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Applied behaviour analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914209/methodological-flaws-introduce-strong-bias-into-molecular-analysis-of-microbial-populations
#1
Niclas Krakat, Reshma Anjum, Burak Demirel, Patrick Schröder
AIMS: Here we report how different cell disruption methods, PCR primers and in-silico analyses can seriously bias results from microbial population studies, with consequences for the credibility and reproducibility of the findings. Our results emphasize the pitfalls of commonly used experimental methods that can seriously weaken the interpretation of results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four different cell lysis methods, three commonly used primer pairs and various computer-based analyses were applied to investigate the microbial diversity of a fermentation sample composed of chicken dung...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911487/external-inspection-of-compliance-with-standards-for-improved-healthcare-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Marie-Pascale Pomey
BACKGROUND: Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908449/gender-differences-in-the-association-between-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-risky-sexual-behaviours-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Joemer Calderon Maravilla, Gail Williams, Jake Moses Najman
This meta-analytic review examines the association between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviours with sub-group analyses by gender. Systematic searches of electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were performed using key terms. We used a priori criteria to include high quality studies and control for heterogeneities across eligible studies. The review was registered with PROSPERO and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891228/a-probabilistic-algorithm-to-process-geolocation-data
#4
Benjamin Merkel, Richard A Phillips, Sébastien Descamps, Nigel G Yoccoz, Børge Moe, Hallvard Strøm
BACKGROUND: The use of light level loggers (geolocators) to understand movements and distributions in terrestrial and marine vertebrates, particularly during the non-breeding period, has increased dramatically in recent years. However, inferring positions from light data is not straightforward, often relies on assumptions that are difficult to test, or includes an element of subjectivity. RESULTS: We present an intuitive framework to compute locations from twilight events collected by geolocators from different manufacturers...
2016: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890574/modeling-the-role-of-information-and-limited-optimal-treatment-on-disease-prevalence
#5
Anuj Kumar, Prashant K Srivastava, Yasuhiro Takeuchi
Disease outbreaks induce behavioural changes in healthy individuals to avoid contracting infection. We first propose a compartmental model which accounts for the effect of individual's behavioural response due to information of the disease prevalence. It is assumed that the information is growing as a function of infective population density that saturates at higher density of infective population and depends on active educational and social programmes. Model analysis has been performed and the global stability of equilibrium points is established...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886459/standardised-experiments-in-mutant-mice-reveal-behavioural-similarity-on-129s5-and-c57bl-6j-backgrounds
#6
Louie N van de Lagemaat, Lianne E Stanford, Charles Pettit, Douglas J Strathdee, Karen E Strathdee, Kathryn A Elsegood, David G Fricker, Mike D R Croning, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant
Behavioural analysis of mice carrying engineered mutations is widely used to identify roles of specific genes in components of the mammalian behavioural repertoire. The reproducibility and robustness of phenotypic measures has become a concern that undermines the use of mouse genetic models for translational studies. Contributing factors include low individual study power, non-standardised behavioural testing, failure to address confounds and differences in genetic background of mutant mice. We have examined the importance of these factors using a statistically robust approach applied to behavioural data obtained from three mouse mutations on 129S5 and C57BL/6J backgrounds generated in a standardised battery of five behavioural assays...
November 25, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885998/bi-ventricular-finite-element-model-of-right-ventricle-overload-in-the-healthy-rat-heart
#7
Fulufhelo Masithulela
BACKGROUND: The recognition of RV overpressure is critical to human life, as this may signify morbidity and mortality. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is understood to have an impact on the performance of the left ventricle (LV), but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is understood that ventricular compliance has the ability to affect cardiac performance. In this study, a bi-ventricular model of the rat heart was used in preference to other, single-ventricle models. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the bi-ventricular model provides important information on the function of the healthy heart...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885158/psychosocial-work-environment-in-school-and-students-somatic-health-complaints-an-analysis-of-buffering-resources
#8
Kristina Sonmark, Bitte Modin
AIM: This study explores the association between the psychosocial work environment in school and students' somatic health complaints. With its point of departure from the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model, the aim was to examine how aspects of decision control and social support can moderate stress-related health implications of high psychological demands. METHODS: Data come from two cross-sectional waves of the Swedish version of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/2006 and 2009/2010), which consists of a total of 9427 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883169/association-between-continuous-wearable-activity-monitoring-and-self-reported-functioning-in-assisted-living-facility-and-nursing-home-residents
#9
J Merilahti, I Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Physical functioning is a key factor in independent living, and its preclinical state assessment and monitoring during the subject's normal life would be beneficial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to analyse associations between ambulatory measured physical activity behaviour and sleep patterns (wrist actigraphy) and self-reported difficulties in performing activities of daily living. Participants, setting and design: 36 residents in assisted living facilities and nursing homes (average age=80...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882889/energy-resolved-tandem-mass-spectrometry-experiments-for-resolution-of-isobaric-compounds-a-case-of-cis-trans-isomerism
#10
Marta Menicatti, Luca Guandalini, Silvia Dei, Elisa Floriddia, Elisabetta I Teodor, Pietro Traldi, Gianluca Bartolucci
A series of N-alkanol-N-cyclohexanol amine aryl esters cis/trans isomers that showed high efficacy to reverse the acquired resistance of cancer cells during chemotherapeutic therapy (MDR mechanism) was studied. These compounds were two 1,4 cyclohexane cis/trans derivatives (named ELF26A and ELF26B, respectively), and their positional isomers (named ELF34A and ELF34B, respectively) where the aryl-moieties were exchanged. In order to evaluate the behaviour of these compounds during biological tests, a method based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), operating in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode, was developed...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880802/algebraic-topology-of-multi-brain-connectivity-networks-reveals-dissimilarity-in-functional-patterns-during-spoken-communications
