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Applied behaviour analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228573/grace-under-pressure-a-drama-based-approach-to-tackling-mistreatment-of-medical-students
#1
Karen M Scott, Špela Berlec, Louise Nash, Claire Hooker, Paul Dwyer, Paul Macneill, Jo River, Kimberley Ivory
A positive and respectful learning environment is fundamental to the development of professional identities in healthcare. Yet medical students report poor behaviour from healthcare professionals that contradict professionalism teaching. An interdisciplinary group designed and implemented a drama-based workshop series, based on applied theatre techniques, to help students develop positive professional qualities and interpersonal skills to deal with challenges in the healthcare setting. We piloted the workshops at the University of Sydney in 2015...
March 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228516/trial-and-error-copying-of-demonstrated-actions-reveals-how-fledglings-learn-to-imitate-their-mothers
#2
Noa Truskanov, Arnon Lotem
Understanding how humans and other animals learn to perform an act from seeing it done has been a major challenge in the study of social learning. To determine whether this ability is based on 'true imitation', many studies have applied the two-action experimental paradigm, examining whether subjects learn to perform the specific action demonstrated to them. Here, we show that the insights gained from animals' success in two-action experiments may be limited, and that a better understanding is achieved by monitoring subjects' entire behavioural repertoire...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222546/recovering-functional-independence-after-a-stroke-through-modified-constraint-induced-therapy
#3
A Doussoulin, M Arancibia, J Saiz, A Silva, M Luengo
BACKGROUND: Population ageing and changes in the epidemiological profile of neurological pathologies has resulted in an increase in patients with disabilities. Rehabilitation strategies such as Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMTm) play a key role in treating patients with neurologic deficiencies and motor impairments. This intervention is intended to mitigate disability, promote maximum functional independence, and optimize social and economic participation of patients with upper extremity weakness...
January 31, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220738/the-influence-of-hiv-infection-on-the-age-dependence-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-skin-in-south-africa
#4
B L Diffey, M Norval, P N Albers, C Y Wright
BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence typically increases with age, but it is not known whether ethnic characteristics influence the age dependence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC). OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine the age dependence of SCC in the black African, coloured and white population groups of South Africa (SA); and (ii) to show whether any differences in the rate of change of age dependence could be influenced by diversity in behaviour and lifestyle, especially with regard to the prevalence of HIV infection, rather than by a fundamental variation in cancer biology between the populations...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220333/developing-skilled-doctor-patient-communication-in-the-workplace-a-qualitative-study-of-the-experiences-of-trainees-and-clinical-supervisors
#5
Esther Giroldi, Wemke Veldhuijzen, Kristel Geelen, Jean Muris, Frits Bareman, Herman Bueving, Trudy van der Weijden, Cees van der Vleuten
To inform the development of recommendations to facilitate learning of skilled doctor-patient communication in the workplace, this qualitative study explores experiences of trainees and supervisors regarding how trainees learn communication and how supervisors support trainees' learning in the workplace. We conducted a qualitative study in a general practice training setting, triangulating various sources of data to obtain a rich understanding of trainees and supervisors' experiences: three focus group discussions, five discussions during training sessions and five individual interviews...
February 20, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214614/predicting-medical-professionals-intention-to-allow-family-presence-during-resuscitation-a-cross-sectional-survey
#6
Meng-Kuan Lai, Bayu Aji Aritejo, Jing-Shia Tang, Chien-Liang Chen, Chia-Chang Chuang
BACKGROUND: Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211922/applying-phasor-approach-analysis-of-multiphoton-flim-measurements-to-probe-the-metabolic-activity-of-three-dimensional-in-vitro-cell-culture-models
#7
Pirmin H Lakner, Michael G Monaghan, Yvonne Möller, Monilola A Olayioye, Katja Schenke-Layland
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can measure and discriminate endogenous fluorophores present in biological samples. This study seeks to identify FLIM as a suitable method to non-invasively detect a shift in cellular metabolic activity towards glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation in 3D Caco-2 models of colorectal carcinoma. These models were treated with potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide as controls, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a physiologically-relevant influencer of cell metabolic behaviour...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208789/doses-of-nearby-nature-simultaneously-associated-with-multiple-health-benefits
#8
Daniel T C Cox, Danielle F Shanahan, Hannah L Hudson, Richard A Fuller, Karen Anderson, Steven Hancock, Kevin J Gaston
Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203306/accounting-for-thermodynamic-non-ideality-in-the-guinier-region-of-small-angle-scattering-data-of-proteins
#9
David J Scott
Hydrodynamic studies of the solution properties of proteins and other biological macromolecules are often hard to interpret when the sample is present at a reasonably concentrated solution. The reason for this is that solutions exhibit deviations from ideal behaviour which is manifested as thermodynamic non-ideality. The range of concentrations at which this behaviour typically is exhibited is as low as 1-2 mg/ml, well within the range of concentrations used for their analysis by techniques such as small-angle scattering...
December 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197801/team-sports-performance-analysed-through-the-lens-of-social-network-theory-implications-for-research-and-practice
#10
João Ribeiro, Pedro Silva, Ricardo Duarte, Keith Davids, Júlio Garganta
This paper discusses how social network analyses and graph theory can be implemented in team sports performance analyses to evaluate individual (micro) and collective (macro) performance data, and how to use this information for designing practice tasks. Moreover, we briefly outline possible limitations of social network studies and provide suggestions for future research. Instead of cataloguing discrete events or player actions, it has been argued that researchers need to consider the synergistic interpersonal processes emerging between teammates in competitive performance environments...
