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Applied behaviour analysis

V Boka, K Arapostathis, G Charitoudis, J Veerkamp, C van Loveren, N Kotsanos
AIM: To examine the effectiveness of parental presence/absence (PPA) technique on the dental behaviour management of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomised control study recruited 61 child dental patients with uncooperative behaviour (Frankl 1 or 2) managed with AAPD-endorsed non-pharmacological techniques at a post-graduate university clinic. PPA was only used in the test group (31 children). Using a mini video-tape device, recording commenced at the onset of uncooperative behaviour and this was later rated, minute by minute, by a blinded experienced paediatric dentist...
November 16, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Jenna Panter, Cornelia Guell, Rick Prins, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. METHODS: We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Ingeborg Hedegaard Kristensen, Marianne Simonsen, Tea Trillingsgaard, Hanne Kronborg
BACKGROUND: Supporting early mother-infant relationships to ensure infants' future health has been recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate whether video feedback using the Marte Meo method promotes a healthy early relationship between infants and vulnerable first-time mothers. Video feedback or usual care was delivered by health visitors during home visits in Danish municipalities. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study included pre- and post-tests of 278 vulnerable families...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, Stefan K Lhachimi
BACKGROUND: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Derk Kuiper, Anne Bennema, Sacha la Bastide-van Gemert, Jorien Seggers, Pamela Schendelaar, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek, Annemieke Hoek, Maas Jan Heineman, Tessa J Roseboom, Joke H Kok, Mijna Hadders-Algra
STUDY QUESTION: Does Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS affect neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not find evidence of adverse consequences of Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS on neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring, although children born after IVF with or without PGS often had a non-optimal neurological condition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Knowledge on long-term sequelae for development and health of children born following PGS is lacking...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
Abdullah Mahdi Al Hamid, Maisoon Ghaleb, Hisham Aljadhey, Zoe Aslanpour
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors contributing to medicine-related problems (MRPs) among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and/or diabetes in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted. Interviews were audio recorded then transcribed into Microsoft Word. The transcribed interviews were then imported into the qualitative analysis software NVivo where thematic analysis was applied. Thematic synthesis was achieved by coding and developing subthemes/themes from the findings of the interviews...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
Sanghamitra Mukhopadhyay, Matthias J Gutmann, Mónica Jiménez-Ruiz, Dominik B Jochym, Kjartan T Wikfeldt, Keith Refson, Felix Fernandez-Alonso
A detailed study of the thermal behaviour of atomic motions in the organic ferroelectric croconic acid is presented in the temperature range 5-300 K. Using high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and first-principles electronic-structure calculations within the framework of density functional theory and a quasiharmonic phonon description of the material, we find that the frequencies of the well defined doublet in inelastic neutron scattering spectra associated with out-of-plane motions of hydrogen-bonded protons decrease monotonically with temperature indicating weakening of these bonding motifs and enhancement of proton motions...
November 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Rasheda Khanam, Son Nghiem
This study investigates the effects of behavioural and emotional problems in children on their educational outcomes using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children (LSAC). We contribute to the extant literature using a dynamic specification to test the hypothesis of knowledge accumulation. Further, we apply the system generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to minimise biases due to unobserved factors. We find that mental disorders in children has a negative effect on the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) test scores...
November 11, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Sergey N Matveevsky, Svetlana V Pavlova, Maret M Atsaeva, Jeremy B Searle, Oxana L Kolomiets
Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex trivalent in pachytene spermatocytes. The pachytene sex trivalent consists of three distinct parts: short and long synaptic SC fragments (between the X and Y1 and between the X and Y2, respectively) and a long asynaptic region of the X in-between. Chromatin inactivation was revealed in the XY1 synaptic region, the asynaptic region of the X and a very small asynaptic part of the Y2...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ina Becker, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich, Robert Rupp, Jens Bucksch
Background Sedentary behaviour is a health risk factor independent of physical activity. Interventions that aim to reduce sitting at the workplace are particularly important as office workers spend a large proportion of their working hours sitting. This systematic review examines whether these interventions (SB or PA interventions during work time) reduce sitting time among office workers and which variables moderate intervention effects. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted from April to May 2016 in the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus...
November 6, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
Thomas Goedecke, Daniel Morales, Alexandra Pacurariu, Xavier Kurz
AIM: Evaluating the public health impact of regulatory interventions is important but there is currently no common methodological approach to guide this evaluation. This systematic review provides a descriptive overview of the analytical methods for impact research. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with an empirical analysis evaluating the impact of European Union or non-European Union regulatory actions to safeguard public health published until March 2017...
