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Applied behaviour analysis

Rinshu Dwivedi, Jalandhar Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Equity and justice in healthcare payment form an integral part of health policy and planning. In the majority of low and middle-income countries (LMICs), healthcare inequalities are further aggravated by Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE). This paper examines the pattern of health equity and regional disparities in healthcare spending among Indian states by applying Andersen's behavioural model of healthcare utilization. METHODS: The present study uses data from the 66(th) quinquennial round of Consumer Expenditure Survey, of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), conducted in 2009-10 by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India (GoI)...
January 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Stephanie Maria Kirschbaum, Frank Sitterlee, Carsten Perka, Michael Müller
Background Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) describes a painful, abnormal (bony) contact between the femoral neck and acetabulum, which, if left untreated, contributes to early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Despite its flat learning curve and long operation times, hip arthroscopy has been used increasingly often in recent years in the surgery of femoroacetabular impingement. The mini-open technique (MOT) offers a possible alternative that addresses the abnormal morphological prominence and allows minimally invasive clearance of hip motion...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Marie-Caroline Prima, Thierry Duchesne, Daniel Fortin
Conditional logistic regression (CLR) is widely used to analyze habitat selection and movement of animals when resource availability changes over space and time. Observations used for these analyses are typically autocorrelated, which biases model-based variance estimation of CLR parameters. This bias can be corrected using generalized estimating equations (GEE), an approach that requires partitioning the data into independent clusters. Here we establish the link between clustering rules in GEE and their effectiveness to remove statistical biases in variance estimation of CLR parameters...
2017: PloS One
Ragnhild B Strandberg, Marit Graue, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Mark Peyrot, Astrid K Wahl, Berit Rokne
AIMS: To examine the associations among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being, and determine whether diabetes-related quality of life is a mediator of the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 235 of 319 invited adults (18-69years) with Type 1 diabetes agreed to participate. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to 188 individuals with complete data...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Paula Dönselmann Im Sande, Klaus Hopster, Sabine Kästner
OBJECTIVE: Various opioids are available for use in equine medicine. Studies directly comparing their analgesic effects and side effects are rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the antinociceptive effect and the duration of analgesia of two different doses of morphine, butorphanol and levomethadone in horses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight adult, healthy horses were used for this randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded cross-over trail. Each horse received placebo (P = 0...
January 11, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Andrew Symon, Jan Pringle, Soo Downe, Vanora Hundley, Elaine Lee, Fiona Lynn, Alison McFadden, Jenny McNeill, Mary J Renfrew, Mary Ross-Davie, Edwin van Teijlingen, Heather Whitford, Fiona Alderdice
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care models vary widely around the world, reflecting local contexts, drivers and resources. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have tested the impact of multi-component antenatal care interventions on service delivery and outcomes in many countries since the 1980s. Some have applied entirely new schemes, while others have modified existing care delivery approaches. Systematic reviews (SRs) indicate that some specific antenatal interventions are more effective than others; however the causal mechanisms leading to better outcomes are poorly understood, limiting implementation and future research...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Russell A Poldrack, Chris I Baker, Joke Durnez, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Paul M Matthews, Marcus R Munafò, Thomas E Nichols, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Edward Vul, Tal Yarkoni
Functional neuroimaging techniques have transformed our ability to probe the neurobiological basis of behaviour and are increasingly being applied by the wider neuroscience community. However, concerns have recently been raised that the conclusions that are drawn from some human neuroimaging studies are either spurious or not generalizable. Problems such as low statistical power, flexibility in data analysis, software errors and a lack of direct replication apply to many fields, but perhaps particularly to functional MRI...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Florian Senn, Young Choon Park
Constricted Variational Density Functional Theory (CV-DFT) is known to be one of the successful methods in predicting charge-transfer excitation energies. In this paper, we apply the CV-DFT method to the well-known model systems ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (C2H4 × C2F4) and the zincbacteriochlorin-bacteriochlorin complex (ZnBC-BC). The analysis of the CV-DFT energies enables us to understand the -1/R charge-transfer behaviour in CV-DFT for large separation distances R. With this we discuss the importance of orbital relaxations using the relaxed version of CV(∞)-DFT, the R-CV(∞)-DFT method...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Molly Sweeney-Magee, Dimitra Kale, Simon Galton, Andrea Hamill, Hazel Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Implementation fidelity refers to the extent to which a proposed intervention is enacted as designed and is necessary to determine how much the intervention in question is the primary mechanism in any changes observed. Start2quit was a randomised controlled trial that aimed to improve attendance at the English Stop Smoking Service (SSS). The complex intervention combining computer-tailored personal risk letters and no-commitment ("taster") sessions aimed at encouraging attendance at the SSS doubled attendance at the SSS and significantly increased abstinence rates, although attendance and abstinence varied between participating SSSs...
December 28, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Rennie Xinrui Qin, Changchun Xiao, Yibin Zhu, Jing Li, Jun Yang, Shaohua Gu, Junrui Xia, Bin Su, Qiyong Liu, Alistair Woodward
Recent evidence suggests that there may be an interaction between air pollution and heat on mortality, which is pertinent in the context of global climate change. We sought to examine this interaction in Hefei, a hot and polluted Chinese city. We conducted time-series analyses using daily mortality, air pollutant concentration (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10μm (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)), and temperature data from 2008 to 2014. We applied quasi-Poisson regression models with natural cubic splines and examined the interactive effects using temperature-stratified models...
