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Applied behaviour analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786526/application-of-multiple-behaviour-change-models-to-identify-determinants-of-farmers-biosecurity-attitudes-and-behaviours
#1
I F Richens, J Houdmont, W Wapenaar, O Shortall, J Kaler, H O'Connor, M L Brennan
It has been recognised that few cattle farmers undertake biosecurity practices on their farms. Approaches that take into consideration individuals' preparedness for change, alongside beliefs thought to motivate the enactment of certain behaviours, may provide a framework for actuating tangible change. The aim of this study was to use a combination of behaviour change models to link beliefs with behaviour and identify possible key interventions to improve the uptake of biosecurity measures by dairy cattle farmers in Great Britain (GB)...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784897/effect-of-alcohol-use-on-injection-and-sexual-behavior-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tehran-iran-a-coarsened-exact-matching-approach
#2
Mehdi Noroozi, Brandon D L Marshall, Alireza Noroozi, Bahram Armoon, Hamid Sharifi, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Abbasi, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan
BACKGROUND: Many studies have recognized the importance of sexual and injection risk behaviors in HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to examine effect of alcohol use on sexual and injection risky behavior using coarsened exact matching (CEM) approach among PWID in Tehran, Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted from Mar to Aug 2016 in Tehran, Iran. PWID were recruited by a convenience and snowball sampling from five of Drop-in Centers (DICs) in Tehran...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777726/a-novel-approach-to-probabilistic-characterisation-of-neural-firing-patterns
#3
Gorana Mijatović, Tatjana Lončar-Turukalo, Emmanuel Procyk, Dragana Bajić
BACKGROUND: The advances in extracellular neural recording techniques result in big data volumes that necessitate fast, reliable, and automatic identification of statistically similar units. This study proposes a single framework yielding a compact set of probabilistic descriptors that characterise the firing patterns of a single unit. NEW METHOD: Probabilistic features are estimated from an inter-spike-interval time series, without assumptions about the firing distribution or the stationarity...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767553/mating-system-in-the-brown-rot-pathogens-monilinia-fructicola-monilinia-laxa-and-monilinia-fructigena
#4
Domenico Abate, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Caterina Rotolo, Stefania Pollastro, Francesco Faretra
Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena are the most important pathogens responsible for brown rot disease of stone and pome fruits. Information on their mating system and sexual behaviour is scant. A mating-type specific PCR-based assay was developed and applied to 155 Monilinia isolates from ten countries and ten different host plants. We showed that single isolates carry only one of two opposite idiomorphs at the MAT1 locus consistent with a heterothallic mating system for all three species...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761539/-fat-is-really-a-four-letter-word-exploring-weight-related-communication-best-practices-in-children-with-and-without-disabilities-and-their-caregivers
#5
A C McPherson, T J Knibbe, M Oake, J A Swift, N Browne, G D C Ball, J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals play a critical role in preventing and managing childhood obesity, but the American Academy of Pediatrics recently stressed the importance of using sensitive and nonstigmatizing language when discussing weight with children and families. Although barriers to weight-related discussions are well known, there are few evidence-based recommendations around communication best practices. Disability populations in particular have previously been excluded from work in this area...
May 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751754/examining-diffusion-to-understand-the-how-of-sasa-a-violence-against-women-and-hiv-prevention-intervention-in-uganda
#6
Elizabeth Starmann, Lori Heise, Nambusi Kyegombe, Karen Devries, Tanya Abramsky, Lori Michau, Tina Musuya, Charlotte Watts, Martine Collumbien
BACKGROUND: A growing number of complex public health interventions combine mass media with community-based "change agents" and/or mobilisation efforts acting at multiple levels. While impact evaluations are important, there is a paucity of research into the more nuanced roles intervention and social network factors may play in achieving intervention outcomes, making it difficult to understand how different aspects of the intervention worked (or did not). This study applied aspects of diffusion of innovations theory to explore how SASA!, a community mobilisation approach for preventing HIV and violence against women, diffused within intervention communities and the factors that influenced the uptake of new ideas and behaviours around intimate partner relationships and violence...
May 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747578/associations-between-health-related-self-efficacy-and-suicidality
#7
Vivian Isaac, Chia-Yi Wu, Craig S McLachlan, Ming-Been Lee
BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on exploring the association of self-efficacy and suicidal behaviour. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between health-related self-efficacy and suicidality outcomes, including lifetime/recent suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and future intent of suicide. METHODS: A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system was used to draw potential respondents aged over 15 in Taiwan via telephone numbers, which were selected by a stratified proportional randomization method according to the distribution of population size in different geographic areas of Taiwan...