#11
Bosiljka Tadić, Miroslav Andjelković, Biljana Mileva Boshkoska, Zoran Levnajić
Human behaviour in various circumstances mirrors the corresponding brain connectivity patterns, which are suitably represented by functional brain networks. While the objective analysis of these networks by graph theory tools deepened our understanding of brain functions, the multi-brain structures and connections underlying human social behaviour remain largely unexplored. In this study, we analyse the aggregate graph that maps coordination of EEG signals previously recorded during spoken communications in two groups of six listeners and two speakers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879472/can-patient-reported-measurements-of-pain-be-used-to-improve-cancer-pain-management-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Rosalind Adam, Christopher D Burton, Christine M Bond, Marijn de Bruin, Peter Murchie
PURPOSE: Cancer pain is a distressing and complex experience. It is feasible that the systematic collection and feedback of patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) relating to pain could enhance cancer pain management. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of interventions in which patient-reported pain data were collected and fed back to patients and/or professionals in order to improve cancer pain control. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials in which patient-reported data were collected and fed back with the intention of improving pain management by adult patients or professionals...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872727/identifying-high-risk-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-a-pathogenesis-oriented-appraisal-of-prognostic-and-predictive-factors-in-patients-treated-with-chemotherapy-with-or-without-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Sara Martinelli, Antonio Cuneo, Luca Formigaro, Maurizio Cavallari, Enrico Lista, Francesca Maria Quaglia, Maria Ciccone, Antonella Bardi, Eleonora Volta, Elisa Tammiso, Elena Saccenti, Olga Sofritti, Giulia Daghia, Massimo Negrini, Melissa Dabusti, Paolo Tomasi, Sabrina Moretti, Francesco Cavazzini, Gian Matteo Rigolin
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) displays an extremely variable clinical behaviour. Accurate prognostication and prediction of response to treatment are important in an era of effective first-line regimens and novel molecules for high risk patients. Because a plethora of prognostic biomarkers were identified, but few of them were validated by multivariable analysis in comprehensive prospective studies, we applied in this survey stringent criteria to select papers from the literature in order to identify the most reproducible prognostic/predictive markers...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870318/interactions-and-user-perceived-helpfulness-in-diet-information-social-questions-answers
#14
Yin Zhang, Peilin Wang
BACKGROUND: Online health information seeking using social questions and answers (Social Q&A) sites has been increasingly popular in recent years. It calls for better understanding of health information seeking behaviour and interactions between information seekers and information providers. OBJECTIVES: The study investigates how diet information seekers interact with information providers on WebMD Answers, which is a Social Q&A site devoted to health-related topics, and examines the factors that constitute a 'helpful' answer from an information seeker's perspective...
December 2016: Health Information and Libraries Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863484/methods-used-to-address-fidelity-of-receipt-in-health-intervention-research-a-citation-analysis-and-systematic-review
#15
Lorna Rixon, Justine Baron, Nadine McGale, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jill Francis, Anna Davies
BACKGROUND: The American Behaviour Change Consortium (BCC) framework acknowledges patients as active participants and supports the need to investigate the fidelity with which they receive interventions, i.e. receipt. According to this framework, addressing receipt consists in using strategies to assess or enhance participants' understanding and/or performance of intervention skills. This systematic review aims to establish the frequency with which receipt is addressed as defined in the BCC framework in health research, and to describe the methods used in papers informed by the BCC framework and in the wider literature...
November 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862608/assessing-prescription-drug-abuse-using-functional-principal-component-analysis-fpca-of-wastewater-data
#16
Stefania Salvatore, Jo Røislien, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Jørgen G Bramness
BACKGROUND: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. METHODS: Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway...
November 11, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853606/reflections-of-the-social-environment-in-chimpanzee-memory-applying-rational-analysis-beyond-humans
#17
Jeffrey R Stevens, Julian N Marewski, Lael J Schooler, Ian C Gilby
In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853544/using-network-analysis-to-study-behavioural-phenotypes-an-example-using-domestic-dogs
#18
Conor Goold, Judit Vas, Christine Olsen, Ruth C Newberry
Phenotypic integration describes the complex interrelationships between organismal traits, traditionally focusing on morphology. Recently, research has sought to represent behavioural phenotypes as composed of quasi-independent latent traits. Concurrently, psychologists have opposed latent variable interpretations of human behaviour, proposing instead a network perspective envisaging interrelationships between behaviours as emerging from causal dependencies. Network analysis could also be applied to understand integrated behavioural phenotypes in animals...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846785/the-three-dimensional-kinetic-behaviour-of-the-pelvic-rotation-in-maximal-sprint-running
#19
Natsuki Sado, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbosacral kinetics on sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 50 m sprints at maximal effort. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded at approximately 40 m from sprint commencement. A whole-body inverse dynamics approach was applied to calculate joint forces and torques at the hip and lumbosacral joints. The contribution of the hips and lumbosacral joint torques to pelvic rotation was subsequently calculated, with joint force powers indicating the rate of mechanical energy transfer between segments across joint centres calculated for both hip joints...
November 15, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843408/characterization-of-the-surface-roughness-of-sand-particles-using-an-advanced-fractal-approach
#20
Hongwei Yang, Béatrice A Baudet, Ting Yao
The surface roughness of soil grains affects the mechanical behaviour of soils, but the characterization of real soil grain roughness is still limited in both quantity and quality. A new method is proposed, which applies the power spectral density (PSD), typically used in tribology, to optical interferometry measurements of soil grain surfaces. The method was adapted to characterize the roughness of soil grains separately from their shape, allowing the scale of the roughness to be determined in the form of a wavevector range...
October 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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