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Applied behaviour analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923032/big-hearts-small-hands-a-focus-group-study-exploring-parental-food-portion-behaviours
#1
Kristina Curtis, Louise Atkins, Katherine Brown
BACKGROUND: The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents' portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents' portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921897/a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-approaches-to-correlate-the-structure-and-properties-of-n-methylpyrrolidone-based-protic-ionic-liquids
#2
Somenath Panda, Kaushik Kundu, Siva Umapathy, Ramesh Gardas
Correlation of the structure and properties of ionic liquids (ILs) is essential for the development of optimized materials in the fields of gas capture and separation, battery electrolyte, and cellulose dissolution process. In view of this, a detailed vibrational spectroscopic analysis and quantum-chemical calculation were performed to explore the interionic interactions in N-methylpyrrolidone cation and carboxylate anion-based ILs. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were applied to identify the H-bonding interactions between ion-pair, in which red-shifted vibrational modes were evidenced as a function of anion chain length...
September 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920894/electro-thermal-equivalent-3d-finite-element-model-of-a-single-neuron
#3
I Cinelli, M Destrade, M Duffy, P McHugh
OBJECTIVE: We propose a novel approach for modelling the inter-dependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electro-thermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermo-mechanical tools can be applied. METHODS: First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#4
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916392/formulation-construction-and-analysis-of-kinetic-models-of-metabolism-a-review-of-modelling-frameworks
#5
REVIEW
Pedro A Saa, Lars K Nielsen
Kinetic models are critical to predict the dynamic behaviour of metabolic networks. Mechanistic kinetic models for large networks remain uncommon due to the difficulty of fitting their parameters. Recent modelling frameworks promise new ways to overcome this obstacle while retaining predictive capabilities. In this review, we present an overview of the relevant mathematical frameworks for kinetic formulation, construction and analysis. Starting with kinetic formalisms, we next review statistical methods for parameter inference, as well as recent computational frameworks applied to the construction and analysis of kinetic models...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910248/parents-online-discussions-about-children-s-dental-caries-a-critical-content-analysis
#6
Avery Milne, Cynthia A Weijs, Rebecca J Haines-Saah, Lindsay McLaren
OBJECTIVES: Through an analysis of postings to an online parenting forum, we aimed to explore the many ways in which parents orient to (i.e., take up, challenge, re-articulate) information about child dental health in the context of their online interactions. Our analysis is anchored in Nettleton's theoretical work on dental authority and power, which we apply in a digital context. METHODS: We examined discussion threads from the public online forums on BabyCenter Canada...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902896/pathological-grooming-evidence-for-a-single-factor-behind-trichotillomania-skin-picking-and-nail-biting
#7
Aniko Maraz, Borbála Hende, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
Although trichotillomania (TTM), skin picking (SP), and nail biting (NB) have been receiving growing scientific attention, the question as to whether these disorders can be regarded as separate entities or they are different manifestations of the same underlying tendency is unclear. Data were collected online in a community survey, yielding a sample of 2705 participants (66% women, mean age: 29.1, SD: 8.6). Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a common latent factor and the multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) modelling was applied to test the predictive effect of borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, distress and self-esteem on pathological grooming...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899210/competitive-action-video-game-players-display-rightward-error-bias-during-on-line-video-game-play
#8
Andrew J Roebuck, Aurora J B Dubnyk, David Cochran, Regan L Mandryk, John G Howland, Victoria Harms
Research in asymmetrical visuospatial attention has identified a leftward bias in the general population across a variety of measures including visual attention and line-bisection tasks. In addition, increases in rightward collisions, or bumping, during visuospatial navigation tasks have been demonstrated in real world and virtual environments. However, little research has investigated these biases beyond the laboratory. The present study uses a semi-naturalistic approach and the online video game streaming service Twitch to examine navigational errors and assaults as skilled action video game players (n = 60) compete in Counter Strike: Global Offensive...
September 12, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895454/the-effectiveness-of-nutritional-education-among-women-aged-60-85-on-the-basis-of-anthropometric-parameters-and-lipid-profiles
#9
Mariola Friedrich, Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy
Background: After several years of experience with guiding of an original program on health-promoting nutritional education for women during menopause, which by inducing changes in nutritional behaviour resulted in many favorable health promoting effects, on request of the students of the Association of Third Age University, an original educational program “Comprehensive stimulation of senior citizens to activity” was developed out and implemented. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of four-month nutritional education and adjustments in diets of women aged 60-85, on the basis of the measurements of the selected lipid parameters in their blood tests Material and methods: This research project was joined by 37 female subjects aged 60-85, who are the members of the University of the Third Age in Szczecin, and whose average BMI was 31...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894105/a-duality-principle-for-the-multi-block-entanglement-entropy-of-free-fermion-systems
#10
J A Carrasco, F Finkel, A González-López, P Tempesta
The analysis of the entanglement entropy of a subsystem of a one-dimensional quantum system is a powerful tool for unravelling its critical nature. For instance, the scaling behaviour of the entanglement entropy determines the central charge of the associated Virasoro algebra. For a free fermion system, the entanglement entropy depends essentially on two sets, namely the set A of sites of the subsystem considered and the set K of excited momentum modes. In this work we make use of a general duality principle establishing the invariance of the entanglement entropy under exchange of the sets A and K to tackle complex problems by studying their dual counterparts...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890925/on-the-road-to-becoming-a-responsible-leader-a-simulation-based-training-approach-for-final-year-medical-students
#11
Marion Schmidt-Huber, Janine Netzel, Jan Kiesewetter
Background and objective: There is a need for young physicians to take a responsible role in clinical teams, comparable to a leadership role. However, today's medical curricula barely consider the development of leadership competencies. Acquisition of leadership skills are currently a by-product of medical education, even though it seems to be a competency relevant for physicians' success. Therefore, an innovative leadership training program for young physicians was developed and validated. Training conceptualisation were based upon findings of critical incidents interviews (N=19) with relevant personnel (e...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888484/prediction-of-human-efficacious-antidepressant-doses-using-the-mouse-forced-swim-test
#12
Eunice Yuen, Steven Swanson, Jeffrey M Witkin
The forced swim test (FST) is a commonly used preclinical animal behavioural model for prediction of antidepressant activity in humans. While the FST may qualitatively predict efficacy, less is known about the quantitative translation of FST data to human efficacious doses. Assessing quantitative translation allows better predictions of human efficacious doses and a higher chance of success in the drug development process. Dose-response and time-course FST experiments were carried out on mice using four marketed antidepressants (citalopram, desipramine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine) in addition to ketamine, all with varying mechanisms of action...