November 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Hanhong Zhang, Jing Gao, Mengmeng Wang, Xuefeng Yu, Xiuhua Lv, Huan Deng, Xiangwei Fan, Kaiyun Chen
Background Substantial evidence from clinical reports has established that most cerebral palsy (CP) patients benefit from a comprehensive rehabilitation exercise training programme. Such advances are enhanced when scalp electroacupuncture (EA), applied at a location corresponding to the projection of the motor area, is combined with rehabilitation exercise training. However, little information exists regarding the mechanistic basis for these effects.Objective To examine whether EA stimulation within the scalp projection location of the motor area can inhibit apoptosis of hippocampal neurons by regulating the PI3k/Akt signalling pathway in a rat model of CP...
November 4, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Gianfranco Ulian, Giovanni Valdrè
The calcium apatite minerals are among the most studied in the biomaterial field because of their similarity with the mineral phase of bone tissues, which is mainly the hexagonal polymorph of hydroxylapatite. Given the growing interest both in the microscopic processes governing the behaviour of these natural biomaterials and in recent experimental methods to investigate the Raman response of hydroxylapatite upon mechanical loading, we report in the present work a detailed quantum mechanical analysis by DFT/B3LYP-D* approach on the Raman and infrared responses of hydroxylapatite upon deformation of its unit cell...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Khan M Sharif, Chadin Kulsing, Ademario I da Silva Junior, Philip J Marriott
A pressure tunable (PT) coupled column ensemble has been implemented for the second dimension ((2)D) separation in comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×PTGC). This process requires two columns to be connected by a pressure junction, as a replacement for a single narrow bore, short column in (2)D. Various (2)D1 and (2)D2 columns may be selected to provide complementary selectivity (polarity) compared to the (1)D column. The tunable residence time arising from differential pressure drop in each (2)D column results in a tunable fractional contribution of each column in the (2)D separation...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Owen Price, John Baker, Penny Bee, Karina Lovell
BACKGROUND: De-escalation techniques are recommended to manage violence and aggression in mental health settings yet restrictive practices continue to be frequently used. Barriers and enablers to the implementation and effectiveness of de-escalation techniques in practice are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To obtain staff descriptions of de-escalation techniques currently used in mental health settings and explore factors perceived to influence their implementation and effectiveness...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Hanieh Safizadeh Shirazi, Nicholas Rogers, Andrew Michelmore, Jason D Whittle
Human Mesenchymal Stem cells (hMSCs) are becoming a major focus in biomedical fields. Application of in vitro expanded hMSCs to treat numerous ailments has led to a commercial emphasis on improving hMSC growth ex vivo. Production of substrate independent, novel thin films is one potential tool for production of commercial viable hMSC expansion. Plasma polymerization allow controlled chemical optimisation of large scale surface areas in a substrate independent manner. Previous study shown that plasma polymerized Furfuryl Methacrylate (ppFMA) surfaces allowed primary fibroblast cells adhesion and proliferation...
October 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Caoimhin Mac Giolla Phadraig, Colin Griffiths, Philip McCallion, Mary McCarron, June Nunn
A better understanding of how communication-based behaviour supports are applied with adults with intellectual disabilities may reduce reliance on restrictive practices such as holding, sedation and anaesthesia in dentistry. In this study, we explore how communication is used by dentists who provide treatment for adults with intellectual disabilities. A descriptive qualitative study, adopting synchronous online focus groups, was undertaken with six expert dentists in Ireland. Members were contacted again in pairs or individually for further data collection, analysed using thematic content analysis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
Sarah Bellhouse, Lorna McWilliams, Joseph Firth, Janelle Yorke, David P French
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of community-based health worker (CBHW) interventions for early detection of cancer. Secondary aims were to consider the extent that interventions were based on theory, and potential moderators including behaviour change techniques (BCTs). METHODS: Six databases were searched for randomized controlled trials. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied to 30 eligible studies with a cancer screening outcome...
October 28, 2017: Psycho-oncology
Satya Swarup Samal, Ovidiu Radulescu, Andreas Weber, Holger Fröhlich
Motivation: Integration of metabolic networks with '-omics' data has been a subject of recent research in order to better understand the behaviour of such networks with respect to differences between biological and clinical phenotypes. Under the conditions of steady state of the reaction network and the non-negativity of fluxes, metabolic networks can be algebraically decomposed into a set of sub-pathways often referred to as extreme currents (ECs). Our objective is to find the statistical association of such sub-pathways with given clinical outcomes, resulting in a particular instance of a self-contained gene set analysis method...
November 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
David Gibbes Miller, Scott Y H Kim
ObjectivesTo assess how Dutch regional euthanasia review committees (RTE) apply the euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) due care criteria in cases where the criteria are judged not to have been met ('due care not met' (DCNM)) and to evaluate how the criteria function to set limits in Dutch EAS practice. DESIGN: A qualitative review using directed content analysis of DCNM cases in the Netherlands from 2012 to 2016 published on the RTE website (https://www.euthanasiecommissie...
October 25, 2017: BMJ Open
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