February 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196454/quality-of-life-and-ethics
#11
Laís Fumincelli, Alessandra Mazzo, José Carlos Amado Martins, Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes
BACKGROUND: In health, ethics is an essential aspect of practice and care and guarantees a better quality of life for patients and their caregivers. OBJECTIVE: To outline a conceptual analysis of quality of life and ethics, identifying attributes, contexts and magnitudes for health. METHOD: A qualitative design about quality of life and ethics in health, considering the evolutionary approach in order to analyse the concept. To collect the data, a search was done using the keywords ethic*, quality of life and health...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184079/academic-performance-of-undergraduate-dental-students-with-learning-disabilities
#12
K Ali, D Zahra, C Coelho, G Jones, C Tredwin
Aims To compare the academic performance of undergraduate dental students with known learning disabilities (LDs) to their peers.Methods This study analysed the results of students in applied dental knowledge (ADK) progress tests across four cohorts of dental students. A mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the performance of students with known disability to their peers. ADK test sitting was treated as a repeated measures variable, and the outcome variable of interest was percentage score on the ADK...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183374/experiences-of-codeine-use-misuse-and-dependence-application-of-liese-and-franz-s-cognitive-developmental-model-of-substance-abuse
#13
Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Eileen Rich, Michael Bergin
BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178765/enantioselective-analysis-of-citalopram-and-demethylcitalopram-in-human-whole-blood-by-chiral-lc-ms-ms-and-application-in-forensic-cases
#14
Sys Stybe Johansen
Citalopram is one of the most frequently used antidepressants in Denmark. Citalopram is marketed as a racemic mixture (50:50) of S- and R-enantiomers as well as of the S-enantiomer alone, which is the active enantiomer named escitalopram that processes the inhibitory effects. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0...
February 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176383/an-application-of-the-health-action-process-approach-model-to-oral-hygiene-behaviour-and-dental-plaque-in-adolescents-with-fixed-orthodontic-appliances
#15
Janneke F M Scheerman, Pepijn van Empelen, Cor van Loveren, Amir H Pakpour, Berno van Meijel, Maryam Gholami, Zaher Mierzaie, Matheus C T van den Braak, Gijsbert H W Verrips
BACKGROUND: The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model addresses health behaviours, but it has never been applied to model adolescents' oral hygiene behaviour during fixed orthodontic treatment. AIM: This study aimed to apply the HAPA model to explain adolescents' oral hygiene behaviour and dental plaque during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 116 adolescents with fixed appliances from an orthodontic clinic situated in Almere (the Netherlands) completed a questionnaire assessing oral health behaviours and the psychosocial factors of the HAPA model...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164205/single-cell-resolution-of-intracellular-t-cell-ca-2-dynamics-in-response-to-frequency-based-h2o2-stimulation
#16
Ariel S Kniss-James, Catherine A Rivet, Loice Chingozha, Hang Lu, Melissa L Kemp
Adaptive immune cells, such as T cells, integrate information from their extracellular environment through complex signaling networks with exquisite sensitivity in order to direct decisions on proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine production. These signaling networks are reliant on the interplay between finely tuned secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) and H2O2. Frequency response analysis, originally developed in control engineering, is a tool used for discerning complex networks. This analytical technique has been shown to be useful for understanding biological systems and facilitates identification of the dominant behaviour of the system...
February 6, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160360/using-cluster-analysis-of-anxiety-depression-to-identify-subgroups-of-prostate-cancer-patients-for-targeted-treatment-planning
#17
Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Amelia K Warren, David R H Christie
OBJECTIVE: To explore any possible subgroupings of prostate cancer (PCa) patients based upon their combined anxiety-depression symptoms for the purposes of informing targeted treatments. METHODS: A sample of 119 prostate cancer patients completed the GAD7 (anxiety) and PHQ9 (depression), plus a background questionnaire, by mail survey. Data on the GAD7 and PHQ9 were used in a Cluster Analysis procedure to identify and define any cohesive subgroupings of patients within the sample...
February 3, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159027/intimate-partner-violence-screening-and-the-comparative-effects-of-screening-mode-on-disclosure-of-sensitive-health-behaviours-and-exposures-in-clinical-settings
#18
T Frazier, K M Yount
OBJECTIVE: Detecting sensitive health information in clinical settings is of scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mode of screening influenced disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) in patterns similar to other forms of sensitive information. STUDY DESIGN: This cross sectional study was designed to compare effects of face-to-face vs computer self-assessment for sensitive health information on disclosure rates...
February 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158307/aspasia-a-toolkit-for-evaluating-the-effects-of-biological-interventions-on-sbml-model-behaviour
#19
Stephanie Evans, Kieran Alden, Lourdes Cucurull-Sanchez, Christopher Larminie, Mark C Coles, Marika C Kullberg, Jon Timmis
A calibrated computational model reflects behaviours that are expected or observed in a complex system, providing a baseline upon which sensitivity analysis techniques can be used to analyse pathways that may impact model responses. However, calibration of a model where a behaviour depends on an intervention introduced after a defined time point is difficult, as model responses may be dependent on the conditions at the time the intervention is applied. We present ASPASIA (Automated Simulation Parameter Alteration and SensItivity Analysis), a cross-platform, open-source Java toolkit that addresses a key deficiency in software tools for understanding the impact an intervention has on system behaviour for models specified in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153673/quantitative-analysis-of-menthol-in-human-urine-using-solid-phase-microextraction-and-stable-isotope-dilution-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Wenlin Huang, Benjamin C Blount, Clifford H Watson, Christina Watson, David M Chambers
To accurately measure menthol levels in human urine, we developed a method using gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometry with menthol-d4 stable isotope internal standardization. We used solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling for collection, preconcentration and automation. Conjugated forms of menthol were released using β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to allow for measuring total menthol. Additionally, we processed the specimens without using β-glucuronidase/sulfatase to quantify the levels of unconjugated (free) menthol in urine...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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