September 6, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885599/family-social-environment-and-parenting-predictors-of-alcohol-use-among-adolescents-in-lithuania
#13
Linas Šumskas, Apolinaras Zaborskis
The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715) of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was applied. HBSC international questionnaires were completed in the classroom anonymously for obtaining information about drinking of alcoholic beverages and family characteristics-family's affluence and structure, style of communication in the family, parenting style, parental monitoring, family time together, etc...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881430/distinctive-effects-between-cognitive-stimulation-and-reminiscence-therapy-on-cognitive-function-and-quality-of-life-for-different-types-of-behavioural-problems-in-dementia
#14
Hsiu-Ching Lin, Ya-Ping Yang, Wen-Yun Cheng, Jing-Jy Wang
BACKGROUND: Among the various complementary therapies for patients with dementia (PwD), cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) and reminiscence therapy (RT) are frequently used to improve cognitive function and quality of life. However, no studies have examined the use of complementary therapies applied to different types of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in PwD. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinctive effects of CST and RT on cognitive function and quality of life for PwD with three types of behavioural problems - the dispute, return and dissociate types...
September 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876909/challenges-in-coupling-acidity-and-salinity-transport-in-porous-media
#15
Colin Joseph McNeece, Marc A Hesse
Salinity is an increasingly prescient issue in reactive transport, from low salinity water flooding to fracking brine leakage. Of primary concern is the effect of salinity on surface chemistry. Transport and batch experiments show a strong coupling of salinity and acidity through chemical interactions at the mineral-liquid interface. This coupling is ascribed to the combined effects of ionic strength on electrostatic behaviour of the interface and competitive sorption between protons and other cations for binding sites on the surface...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864302/the-allometry-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-the-postembryonic-development-of-eratigena-atrica-spider
#16
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
During ontogenesis, the size of a spider body, tissues and organs increase dramatically. The aim of the study was to estimate changes in the central nervous system of postembryonic stages of Eratigena atrica and compare them with the literature data on species differing in behavioural traits. Allometric analysis involved evaluation of histological slides embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The reduced major axis regression (RMA) was applied to find allometric relationships between the volumes of the particular parts of the body...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862389/the-role-of-high-expectations-of-self-and-social-desirability-in-emotional-processing-in-individuals-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-qualitative-study
#17
Alice Sibelli, Trudie Chalder, Hazel Everitt, Paul Workman, Felicity L Bishop, Rona Moss-Morris
OBJECTIVES: Although high levels of distress are associated with the onset and severity of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear how this relates to emotional processing, particularly in relation to maintenance of symptoms and treatment outcome. This qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial aimed to explore how individuals with refractory IBS experience, express, and manage their emotions after either therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (TCBT) or Web-based CBT (WBCBT) compared to treatment as usual (TAU)...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856677/scaffolding-under-the-microscope-applying-self-regulation-and-other-regulation-perspectives-to-a-scaffolded-task
#18
Georgia Leith, Nicola Yuill, Alison Pike
BACKGROUND: Typical scaffolding coding schemes provide overall scores to compare across a sample. As such, insights into the scaffolding process can be obscured: the child's contribution to the learning; the particular skills being taught and learned; and the overall changes in amount of scaffolding over the course of the task. AIMS: This study applies a transition of regulation framework to scaffolding coding, using a self-regulation and other-regulation coding scheme, to explore how rich and detailed data on mother-child dyadic interactions fit alongside collapsed sample-level scores...
August 29, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854267/aggressiveness-as-a-latent-personality-trait-of-domestic-dogs-testing-local-independence-and-measurement-invariance
#19
Conor Goold, Ruth C Newberry
Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or "latent" personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis) to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i) behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated) conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence), and ii) personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844833/theoretical-frameworks-informing-family-based-child-and-adolescent-obesity-interventions-a-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#20
Sarah Alulis, Dan Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity trends are rising throughout the world, revealing treatment difficulties and a lack of consensus about treatment. The family system is broadly viewed as a potential setting for facilitation of behaviour change. Therefore, family-based interventions have come into focus. However, the use of theoretical frameworks to strengthen these interventions is rare and very uneven. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To conduct a qualitative meta-synthesis of family-based interventions for child and adolescent obesity to identify the theoretical frameworks applied, thus understanding how theory is used in practice...
August 24, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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