May 10, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746584/specific-serum-and-csf-microrna-profiles-distinguish-sporadic-behavioural-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia-compared-with-alzheimer-patients-and-cognitively-healthy-controls
#8
Johannes Denk, Felix Oberhauser, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang, Klaus Fassbender, Matthias L Schroeter, Alexander E Volk, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Johannes Prudlo, Adrian Danek, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Martin Lauer, Markus Otto, Holger Jahn
Information on circulating miRNAs in frontotemporal lobar degeneration is very limited and conflicting results have complicated an interpretation in Alzheimer's disease thus far. In the present study we I) collected samples from multiple clinical centers across Germany, II) defined 3 homogenous patient groups with high sample sizes (bvFTD n = 48, AD n = 48 and cognitively healthy controls n = 44), III) compared expression levels in both CSF and serum samples and IV) detected a limited set of miRNAs by using a MIQE compliant protocol based on SYBR-green miRCURY assays that have proven reliable to generate reproducible results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742275/early-intensive-behavioral-intervention-eibi-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd
#9
REVIEW
Brian Reichow, Kara Hume, Erin E Barton, Brian A Boyd
BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases the need for evidence-based behavioral treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms on children's functioning. At present, there are no curative or psychopharmacological therapies to effectively treat all symptoms of the disorders. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is a treatment based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. Delivered for multiple years at an intensity of 20 to 40 hours per week, it is one of the more well-established treatments for ASD...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739986/the-influence-of-different-ph-on-the-electrophoretic-behaviour-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-modified-by-calcium-ions
#10
Agnieszka Rogowska, Paweł Pomastowski, Michał Złoch, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Anna Król, Katarzyna Rafińska, Małgorzata Szultka-Młyńska, Bogusław Buszewski
The effect of a different pH on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells modified with calcium ions was investigated by the capillary zone electrophoresis technique. For the identification of the wild strain of S. cerevisiae, the ribosomal nucleic acid sequencing and internal transcribed spacer sequencing as well as spectrometric approach were applied. The potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have shown the occurrence of active functional groups such as carboxyl, amine/hydroxyl, phosphate/hydrogen phosphate groups on the surface of native yeast cells...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733376/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-stop-smoking-interventions-in-substance-use-disorder-populations-undergoing-treatment
#11
Andrew Healey, Sarah Roberts, Nick Sevdalis, Lucy Goulding, Sophie Wilson, Kate Shaw, Caroline Jolley, Deborah Robson
Background: Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among people attending treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD). In the UK, specialist support to stop smoking is largely delivered by a national network of Stop Smoking Services, and typically comprises of behavioural support delivered by trained practitioners on an individual (one-to-one) or group basis combined with a pharmacological smoking cessation aid. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these interventions, and compare cost-effectiveness for interventions using group- and individual-based support, in populations under treatment for SUD...
May 4, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729490/health-literacy-and-health-rethinking-the-strategies-for-universal-health-coverage-in-ghana
#12
Padmore Adusei Amoah, David R Phillips
OBJECTIVES: Health literacy (HL) is generally thought to be associated with positive health behaviour, appropriate health service utilisation and acceptance of interventions to maximise health outcomes. It is, therefore, increasingly suggested that evidence-based research should investigate how HL may operate in the context of universal health coverage (UHC). However, the role of HL in the relationships between elements of UHC such as access to health care and health insurance has not been widely explored...
May 2, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728892/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-implementation-strategies-for-non-communicable-disease-guidelines-in-primary-health-care
#13
Eva Kovacs, Ralf Strobl, Amanda Phillips, Anna-Janina Stephan, Martin Müller, Jochen Gensichen, Eva Grill
BACKGROUND: As clinical practice guidelines represent the most important evidence-based decision support tool, several strategies have been applied to improve their implementation into the primary health care system. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intervention methods on the guideline adherence of primary care providers (PCPs). METHODS: The studies selected through a systematic search in Medline and Embase were categorised according to intervention schemes and outcome indicator categories...