October 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra B Bentz, Daniel J Becker, Kristen J Navara
Competition between conspecifics during the breeding season can result in behavioural and physiological programming of offspring via maternal effects. For birds, in which maternal effects are best studied, it has been claimed that exposure to increased competition causes greater deposition of testosterone into egg yolks, which creates faster growing, more aggressive offspring; such traits are thought to be beneficial for high-competition environments. Nevertheless, not all species show a positive relationship between competitive interactions and yolk testosterone, and an explanation for this interspecific variation is lacking...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Z Ibarra-Zatarain, E Fatsini, S Rey, O Chereguini, I Martin, I Rasines, C Alcaraz, N Duncan
The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Mohammad H Afzali, Matthew Sunderland, Philip J Batterham, Natacha Carragher, Alison Calear, Tim Slade
PURPOSE: The high prevalence of alcohol use disorder among individuals with a history of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder is well documented. The current study applied network analysis to map the structure of symptom associations between these disorders. METHODS: Data come from a community sample of 449 Australian adults with a history of trauma and alcohol consumption during the last 12 months. Data analysis consisted of the construction of the comorbidity network of PTSD/AUD symptoms, identification of the bridging symptoms, computation of the centrality measures, and evaluation of the robustness of the results...
December 24, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Richard J E James, Richard J Tunney
This review discusses research on behavioural addictions (i.e. associative learning, conditioning), with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual differences, psychopathologies and biases, often translating from pathological gambling indicators...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Anna Kaufman, Jessica D Jones Nielsen, Henrietta Bowden-Jones
There is a paucity of research in the UK which examines problem gambling and that which does exist is mainly quantitative, focuses on male samples and fails to look at treatment seeking populations or obstacles preventing problem gamblers from seeking treatment. This paper presents findings from part of a larger qualitative study that explored the experience of treatment for female problem gamblers. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with eight women who had received individual cognitive-behavioural therapy in the National Health Service for their gambling problem...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Hiroki Uratani, Shosei Kubo, Katsuyuki Shizu, Furitsu Suzuki, Tatsuya Fukushima, Hironori Kaji
Hopping-type charge transport in an amorphous thin layer composed of organic molecules is simulated by the combined use of molecular dynamics, quantum chemical, and Monte Carlo calculations. By explicitly considering the molecular structure and the disordered intermolecular packing, we reasonably reproduce the experimental hole and electron mobilities and their applied electric field dependence (Poole-Frenkel behaviour) without using any adjustable parameters. We find that the distribution of the density-of-states originating from the amorphous nature has a significant impact on both the mobilities and Poole-Frenkel behaviour...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marie M Bismark, Ben Mathews, Jennifer M Morris, Laura A Thomas, David M Studdert
OBJECTIVE: To explore the views and experiences of health sector professionals in Australia regarding a new national law requiring treating practitioners to report impaired health practitioners whose impairments came to their attention in the course of providing treatment. METHOD: We conducted a thematic analysis of in-depth, semistructured interviews with 18 health practitioners and 4 medicolegal advisors from Australia's 6 states, each of whom had experience with applying the new mandatory reporting law in practice...
December 19, 2016: BMJ Open
W Grymonpré, G Verstraete, P J Van Bockstal, J Van Renterghem, P Rombouts, T De Beer, J P Remon, C Vervaet
As the number of applications for polymers in pharmaceutical development is increasing, there is need for fundamental understanding on how such compounds behave during tableting. This research is focussed on the tableting behaviour of amorphous polymers, their solid dispersions and the impact of hot-melt extrusion on the compaction properties of these materials. Soluplus, Kollidon VA 64 and Eudragit EPO were selected as amorphous polymers since these are widely studied carriers for solid dispersions, while Celecoxib was chosen as BCS class II model drug...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Katharina Hogrefe, Robert Rein, Harald Skomroch, Hedda Lausberg
Persons with brain damage show deviant patterns of co-speech hand movement behaviour in comparison to healthy speakers. It has been claimed by several authors that gesture and speech rely on a single production mechanism that depends on the same neurological substrate while others claim that both modalities are closely related but separate production channels. Thus, findings so far are contradictory and there is a lack of studies that systematically analyse the full range of hand movements that accompany speech in the condition of brain damage...
October 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Silvia Casans, Alfredo Rosado-Muñoz, Taras Iakymchuk
Material resistance is important since different physicochemical properties can be extracted from it. This work describes a novel resistance measurement method valid for a wide range of resistance values up to 100 GΩ at a low powered, small sized, digitally controlled and wireless communicated device. The analog and digital circuits of the design are described, analysing the main error sources affecting the accuracy. Accuracy and extended uncertainty are obtained for a pattern decade box, showing a maximum of 1 % accuracy for temperatures below 30 ∘ C in the range from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ...
December 14, 2016: Sensors
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