamapada Mandal
BACKGROUND: Indigenous lactic acid bacteria are well known probiotics having antibacterial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to characterize the curd lactobacilli for their probiotic potentiality and antagonistic activity against clinical bacteria. METHODS: Four curd samples were processed microbiologically for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB strains obtained were identified by conventional methods: cultural aspect, gram-staining, biochemical and sugar fermentation tests...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#14
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621579/optimization-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-biofilms-by-inhibiting-efflux-pump
#15
Tatiana Maria Starck Fogaça de Aguiar Coletti, Laura Marise de Freitas, Ana Marisa Fusco Almeida, Carla Raquel Fontana
BACKGROUND: One of the main mechanisms of microbial resistance is given by efflux pumps, which reduce the effectiveness of antimicrobials by decreasing their intracellular concentration. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Considering that efflux pump inhibitors are promising adjuvant molecules for antibiotics in infections, in this study, using XTT test and colony forming unit (CFU) counting, we evaluated the association between the pump inhibitor verapamil (VP) and the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by methylene blue (MB) in biofilms of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to optimize the bacterial reduction...
June 15, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620609/antibiotic-resistances-in-livestock-a-comparative-approach-to-identify-an-appropriate-regression-model-for-count-data
#16
Anke Hüls, Cornelia Frömke, Katja Ickstadt, Katja Hille, Johanna Hering, Christiane von Münchhausen, Maria Hartmann, Lothar Kreienbrock
Antimicrobial resistance in livestock is a matter of general concern. To develop hygiene measures and methods for resistance prevention and control, epidemiological studies on a population level are needed to detect factors associated with antimicrobial resistance in livestock holdings. In general, regression models are used to describe these relationships between environmental factors and resistance outcome. Besides the study design, the correlation structures of the different outcomes of antibiotic resistance and structural zero measurements on the resistance outcome as well as on the exposure side are challenges for the epidemiological model building process...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620369/characterization-of-bile-salt-hydrolase-from-lactobacillus-gasseri-fr4-and-demonstration-of-its-substrate-specificity-and-inhibitory-mechanism-using-molecular-docking-analysis
#17
Rizwana Parveen Rani, Marimuthu Anandharaj, Abraham David Ravindran
Probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the health of poultry animals, thus are used as alternative candidates for antibiotics used as growth promoters (AGPs). However, they also reduce the body weight gain due to innate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Hence, the addition of a suitable BSH inhibitor along with the probiotic feed can decrease the BSH activity. In this study, a BSH gene (981 bp) encoding 326-amino acids was identified from the genome of Lactobacillus gasseri FR4 (LgBSH). The LgBSH-encoding gene was cloned and purified using an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system, and its molecular weight (37 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and a Western blot analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620255/detection-of-emerging-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria-isolated-from-subclinical-mastitis-in-cattle-in-west-bengal
#18
Arnab Das, Chanchal Guha, Ujjwal Biswas, Partha Sarathi Jana, Amaresh Chatterjee, Indranil Samanta
AIM: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620254/isolation-morphological-identification-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-azadirachta-indica-neem-leaves
#19
Ankit Kumar Singh, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Varsha Sharma, Tanmay Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Dimple Kumari
AIM: The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, their identification and investigate their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh leaves of A. indica (neem) was procured from the Department of Botany, JNKVV, Jabalpur...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619146/dynamics-of-cmy-2-producing-e-coli-in-a-broiler-parent-flock
#20
Anita Dame-Korevaar, Egil A J Fischer, Arjan Stegeman, Dik Mevius, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Francisca Velkers, Jeanet van der Goot
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n=228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n=66)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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