May 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728248/determining-anxiety-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-through-behavioural-clustering-and-variations-in-repetition-intensity
#14
Conor Cameron, Ibrahim Khalil, David Castle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Over the last decade, the application of computer vision techniques to the analysis of behavioural patterns has seen a considerable increase in research interest. One such interesting and recent application is the visual behavioural analysis of mental disorders. Despite the very recent surge in interest in this area, relatively little has been done thus far to assist individuals living with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. The work proposed herein represents a proof of concept system designed to demonstrate the efficacy of such an approach, from the computational perspective...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719491/nursing-staffs-self-perceived-outcome-from-a-rehabilitation-24-7-educational-programme-a-mixed-methods-study-in-stroke-care
#15
M I Loft, B A Esbensen, K Kirk, L Pedersen, B Martinsen, H Iversen, L L Mathiesen, I Poulsen
Background: During the past two decades, attempts have been made to describe nurses' contributions to the rehabilitation of inpatients following stroke. There is currently a lack of interventions that integrate the diversity of nurses' role and functions in stroke rehabilitation and explore their effect on patient outcomes. Using a systematic evidence- and theory-based design, we developed an educational programme, Rehabilitation 24/7, for nursing staff working in stroke rehabilitation aiming at two target behaviours; working systematically with a rehabilitative approach in all aspects of patient care and working deliberately and systematically with patients' goals...
2018: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703176/indicators-for-evaluating-european-population-health-a-delphi-selection-process
#16
Ângela Freitas, Paula Santana, Mónica D Oliveira, Ricardo Almendra, João C Bana E Costa, Carlos A Bana E Costa
BACKGROUND: Indicators are essential instruments for monitoring and evaluating population health. The selection of a multidimensional set of indicators should not only reflect the scientific evidence on health outcomes and health determinants, but also the views of health experts and stakeholders. The aim of this study is to describe the Delphi selection process designed to promote agreement on indicators considered relevant to evaluate population health at the European regional level...
April 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702212/human-skin-barrier-structure-and-function-analyzed-by-cryo-em-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#17
Magnus Lundborg, Ali Narangifard, Christian L Wennberg, Erik Lindahl, Bertil Daneholt, Lars Norlén
In the present study we have analyzed the molecular structure and function of the human skin's permeability barrier using molecular dynamics simulation validated against cryo-electron microscopy data from near native skin. The skin's barrier capacity is located to an intercellular lipid structure embedding the cells of the superficial most layer of skin - the stratum corneum. According to the splayed bilayer model (Iwai et al., 2012) the lipid structure is organized as stacked bilayers of ceramides in a splayed chain conformation with cholesterol associated with the ceramide sphingoid moiety and free fatty acids associated with the ceramide fatty acid moiety...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698446/effects-of-noxious-stimuli-on-the-electroencephalogram-of-anaesthetised-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#18
Amanda E McIlhone, Ngaio J Beausoleil, Nikki J Kells, David J Mellor, Craig B Johnson
The reliable assessment and management of avian pain is important in the context of animal welfare. Overtly expressed signs of pain vary substantially between and within species, strains and individuals, limiting the use of behaviour in pain studies. Similarly, physiological indices of pain can also vary and may be confounded by influence from non-painful stimuli. In mammals, changes in the frequency spectrum of the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded under light anaesthesia (the minimal anaesthesia model; MAM) have been shown to reliably indicate cerebral responses to noxious stimuli in a range of species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692278/the-role-of-self-esteem-in-depression-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Sven Hilbert, Stephan Goerigk, Frank Padberg, Annekatrin Nadjiri, Aline Übleis, Andrea Jobst, Julia Dewald-Kaufmann, Peter Falkai, Markus Bühner, Felix Naumann, Nina Sarubin
BACKGROUND: Based on the vulnerability model, several studies indicate that low self-esteem seems to contribute to depressive symptoms. AIMS: The aim of this study was to treat depressive symptoms in a cognitive behavioural group therapy, focusing on the enhancement of self-esteem, and to explore co-variation in depressive symptoms and the level of self-esteem. METHOD: The Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale (MSWS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 147 psychiatric in-patients with current depressive symptoms due to an affective disorder (major depression, bipolar I, dysthymia)...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691668/introduction-to-working-across-species
#20
EDITORIAL
Rachel Mason Dentinger, Abigail Woods
Comparison between different animal species is omnipresent in the history of science and medicine but rarely subject to focussed historical analysis. The articles in the "Working Across Species" topical collection address this deficit by looking directly at the practical and epistemic work of cross-species comparison. Drawn from papers presented at a Wellcome-Trust-funded workshop in 2016, these papers investigate various ways that comparison has been made persuasive and successful, in multiple locations, by diverse disciplines, over the course of two centuries...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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